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DICTIONARY OF 
AMERICAN BIOGRAPHY 



PUBLISHED UNDER THE AUSPICES OF 



AMERICAN COUNCIL OF LEARNED SOCIETIES 



AMERICAN PHILOSOPHICAL SOCIETY, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 

AMERICAN ACADEMY OF ARTS AND SCIENCES, Cambridge, Massachusetts 

AMERICAN ANTIQUARIAN SOCIETY, Worcester, Massachusetts 

AMERICAN ORIENTAL SOCIETY, New Haven, Connecticut 

AMERICAN NUMISMATIC SOCIETY, New York, New York 

AMERICAN PHILOLOGICAL ASSOCIATION, Swarthmore, Pennsylvania 

ARCHAEOLOGICAL INSTITUTE OF AMERICA, New York, New York 

SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL LITERATURE AND EXEGESIS, Haverford, Pennsylvania 

MODERN LANGUAGE ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA, New York, New York 

AMERICAN HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION, Washington, District of Columbia 

AMERICAN ECONOMIC ASSOCIATION, Evanston, Illinois 

AMERICAN PHILOSOPHICAL ASSOCIATION, Middletown, Connecticut 

AMERICAN ANTHROPOLOGICAL ASSOCIATION, Chicago, Illinois 

AMERICAN POLITICAL SCIENCE ASSOCIATION, Evanston, Illinois 

BIBLIOGRAPHICAL SOCIETY OF AMERICA, Albany, New York 

ASSOCIATION OF AMERICAN GEOGRAPHERS, Minneapolis, Minnesota 

AMERICAN SOCIOLOGICAL SOCIETY, Washington, District of Columbia 

AMERICAN SOCIETY OF INTERNATIONAL LAW, Washington, District of Columbia 

COLLEGE ART ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA, New York, New York 

HISTORY OF SCIENCE SOCIETY, South Hadley, Massachusetts 

LINGUISTIC SOCIETY OF AMERICA, Washington, District of Columbia 

MEDIAEVAL ACADEMY OF AMERICA, Cambridge, Massachusetts 

POPULATION ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA, Washington, District of Columbia 




DICTIONARY OF 

American Biography 



Edited by Dumas Malone 




19 



Troye - Wentwortt 



Charles Scribner's Sons 

NEW YORK 



Prompted solely by a desire for public service the New York Times Company and its 
President, Mr. Adolph S. Ochs, made possible the preparation of the manuscript 
of the Dictionary of American Biography through a subvention of more than $500,000 
and with the understanding that the entire responsibility for the contents of the vol- 
umes rests with the American Council of Learned Societies. 



Copyright, 1936, by 
AMERICAN COUNCIL OF LEARNED SOCIETIES 



Printed in the United States of America 




cjZO-073 






The Dictionary of American Biography is published under the auspices of the American 
Council of Learned Societies and under the direction of a Committee of Management 
which consists of J. Franklin Jameson, Chairman, John H. Finley, Dumas Malone, 
Frederic L. Paxson, Iphigene Ochs Sulzberger, Carl Van Doren, Charles Warren. 

The editorial staff consists of Dumas Malone, Editor; Harris E. Starr, Associate Editor; 
Eleanor R. Dobson, Katharine Elizabeth Crane, Assistant Editors. 

The American Council of Learned Societies consists of the following societies: 



American Philosophical Society 
American Academy of Arts and Sciences 
American Antiquarian Society 
American Oriental Society 
American Philological Association 
Archaeological Institute of America 
Society of Biblical Literature and Exegesis 
Modern Language Association of America 
American Historical Association 



American Economic Association 
American Philosophical Association 
American Anthropological Association 
American Political Science Association 
Bibliographical Society of America 
American Sociological Society 
American Society of International Lrv* 
History of Science Society 
Linguistic Society of America 



Mediaeval Academy of America 



Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2012 with funding from 

University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign 



http://www.archive.org/details/dictionaryofamer19amer 



CONTRIBUTORS TO VOLUME XIX 



Thomas P. Abernethy . . . . T. P. A. 

Adeline Adams A. A. 

James Truslow Adams . . . . J. T. A. 

Nelson F. Adkins N. F. A. 

Robert Greenhalgh Albion . R. G. A. 
Horace Newton Allen . . . . H. N. A. 

George M. Anderson G. M. A. 

Russell H. Anderson R. H. A. 

Gertrude L. Annan G. L. A. 

Marguerite Appleton . . . . M. A. 

John Clark Archer J. C. A. 

Raymond Clare Archibald . . R. C. A. 

Frederick W. Ashley F. W. A. 

Roland H. Bainton R. H. B. 

Carlos H. Baker C. H. B. 

Frank Collins Baker . . . . F. C. B. 

Henry G. Barbour H. G. B. 

Gilbert H. Barnes G. H. B. 

Claribel R. Barnett C. R. B. 

Harold K. Barrows H. K. B — s. 

Clarence Bartlett C. B — t. 

George A. Barton G. A. B. 

Ernest Sutherland Bates . . E. S. B — s. 

G. Philip Bauer G. P. B. 

Howard K. Beale H. K. B — e. 

William G. Bean W. G. B. 

Elbert J. Benton E. J. B. 

William C. Binkley W. C. B. 

Edith R. Blanchard E. R. B. 

Louise Pearson Blodget . . . L. P. B. 

Helen C. Boatfield H. C. B. 

Louis H. Bolander L. H. B. 

Charles K. Bolton C. K. B. 

Ethel Stanwood Bolton . . . E. S. B — n. 

Henry E. Bourne H. E. B. 

Witt Bowden W. B. 

J. Bartlet Brebner J. B. B. 

Carl Bridenbaugh C. B — h. 

John E. Briggs J. E. B. 

Robert C. Brooks R. C. B. 

Lawrason Brown L. B. 

C. A. Browne C. A. B. 

Waldo R. Browne W. R. B. 

Robert Bruce R. B. 

Isabel M. Calder I. M. C. 

Lester J. Cappon L. J. C. 

Zechariah Chafee, Jr Z. C, Jr. 

O. P. Chttwood 0. P. C. 

E. Clowes Chorley E. C. C. 



Charles E. Clark C. E. C. 

Eliot Clark E. C. 

Walter E. Clark W. E. C. 

Rufus E. Clement R. E. C. 

Frederick W. Coburn . . . . F. W. C. 

Wesley R. Coe W. R. C. 

Arthur C. Cole A. C. C. 

Rossetter G. Cole R. G. C. 

Theodore Collier T. C. 

R. D. W. Connor . R. D. W. C. 

Mary Roberts Coolidge . . . M. R. C. 

Greta A. Cornell G. A. C. 

Robert Spencer Cotterill . . R. S. C. 

E. Merton Coulter E. M. C. 

Alexander Cowie A. C. 

Katharine Elizabeth Crane . K. E. C. 

Arthur Lyon Cross A. L. C. 

Whitman Cross W. C. 

William J. Cunningham . . . W. J. C. 

Merle E. Curti M. E. C. 

Edward E. Curtis E. E. C. 

Carl C. Cutler C. C. C. 

Charles William Dabney . . . C. W. D. 

Virginius Dabney V. D. 

Edward E. Dale E. E. D. 

Tenney L. Davis T. L. D. 

Richard E. Day . .' R. E. D. 

James Quayle Dealey . . . . J. Q. D. 

D. Bryson Delavan D. B. D. 

William H. S. Demarest . . . W. H. S. D. 

Edward H. Dewey E. H. D. 

Everett N. Dick E. N. D. 

Hobert Cutler Dickinson . . H. C. D. 

Theodore Diller T. D. 

Irving Dilliard I. D. 

Charles A. Dinsmore C. A. D. 

Armistead M. Dobie A. M. D. 

John J. Dolan J. J. D. 

Elizabeth Donnan E. D. 

Randolph C. Downes R. C. D. 

William Howe Downes . . . . W. H. D. 

Stella M. Drumm S. M. D. 

Edward A. Duddy E. A. D. 

Andrew G. Du Mez A. G. D-M. 

Edward Dwight Eaton . . . . E. D. E. 
Walter Prichard Eaton . . . W. P. E. 
Edwin Francis Edgett . . . . E. F. E. 

Everett E. Edwards E. E. E. 

L. Ethan Ellis L. E. E. 



Vll 



Contributors to Volume XIX 



William M. Emery W. M. E. 

William Harvey Emmons . . . W. H. E. 

John 0. Evjen J. 0. E. 

Hallie Farmer H. F. 

Harold U. Faulkner H. U. F. 

Gustav Joseph Fiebeger . . . G. J. F. 

Herbert H. Fiske H. H. F. 

John C. Fitzpatrick J. C. F — k. 

Amelia C. Ford A. C. F. 

Blanton Fortson B. F. 

HUGHELL E. W. FOSBROKE . . . H. E. W. F. 

James Everett Frame . . . . J. E. F. 

John Francis, Jr J. F., Jr. 

Felix Frankfurter F. F. 

John C. French ....... J. C. F — h. 

George W. Fuller G. W. F. 

John F. Fulton J. F. F. 

William A. Ganoe W. A. G. 

Paul N. Garber P. N. G. 

Lee Garby L. G. 

F. Lynwood Garrison . . . . F. L. G. 
George Harvey Genzmer . . . G. H. G. 
James Thayer Gerould . . . . J. T. G. 

W. J. Ghent . W. J. G. 

George W. Goble G. W. G. 

Walter Granger W. G. 

Fletcher M. Green F. M. G. 

Chester N. Greenough . . . . C. N. G. 

Anne King Gregorie A. K. G. 

Martha Gruening M. G. 

Sidney Gunn S. G. 

Charles W. Hackett C. W. H. 

Le Roy R. Hafen L. R. H. 

William James Hail W. J. H — 1. 

J. G. deR. Hamilton J. G. deR. H. 

Talbot Faulkner Hamlin . . T. F. H. 
Elizabeth Deering Hanscom . E. D. H. 

Joseph Mills Hanson J. M. H. 

Edward Rochie Hardy, Jr. . . E. R. H., Jr. 

Lloyd C. M. Hare L. C. M. H. 

Alvin F. Harlow A. F. H. 

Thomas Le Grand Harris . . . T. L. H. 
John Augustus Hartwell . . . J. A. H. 

Frances B. Hawley F. B. H. 

George H. Haynes G. H. H. 

Earl L. W. Heck E. L. W. H. 

James B. Hedges J. B. H. 

Samuel G. Hefelbower . . . . S. G. H. 

G. L. Hendrickson G. L. H. 

Charles H. Herty . . . . . . C. H. H. 

John L. Hervey J. L. H. 

Emily Hickman E. H. 

Granville Hicks G. H. 

John Donald Hicks J. D. H — s. 

Ralph Willard Hidy R. W. H. 

Jim Dan Hill J. D. H— 1 . 

John Haynes Holmes J. H. H. 



A. Van Doren Honeyman ... A. V-D. H. 
Roland Mather Hooker . . . R. M. H. 
Halford Lancaster Hoskins . H. L. H. 
John Tasker Howard . . . . J. T. H. 
Leland Ossian Howard . . . . L. 0. H. 
William Jackson Humphreys . W. J. H — s. 
Edward B. Hungerford . . . . E. B. H. 

Albert Hyma A. H. 

Ray W. Irwin R. W. I. 

Asher Isaacs A. I. 

Joseph Jackson J. J. 

Edna L. Jacobsen E. L. J. 

T. Cary Johnson, Jr T. C. J., Jr. 

Howard Mumford Jones . . . H. M. J. 

Rufus M. Jones R. M. J. 

William Jones W. J. 

H. Donaldson Jordan . . . . H. D. J. 

James R. Joy J. R. J. 

Katharine Amend Kellock . . K. A. K. 
Louise Phelps Kellogg . . . . L. P. K. 

Andrew Keogh A. K — h. 

Charles R. Keyes C. R. K. 

Roy T. King R. T. K. 

Alexander Klemin A. K — n. 

Grant C. Knight G. C. K. 

Casper John Kraemer, Jr. . . C. J. K., Jr. 

Arthur Krock A. K— k. 

Ernst C. Krohn E. C. K. 

John A. Krout J. A. K. 

Leonard W. Labaree L. W. L. 

William G. Land W. G. La — d. 

Fred Landon F. L. 

William Chauncy Langdon . . W. C. L. 

Herbert S. Langfeld H. S. L. 

Conrad H. Lanza C. H. L — a. 

Kenneth S. Latourette . . . K. S. L. 

A. A. Lawrence A. A. L. 

Waldo G. Leland W. G. Le — d. 

Max Lerner M. L. 

George M. Lewis G. M. L. 

Anna Lane Lingelbach . . . . A. L. L. 

Walter Lee Lingle W. L. L. 

George W. Littlehales . . . . G. W. L. 
Charles Sumner Lobingier . . C. S. L. 

Mildred E. Lombard M. E. L. 

Ella Lonn E. L. 

Ralph M. Lyon R. M. L. 

Charles H. Lyttle C. H. L — e. 

William G. MacCallum . . . . W. G. M. 

Mary MacColl M. M. 

J. W. McConnell J. W. M. 

Henry Noble MacCracken . . H. N. M. 
Roger P. McCutcheon . . . . R. P. M. 

W. J. McGlothlin W. J. M. 

Reginald C. McGrane . . . . R. C. M. 
Katherine McNamara . . . . K. McN. 
Kemp Malone K. M. 



Vlll 



Contributors to Volume XIX 



Lester B. Mason L. B. M 

Frank Jewett Mather, Jr. . . F. J. M., Jr. 

William R. Maxon W. R. M. 

Robert Douthat Meade . . . R. D. M. 

John C. Mendenhall J. C. M. 

A. Howard Meneely A. H. M. 

Newton D. Mereness . . . . N. D. M. 

George P. Merrill G. P. M. 

Perry Miller P. M. 

C. Bowie Millican C. B. M. 

Broadus Mitchell B. M. 

Carl W. Mitman C. W. M. 

Frank Monaghan F. M. 

Robert E. Moody R. E. M. 

Richard B. Morris R. B. M. 

Jarvis M. Morse J. M. M. 

Frank Luther Mott F. L. M. 

H. Edward Nettles H. E. N. 

A. R. Newsome A. R. N. 

Jeannette P. Nichols . . . . J. P. N. 
Robert Hastings Nichols . . . R. H. N. 

Roy F. Nichols R. F. N. 

Herman C. Nixon H. C. N. 

A. B. Noble A. B. N. 

Alexander D. Noyes A. D. N. 

Francis R. Packard F. R. P. 

Stanley M. Pargellis S. M. P. 

Edd Winfield Parks E. W. P. 

William Patten W. P. 

Charles O. Paullin C. O. P. 

Frederic Logan Paxson . . . F. L. P. 

C. C. Pearson C. C. P. 

Edmund L. Pearson E. L. P. 

Henry G. Pearson H. G. P. 

James H. Peeling J. H. P. 

Hobart S. Perry H. S. P. 

Henry J. Peterson H. J. P. 

James M. Phalen J. M. P — n. 

Francis S. Philbrick F. S. P. 

Paul Chrisler Phillips . . . . P. C. P. 

John A. Pollard J. A. P. 

David deSola Pool D. deS. P. 

John M. Poor J. M. P — r. 

Jennie Barnes Pope J. B. P. 

Dorothy B. Porter D. B. P. 

Louise Pound L. P. 

Julius W. Pratt J. W. P. 

Richard J. Purcell R. J. P. 

Arthur Hobson Quinn . . . . A. H. Q. 
Lowell Joseph Ragatz . . . . L. J. R. 

P. L. Rainwater P. L. R. 

P. O. Ray P. 0. R. 

Thomas T. Read T. T. R. 

Herbert S. Reichle H. S. R — e. 

Elizabeth M. Richards . . . . E. M. R. 

Leon B. Richardson L. B. R. 

Robert E. Riegel R. E. R. 



Donald A. Roberts . . . 


. D. A. R. 


Benjamin L. Robinson . . 


. B. L. R. 


Herbert Spencer Robinson 


. H. S. R— n. 


William A. Robinson . . . 


. W. A. R. 


William M. Robinson, Jr. . 


. W. M. R., Jr. 


L. Harding Rogers, Jr. . . 


. L. H. R., Jr. 


Flora Rose 


. F. R. 


Harold E. Ross 


. H. E. R. 


Frederick D. Rossini . . . 


. F. D. R. 


Peyton Rous . ... 


. P. R. 


W. Carl Rufus 


. W. C. R. 


William Sener Rusk . . . 


. W. S. R. 


Verne Lockwood Samson . 


. V. L. S. 


Carl Sandburg 


. C. S. 


Louis Bernard Schmidt . . 


. L. B. S— t. 


William 0. Scroggs . . . 


. W. 0. S. 


Elias Howard Sellards 


. E. H. S. 


James Lee Sellers .... 


. J. L. S. 


Thorsten Sellin 


. T. S— n. 


Joseph J. Senturia .... 


. J. T. S. 


Henry Sewall 


. H. S— 1. 


Robert Francis Seybolt . 


. R. F. S. 


William E. Shea 


. W. E. S— a. 


Augustus H. Shearer . . . 


. A. H. S. 


Lester B. Shippee .... 


. L. B. S— e. 


Richard H. Shryock . . . 


. R. H. S. 


George N. Shuster .... 


. G. N. S. 


Eleanor M. Sickels . . . 


. E. M. S. 


Wilbur H. Siebert .... 


. W. H. S. 


Kenneth C. M. Sills . . . 


. K. C. M. S. 


Marian Silveus 


. M. S. 


Lesley Byrd Simpson . . . 


. L. B. S— n. 


Theodore Sizer 


. T. S— r. 


Emily E. F. Skeel .... 


. E. E. F. S. 


David Eugene Smith . . . 


. D. E. S. 


Harry Worcester Smith . 


. H. W. S. 


William E. Smith 


. W. E. S— h. 


Herbert Solow 


. H. S— w. 


Raymond J. Sontag .... 


• R. J. S-g. 


George A. Soper 


. G. A. S. 


J. Duncan Spaeth .... 


. J. D. S. 


E. Wilder Spaulding . . . 


. E. W. S. 


Oliver L. Spaulding, Jr. . 


. 0. L. S., Jr. 


Thomas M. Spaulding . . 


. T. M. S. 


Robert Elliott Speer . . 


. R. El. S. 


Robert Ernest Spiller 


. R. Er. S. 


Richard J. Stanley .... 


. R. J. S-y. 


Harris Elwood Starr . . 


. H. E. S. 


Bertha Monica Stearns . 


. B. M. S. 


Raymond P. Stearns . . . 


. R. P. S. 


Wayne E. Stevens . . . 


. W. E. S— s 


De Lisle Stewart .... 


. D-L. S. 


Edgar I. Stewart .... 


. E. I. S. 


George R. Stewart, Jr. . . 


. G. R. S.,Jr. 




. R. S. 


Anson Phelps Stokes . . . 


. A. P. S. 


Richard G. Stone .... 


. R. G. S. 



IX 



Contributors to Volume XIX 



Lionel M. Summers L. M. S. 

Charles S. Sydnor C. S. S. 

Thomas E. Tallmadge . . . . T. E. T. 

William A. Taylor W. A. T. 

David Y. Thomas D. Y. T. 

Milton Halsey Thomas M. H. T. 

Herbert Thoms H. T. 

Irving L. Thomson I. L. T. 

Edward Larocque Tinker . . E. L. T. 

Bruce R. Trimble B. R. T. 

Alonzo H. Tuttle A. H. T. 

Edward M. Van Cleve . . . . E. M. V-C. 
Lewis G. Vander Velde . . . L. G. V-V. 
Arnold J. F. van Laer . . . . A. J. F. v-L. 
George Van Santvoord . . . . G. V-S. 

Henry R. Viets H. R. V. 

Harold G. Villard H. G. V. 

Edna Vosper E. V. 

Rufus W. Weaver R. W. W. 



Luther Allan Weigle . . . . L. A. W. 
Elizabeth Howard West . . . E. H. W. 

Allan Westcott A. W — t. 

Alexander Wetmore A. W — e. 

George F. Whicher G. F. W. 

Arthur P. Whitaker A. P. W — r. 

Isabel M. S. Whittier . . . . I. M. S. W. 
Robert H. Wienefeld . . . . R. H. W. 

Jerome K. Wilcox J. K. W. 

Vernon L. Wilkinson V. L. W. 

Mary Wilhelmine Williams . M. W. W. 

Samuel C. Williams S. C. W. 

Tyrrell Williams T. W. 

Albert Potter Wills A. P. W — s. 

Maude H. Woodfin M. H. W. 

Vann Woodward V. W. 

Walter L. Wright, Jr W. L. W., Jr 

James Ingersoll Wyer . . . . J. I. W. 



DICTIONARY OF 



AMERICAN BIOGRAPHY 



Troye — Wentworth 



TROYE, EDWARD (1808- July 25, 1874), 
painter of American blood horses, was born near 
Geneva, Switzerland, and died in Georgetown, 
Ky. He was of French descent, his grandfather, 
a nobleman, having been exiled from France for 
political reasons. Jean Baptiste de Troy, Ed- 
ward's father, was an artist of note, and one of 
his paintings, "The Plague of Marseilles," now 
hangs in the Louvre. All his children were edu- 
cated in the arts, and several of them gained dis- 
tinction in their several fields. For some years 
Edward lived with his father in England, but at 
the age of twenty emigrated to the New World, 
changing his name to Troye. 

In the West Indies, where he first resided, he 
was connected with a sugar plantation and em- 
ployed his leisure time in sketching and painting. 
Ill health compelling him to seek a different cli- 
mate, he went to Philadelphia, Pa., and soon 
found employment with the art department of 
Sartain's Magazine'. In July 1839 he was mar- 
ried, in Kentucky, to Cornelia Ann Van der 
Graff, a grand-daughter of one of the Dutch 
governors of Ceylon. 

Trove's best work, which was done between 
1835 and 1874, is to be seen in his paintings of 
blood horses. Since photography did not become 
commercial until after the seventies, Troye's por- 
traits are the truest delineations of the forebears 
of the great racers of the American turf, and so 
have much historical as well as artistic value. 
Before the Civil War he painted for the planta- 
tion owners of the South, where the leading thor- 
oughbred studs of the United States were to be 
found. His chief patrons were A. Keene Rich- 
ards of Georgetown, Ky., and the Alexander 
family of Lexington, and with them he spent the 
middle and latter part of his life. With Richards 



he made a trip in the fifties to Arabia and the 
Holy Land, where Richards selected and pur- 
chased a number of Arab horses, while Troye 
painted horses, Damascus cattle, the Dead Sea, 
the bazaar of Damascus, and other scenes and 
objects. Copies of some of these paintings are 
preserved at Bethany College, Bethany, W. Va. 

Troye's most notable paintings are those of 
American Eclipse and Sir Henry, heroes of the 
memorable North-South match in 1823 ; the 
mighty Boston and his son Lexington, the lead- 
ing sire in America for sixteen years ; Lecomte, 
Lexington's valiant foe in the four-mile heat 
match at the Metairie course in New Orleans ; 
Reel, a great brood mare, dam of Lecomte ; Glen- 
coe, sire of Reel ; Revenue, Bertrand, Richard 
Singleton, Reality, Black Maria, Leviathan, Wag- 
ner, Ophelia — dam of Gray Eagle, and numer- 
ous others. Hanging in the Capitol at Washing- 
ton is Troye's great painting of Gen. Winfield 
Scott, mounted on a son of Glencoe, a charger 
given by A. Keene Richards to John Hunt Mor- 
gan [q.v.~\, the daring leader of Morgan's caval- 
ry, and painted from life. 

Up to 1912 not more than twenty of Troye's 
paintings were known in the East, but since that 
time over three hundred of them have been lo- 
cated and three-quarters of them photographed. 
The chief collections in America are in the hands 
of the Jockey Club, New York ; the Alexander 
family in Kentucky ; Walter Jeffords, Pennsyl- 
vania; Harry Worcester Smith, Massachusetts; 
A. Kenneth Alexander, New York ; Louis Lee 
Haggin, Kentucky ; David Wagstaff , and Harry 
T. Peters of New York ; Robert Gilmor, Long 
Island ; and the Francis P. Garvan collection 
given to Yale University in memory of Harry 
Payne and Payne Whitney. Troye was the au- 



Trude 

thor of The Race Horses of America (1867), of 
which only the first number was published. At 
his death he was survived by a daughter. 

[Information from Troye's daughter, the late Anna 
V. T. Christian ; Mrs. John C. Pack, of Singleton, Ky., 
and Mrs. E. K. Schwartz, of New Orleans, daughters 
of A. Keene Richards ; W. S. Vosburgh, "Horse Por- 
traiture in America," in Daily Racing Form (Chicago), 
Mar. 18, 1919; C. E. Fairman, Art and Artists of the 
Capitol of the U. S. A. (1927) ; Harry Worcester Smith, 
"Edward Troye (1 808-1 874), The Painter of Ameri- 
can Blood Horses," The Field (London), Jan. 21, 1926.] 

H.W. S. 

TRUDE, ALFRED SAMUEL (Apr. 21, 
1847-Dec. 12, 1933), lawyer, was born on ship- 
board in New York harbor. His parents, Sam- 
uel and Sallie (Downs) Trude, were immigrants 
from England, who shortly settled at Lockport, 
N. Y. Here Alfred spent his boyhood, attending 
the public schools. At seventeen he set out to 
seek his fortune in Chicago, which was his home 
thereafter. On Apr. 7, 1868, he married Algenia 
Pearson of Lockport, by whom he had three sons 
and two daughters. 

Shortly after his marriage, he enrolled in the 
Union College of Law (now the Northwestern 
University Law School) at Chicago, at the same 
time pursuing office study under A. B. Jenks. 
Admitted to the bar in 1871, he soon attracted 
the attention of Joseph Medill [q.vJ], editor and 
proprietor of the Chicago Tribune and mayor of 
the city, who in 1872 appointed the young man 
city prosecutor. After their official relation had 
ceased, Trude long remained the Tribune's at- 
torney. His success in that connection brought 
him another valuable client in Wilbur F. Storey 
\_q.v.~\ of the Chicago Times, whose attorney he 
became in 1876, when he prevented, on the ground 
that Storey was not a fugitive from justice, the 
latter's extradition to Wisconsin on the charge 
of libeling Milwaukee's chief of police. In one 
decade, it is said, Trude appeared for Storey and 
the Times in about five hundred cases, and the 
wide publicity given to the first of these led to 
retainers in many other extradition cases, notably 
the "Newburg Poker Case," in which he pre- 
vented the discharge on habeas corpus of two 
gamblers who had taken $150,000 from a client. 
Another early case which enhanced his reputa- 
tion was the divorce suit of Linden vs. Linden, 
in which the plaintiff, the daughter of a wealthy 
packer, had married a coachman in the belief 
that he was a British peer. Trude appeared for 
the defendant, and a decree was denied. After 
successfully prosecuting actions against various 
railway companies, Trude was retained by such 
important corporations as the Chicago & Alton 
Railroad and the Chicago City Railway Com- 
pany. He also appeared in famous testamentary 



Trudeau 

litigation, such as contests of the wills of Wilbur 
F. Storey and Henrietta Snell. 

Although his success in civil practice was 
phenomenal, it was his frequent appearance in 
criminal causes which brought his name into the 
headlines of the daily newspapers. Almost a half 
century before his death, he had already appeared 
in thirty-four murder cases and had been suc- 
cessful in all but three. Among his successful 
defenses was that of the Reno brothers who, 
however, were lynched after their acquittal. In 
some famous cases he was the prosecutor — no- 
tably in State vs. Prcndergast, in which the de- 
fendant was convicted and hanged for murder- 
ing Mayor Carter Henry Harrison [q.v.~\ on the 
last night of the World's Columbian Exposition 
( 1893) . One of the most successful trial lawyers 
of his time — before the age of excessive special- 
ism — Trude was a product of the jury system 
and his forte lay in resourcefulness, adroitness, 
and persuasive address rather than in profound 
legal learning. In the latter, nevertheless, he 
was by no means deficient and his wide range of 
practice gave him a technical knowledge of many 
diverse branches of the law. 

In the midst of his professional activities, he 
found time for public and party service. During 
the last eight years of the century, he was a 
member of the Chicago School Board. For a 
long period he was active in local politics, and in 
1896 and again in 1900 he was a delegate to the 
National Democratic Convention. His last years 
were spent in retirement. 

[The Bench and Bar of Chicago (n.d.), published be- 
fore 1886; John Moses and Joseph Kirkland, Hist, of 
Chicago (1895), vol. II; J. W. Leonard, The Book of 
Chicagoans, 1905 and 1926; Who's Who in America, 
1918-19 ; Chicago Daily Tribune, Dec. 14, 1933 ; N. Y. 
Times, Dec. 13, 1933.] C. S.L. 

TRUDEAU, EDWARD LIVINGSTON 

(Oct. 5, 1848-Nov. 15, 1915), physician, pio- 
neer scientific student of tuberculosis in America, 
was born in New York City, the third child of 
James and Cephise (Berger) Trudeau. His fa- 
ther, the grandson of Zenon Trudeau, lieutenant 
governor of upper Louisiana from 1792 to 1799, 
was a Confederate officer, a friend and com- 
panion of John J. Audubon [<?.?'.], a sculptor of 
some ability, and a physician. Soon after the 
boy's birth his parents separated. His mother 
returned to Paris, with her father, Francois Eloi 
Berger, the son of a long line of physicians and 
a successful practising physician of New York. 
There young Trudeau lived until his eighteenth 
year, studying at the Lycee Bonaparte. Return- 
ing to New York, he prepared to enter the United 
States Naval Academy, but, when his brother 



Trudeau 

developed tuberculosis, he resigned in order to 
nurse him until he died. Tiring of the work in 
the School of Mines of Columbia College, now 
part of the School of Engineering of Columbia 
University, and caring little for the life of a 
stock broker, he began in 1868 the study of medi- 
cine and was graduated from the College of Phy- 
sicians and Surgeons, now a part of Columbia 
University. He was steadied in his determina- 
tion for a career by his desire to win the con- 
fidence, approbation, and love of Charlotte G. 
Beare of Douglaston, Long Island. He was mar- 
ried to her on June 29, 187 1, and in his autobi- 
ography he repeatedly acknowledged her influ- 
ence throughout his life. After a short hospital 
experience he began practice on Long Island but 
soon, in 1872, removed to New York, associated 
himself with Fessenden Nott Otis [q.v.], and 
engaged in teaching and dispensary work. In- 
fected no doubt by his brother, he developed in 
1873 rather extensive pulmonary tuberculosis, 
which led him to the Adirondacks, where he con- 
tinued to live, considering himself always an 
exile from New York. Having inherited a mod- 
est income, he fished and hunted until 1880, when 
he began to devote more time to medical practice, 
at Paul Smiths in the summer and in Saranac 
Lake during the winter. 

He was interested chiefly in two phases of 
tuberculosis, early diagnosis and the discovery 
of a cure, both closely related to his consuming 
passion, aiding in recovery from tuberculosis. 
The cure he sought in the laboratory ; early diag- 
nosis and treatment he pursued in the sana- 
torium. He was a keen diagnostician, his grasp 
of prognosis was as excellent as it was cautious. 
He published little upon clinical tuberculosis, 
much from the laboratory. He spoke optimisti- 
cally, he wrote guardedly, with the result he had 
little to retract. Impressed with the need of car- 
ing for patients with pulmonary tuberculosis and 
small means, stimulated by an article by Herman 
Brehmer, in 1884 he established on sixteen acres, 
bought and presented to him by Adirondack 
guides, lifelong friends, the Adirondack Cottage 
Sanitarium, now the Trudeau Sanatorium, the 
first in America. For thirty years, practically 
unaided, he met the yearly deficit, ultimately $30,- 
000, by soliciting contributions and by donations 
from his own modest income, and he left an en- 
dowment fund of $600,000. At his death the 
sanatorium accommodated 150 patients and con- 
sisted of 36 buildings on 60 acres. He was already 
familiar with the work of Pasteur and Tyndall, 
when a translation of Robert Koch's paper on 
the etiology of tuberculosis came into his hands. 
This led to the establishment of a small, very 



Trudeau 

primitive laboratory in his home, eventually 
causing a fire that destroyed his house in 1893 
and prompted George C. Cooper to build the 
present Saranac Laboratory in 1894. There the 
first immunity experiments in tuberculosis in 
America were performed, various substances 
tested on animals, and in a hole nearby the bene- 
ficial influence of fresh air on tuberculous rabbits 
was controlled. Among his earlier publications 
were "An Experimental Study of Preventive In- 
oculation in Tuberculosis" (Medical Record, 
Nov. 22, 1890) and "The Treatment of Experi- 
mental Tuberculosis by Koch's Tuberculin, Hun- 
ter's Modification and Other Products of the 
Tubercle-Bacillus" (Medical News, Sept. 3, 1892, 
and also in Transactions of the Association of 
American Physicians, vol. VII, 1892, pp. 99- 
101). Two of his later studies were reported as 
"Artificial Immunity in Experimental Tuber- 
culosis" (Ibid., vol. XVIII, 1903, p. 97 and in 
New York Medical Journal, July 18, 1903) 
and "Two Experiments in Artificial Immunity 
against Tuberculosis" (Medical Nczvs, Sept. 30, 
1905, and Transactions of the National Asso- 
ciation for Study and Prevention of Tuberculosis 
. . . 1905, 1906) . In 1915 An Autobiography was 
published posthumously (title page 1916). He 
became in 1904 the president of the National As- 
sociation for the Study and Prevention of Tuber- 
culosis, later the National Tuberculosis Associa- 
tion ; in 1905 president of the Association of 
American Physicians; in 1910 president of the 
Congress of American Physicians and Sur- 
geons, where, too weak to be heard, he spoke on 
"Optimism in Medicine" (for extensive quota- 
tion see Chalmers, post, introduction). 

His most striking characteristics were his per- 
sonal charm, his optimism, his wonderful never 
flagging enthusiasm, his wide sympathies, his 
choice of forceful picturesque diction in speech 
and writing, his ability to interest others, to 
make and keep friends, his love of people. Such 
characteristics made him a keen scientist and a 
great physician. Strongly influenced after the 
death of his brother by broad and tolerant re- 
ligious views, he led in the organizations of the 
churches at Paul Smiths and in Saranac Lake, 
in the affairs of which he took deep interest until 
his death. Of his four children, one, a physician, 
survived him, another boy died in infancy, a 
daughter was claimed by the disease he was 
struggling to control, and in 1906 his eldest son 
died suddenly while convalescing from pneu- 
monia. Trudeau never recovered from this blow, 
" and gradually his disease, long quiescent, becom- 
ing more active, required collapse therapy that 
for a time relieved him. He died in Saranac 



Trudeau — True 

Lake and was buried at St. Johns-in-the- Wilder- 
ness, at Paul Smiths. 

[Autobiog., ante ; Stephen Chalmers, The Beloved 
Physician (1916), and in Atlantic Monthly, Jan. 1916 ; 
Jour, of Outdoor Life, Jan. 1925 ; N. Y. Times, Nov. 
16—18, 21, 23, 1915; personal association.] L. B. 

TRUDEAU, JEAN BAPTISTE [See Tru- 
teau, Jean Baptiste, 1748-1827]. 

TRUE, ALFRED CHARLES (June 5, 1853- 
Apr. 23, 1929), leader in agricultural education, 
was born at Middletown, Conn., the son of 
Charles Kittredge and Elizabeth Bassett (Hyde) 
True. Frederick William True [q.v.~\ was his 
younger brother. Their father, a Methodist min- 
ister, was then a professor at Wesleyan Univer- 
sity. Following a boyhood spent in rural com- 
munities of Connecticut, Massachusetts, and New 
York, True prepared for college at the Boston 
Latin School and graduated from Wesleyan Uni- 
versity in 1873. After two years as principal of 
the high school at Essex, N. Y., he taught in the 
state normal school at Westfield, Mass., for seven 
years. On Nov. 23, 1875, he married Emma 
Fortune of Essex, N. Y., by whom he had a 
daughter and a son. Following graduate work 
at Harvard from 1882 to 1884 he returned to 
Wesleyan University, where during the next 
four years he gave instruction in Latin and 
Greek. 

At Wesleyan he formed an acquaintance with 
Wilbur O. Atwater [q.v.~\, who in 1888 founded 
the office of experiment stations in the United 
States Department of Agriculture. The follow- 
ing year True was induced to join the staff of the 
department and remained connected with it until 
his death. As editor in the office of experiment 
stations, one of his first duties was the prepara- 
tion of an article on the experiment-station move- 
ment and the history of agricultural education 
and research in the United States for use in con- 
nection with the Paris Exposition of 1889. This 
task enabled him to approach the problems of 
agricultural education and research from a na- 
tional point of view and to visualize agricultural 
colleges and stations as permanent agencies for 
the general welfare. During the early nineties 
when the office functioned largely as a clearing 
house of information, True prepared publica- 
tions and encouraged the dissemination of accu- 
rate information on agricultural matters. After 
his appointment to the directorship (1893) the 
functions of the office expanded greatly. Inves- 
tigations in human nutrition resulted in his as- 
suming leadership in research and education in 
the field of home economics. He also aided in 
making farmers' institutes a vital means of popu- 
lar education. The irrigation and drainage inves- 



True 

tigations of the department and the agricultural 
experiment stations in the territories likewise 
came under his supervision. Owinglargelytocon- 
fidence in True's breadth of view and liberality 
and his sound and unbiased judgment, the office 
of experiment stations became "an unique ex- 
ample of national administration" in which "in- 
fluence rather than coercion is the policy" (Con- 
over, post, p. 104). In 1915 the office became 
part of the states relations service, of which True 
was director until 1923 ; in this capacity he was 
spokesman for the department in programs of 
cooperation in the research and education car- 
ried on pursuant to the Smith-Lever Act of 
1914. 

True's influence as an official was supple- 
mented by his leadership in the Association of 
American Colleges and Experiment Stations, 
finally known as the Association of Land Grant 
Colleges and Universities. He contributed fre- 
quently to its programs ; served on its commit- 
tees, notably that on agricultural instruction, was 
its editor and bibliographer for many years, its 
president in 1913, and dean of the seven suc- 
cessive graduate schools of agriculture which it 
sponsored between 1902 and 1916. In 1913 he 
was chairman of the official delegation of the 
United States at the General Assembly of the 
International Institute of Agriculture at Rome. 
During the World War he was a leader in the 
efforts to increase food production and conser- 
vation. After 1923 he was engaged mainly in the 
preparation of three monographs, A History of 
Agricultural Extension Work in the United 
States, 1785-1923 (1928), A History of Agricul- 
tural Education in the United States, 1785-1925 
(1929), and "A History of Agricultural Experi- 
mentation and Research in the United States" 
(unpublished) — a trilogy such as no other per- 
son could have produced, for no one else was 
privileged to study more intensively from a na- 
tional point of view the growth of the entire 
movement for agricultural education over a peri- 
od of forty years. 

[Am. Men of Sci. (4th ed., 1927) ; H. P. Sheldon, 
"Uncle Sam's Hired Men Who Serve You," Hoard's 
Dairyman, Aug. 27, 1920; Wis. Country Mag., Nov. 
1929; Proceedings of the Asso. of Am. Agric. Colls, 
and Experiment Stations and its successors, especially 
vols. XXVII (1914), XXXVII (1924), XLIII (1930); 
Experiment Statioti Record, Mar., July 1923, Apr., July, 
Oct. 1929; Jour, of Home Economics, July 1929; U. 
S. Dept. Agric. Official Record, May 2, 1929 ; U. S. 
Dept. of Agric, press release, Apr. 24, 1929 ; L. S. 
Ivins and A. E. Winship, Fifty Famous Farmers 
(1924) ; Rus, 1925 ; Who's Who in America, 1928-29 ; 
Milton Conover, The Office of Experiment Stations 
(1924); Evening Star (Washington, D. C), Apr. 24, 
25, 1929 ; Washington Post, Apr. 25, 1929 ; manuscript 
letters in U. S. Dept. of Agric. Lib. ; manuscript bib- 
Hog, of True's writings in Office of Experiment Sta- 
tions Lib., U. S. Dept. of Agric] £. £, e. 



True 



Trueblood 



TRUE, FREDERICK WILLIAM (July 8, 
1858-June 25, 1914), zoologist, born in Middle- 
town, Conn., brother of Alfred Charles True [q.v.~\ , 
was a son of the Rev. Charles Kittredge and 
Elizabeth Bassett (Hyde) True, and a descend- 
ant of Henry Trew of England who settled at 
Salem, Mass., about 1636. He received his col- 
legiate education at the University of the City 
of New York, where he was graduated with the 
degree of bachelor of science in 1878. In No- 
vember of that year he entered the service of the 
federal government as a clerk with the fish com- 
mission and in 1879 was expert special agent 
in the fisheries branch of the Tenth Census. In 
1880 he was custodian of the exhibits of the 
United States fish commission at the Berlin 
Fisheries Exhibition. 

In July of the following year he went to the 
Smithsonian Institution as a clerk in the Na- 
tional Museum. His service under the Smith- 
sonian continued with steady advancement until 
his death and covered difficult scientific and ad- 
ministrative labors. From 1881 to 1883 he was 
librarian for the National Museum, serving also 
for the first two years as acting curator of the 
division of mammals. In 1883 he became curator 
and retained direct supervision of the division 
until 1909. In the early eighties he was desig- 
nated curator-in-charge and had administrative 
supervision of the entire museum at such times 
as the assistant secretary was absent ; this desig- 
nation was changed in 1894 to executive curator, 
which title carried with it additional duties. 

When the National Museum was reorganized 
in 1897 True was made head curator of the de- 
partment of biology, with direction of all of the 
biological work of the organization, a position 
in which his duties were largely administrative. 
During the absence of Samuel P. Langley [g.?'.] 
that year, True served for a period as acting sec- 
retary of the Smithsonian Institution, and until 
1901 he bore the major burden of administration 
in the National Museum. On June 1, 191 1, he 
became assistant secretary of the Smithsonian in 
charge of the library and of the international ex- 
change service, a position that he occupied until 
his death. In the exposition work that was an 
important feature of the activities of the Insti- 
tution during this period True had a prominent 
part. He directed the preparation of exhibitions 
shown at Nashville, Tenn., in 1897 ; at Omaha, 
Nebr., in 1898 ; at Buffalo, N. Y., in 1901 ; at 
Charleston, S. C, in 1902; at St. Louis, Mo., in 
1904; and at Portland, Ore., in 1905. He was, 
also, an official representative of the United 
States government at the Seventh International 
Zoological Congress in 1907. 



True was profound as a student, and exact and 
punctilious as an administrative officer. He cared 
little for sports or pastimes, nnding his recreation 
in music, literature, and art. Of a retiring dis- 
position, he was not interested in social activities 
beyond association with friends and colleagues 
and when not at the museum was usually en- 
gaged in studies at home. His early scientific in- 
terests were directed toward the lower groups of 
animals, but, finding that his eyesight would not 
permit continued use of the microscope, he turned 
to the mammals and in research on this group 
made his outstanding scientific contributions. 
He published many papers, and was known espe- 
cially for his studies of the whales and their al- 
lies. A collection of these which he began for 
the National Museum is one of the most exten- 
sive in the world. His memoirs on the family 
Delphinidae, on the whalebone whales, and on 
the beaked whales were of much significance, and 
in later years he was occupied with studies of 
fossil cetaceans, a subject to which he made 
noteworthy contributions. In his investigations 
he went to many other museums and visited 
whaling stations in Newfoundland. At the time 
of his death he was recognized as the foremost 
living authority on the Cctacea. On Feb. 16, 
1887, he married Louise Elvina Prentiss of 
Washington, D. C. ; two of their children sur- 
vived him. 

[Ann. Report of the Board of Regents of the Smith- 
sonian Institution, 1914 (1915); J. M. Cattell, Am. 
Men of Sci. (2nd ed., 1910) ; Who's Who in America, 
1914-15 ; Evening Star (Washington), June 25, 1914 ; 
records in the Smithsonian Institution ; family sources.] 

A.W— e. 

TRUEBLOOD, BENJAMIN FRANKLIN 

(Nov. 25, 1847-Oct. 26, 1916), educator, pub- 
licist, and professional worker for international 
peace, was born in Salem, Ind., and adhered 
throughout his life to the Quaker principles of 
his parents, Joshua and Esther (Parker) True- 
blood. After graduating from Earlham College 
in 1869, he began his educational work as pro- 
fessor of classics at Penn College, Iowa. From 
1874 to 1890 he served as president of Wilming- 
ton College, Ohio, and of Penn College. His 
thorough scholarship, his virility, and his high 
moral principles won the respect of his colleagues 
and students ; his faculty for using homely and 
terse words, his humane and charming strain of 
humor, and his rare combination of modesty and 
heartiness won their love and devotion. On July 
17, 1872, he married Sarah H. Terrell of New 
Vienna, Ohio. In 1890 he broadened his educa- 
tional activity by becoming a professional work- 
er for international peace. A year abroad as 
agent for the Christian Arbitration and Peace 



Trueblood 

Society provided an opportunity for studying 
European conditions and for becoming acquaint- 
ed with leaders in the peace movement. From 
that time until his death he was important in its 
councils, both in England and on the Continent, 
and the more influential because of his mastery 
of several modern languages. From 1892 until 
1915 he served as secretary of the American 
Peace Society and as editor of its periodical, the 
Advocate of Peace. The fortunes of the peace 
movement in the United States were at a low 
ebb, and much of the organizing work of his 
predecessors, William Ladd and Elihu Burritt 
[qq.v.~\, had to be done over again. The first 
western man to assume the leadership of or- 
ganized pacifism in the United States, he made 
the movement a truly national one. As a result 
of his tireless activity in organizing branch 
peace societies, of writing not only for peace 
periodicals but for other magazines, and of lec- 
turing on innumerable occasions, he played a 
responsible part in the rapid expansion of the 
peace movement. A repeated visitor at the state 
department and at the White House, he was 
treated at the national capital with greater re- 
spect than most pacifists. His influence was ex- 
tended by his active participation in the Lake 
Mohonk arbitration conferences, the Interna- 
tional Law Association, and the American So- 
ciety of International Law. 

As editor of the Advocate of Peace he set a 
new standard for pacifist journalism. Without 
sacrificing the moral, ethical, and religious ele- 
ments that had given so much impetus to pacifism, 
he interpreted the peace movement and the forces 
promoting war with realism as well as vision. 
His analyses of contemporary events were char- 
acterized by shrewdness, insight, and literary 
merit. Himself an uncompromising foe of all 
wars, militarism, and violence, he believed it was 
necessary to enlist the support of every shade of 
opinion if pacifism and internationalism were to 
be translated into actualities. An intelligent ad- 
vocate of arbitration and the limitation of arma- 
ments, he believed that, as a result of the soli- 
darity of humanity and the principle of progress 
that governed history, the groping steps and 
strivings toward world organization must in- 
evitably, and in the relatively immediate future, 
lead to a true world federation. He gave to the 
peace movement an historical sense, a more sub- 
stantial ground for its optimism, and a sense of 
realism that did much to mitigate the sentimental- 
ism of many of its friends. In spite of the catho- 
lic character of his philosophy and program of 
peace, he only partly understood the relationships 
between industrial and financial capitalism and 



Truman 

war ; and his appreciation of the importance of 
socialism and the labor movement for eliminat- 
ing war did not lead him to make an effective 
alliance with those forces. Among his numerous 
publications perhaps the most important were 
The Federation of the World (1899) and The 
Development of the Peace Idea and Other Es- 
says (1932), with an introduction by Edwin D. 
Mead. 

[Letters of Trueblood in the Roosevelt Papers in the 
Lib. of Cong., in the Frederick Bayer Papers in the 
Kongelig Bibliothek in Copenhagen, and in the files of 
the International Peace Bureau in Geneva ; C. E. 
Beals, Bcnj. Franklin Trueblood (1916) ; E. L. Whit- 
ney, The Amer. Peace Soc. (1928); Who's Who in 
America, 19 16-17 ; N. Y. Times, Oct. 27, 1916.] 

M.E.C. 

TRUMAN, BENJAMIN CUMMINGS (Oct. 
2 5> X 835-July 18, 1916), journalist, author, eld- 
est son of Henry Hammond Truman and his first 
wife, Susan (Cummings), and a descendant of 
Joseph Truman who settled in New London 
(Conn.) about 1666, was born in Providence, R. 
I. He attended public school there and a Shaker 
school in Canterbury, N. H., and at seventeen 
took charge for a year of a district school in 
Merrimack County, N. H. Returning to Provi- 
dence, he learned typesetting, and from 1855 un- 
til late in 1859 was a compositor and proofreader 
on the New York Times. In the latter year he 
entered the employ of John W. Forney [q.v.~\ of 
Philadelphia, publisher of the Press, and in 1861 
went to Washington to work on Forney's Sun- 
day Morning Chronicle. Upon the outbreak of 
the Civil War he was sent to the front as a cor- 
respondent and in March 1862, declining a com- 
mission in a regiment of volunteers, became an 
aide on the staff of Andrew Johnson, military 
governor of Tennessee. Nominally he so re- 
mained until near the end of the war, though his 
talent for doing many things at the same time 
enabled him to render distinguished service as a 
correspondent and to serve from time to time on 
the staffs of Generals J. S. Negley, John H. 
King, and Kenner Garrard. 

In the late summer of 1865 Truman was sent 
by President Johnson as a confidential agent to 
investigate opinion and conditions in the far 
South, and from the first of September 1865 to 
the middle of March 1866 he traveled in Ala- 
bama, Georgia, Florida, Tennessee, Arkansas, 
Mississippi, Louisiana, and Texas, sending fre- 
quent illuminating letters to the New York Times 
and making observations which he submitted to 
the President in the form of a report, dated Apr. 
9, 1866 (Senate Executive Document No. 43, 
39 Cong., 1 Sess.). He testified before the con- 
gressional Committee on Reconstruction on Apr. 
5 (House Report No. 30, pt. IV, pp. 136-40, 39 



Truman 

Cong., I Sess.) and shortly thereafter was sent 
as a special treasury agent to South Carolina and 
Florida. Declining appointment as paymaster 
with the rank of major in the Regular Army, he 
served from December 1866 until late in 1869 as 
special agent of the Post Office Department on 
the Pacific Coast, in this capacity visiting China, 
Japan, and Hawaii. On Dec. 8, 1869, at Los 
Angeles, he married Augusta Mallard and soon 
afterward went to Washington as a correspond- 
ent of the New York Times and the San Fran- 
cisco Bulletin. He was again in California in 
1870, became interested in the San Diego Bul- 
letin, and in February 1872 assumed the editor- 
ship of the Evening Express of Los Angeles. 
In the following year he bought the Los Angeles 
Star, but four years later sold it and again be- 
came a special agent of the Post Office Depart- 
ment. For eleven years (1879-90) he was chief 
of the literary bureau of the Southern Pacific 
Railway ; for the next two years the manager of 
a Southern California exhibit in Chicago ; and 
subsequently for a time assistant chief of flori- 
culture at the World's Columbian Exposition 
there. Returning to Los Angeles, he edited for 
some years the weekly Western Graphic. In 1900 
he was one of the California commissioners to 
the Paris exposition and toured the Near East 
as a correspondent. 

Besides his newspaper articles and sketches, 
Truman produced a number of books and pam- 
phlets, including: Life, Adventures, and Capture 
of Tiburcio Vasquez, the Great California Bandit 
and Murderer (1874) ; Semi-Tropical California 
(1874) ; Occidental Sketches (1881) ; The Field 
of Honor (London, 1883; New York, 1884), a 
history of dueling; and a History of the World's 
Fair (copr. 1893). He also produced two plays, 
one of them a dramatization of Tennyson's Enoch 
Arden. He died in Los Angeles, survived by his 
wife and one of their two children. 

Truman was jovial and expansive in manner, 
had amazing energy, and wrote voluminously. 
He has been called one of the most brilliant and 
successful of the Civil War correspondents, since 
by ingenuity or luck he was often enabled to get 
important news to the press ahead of his rivals, 
and in at least one notable instance ahead of the 
War Department (Elmer Davis, History of the 
New York Times, 1921, p. 57). His letters to the 
Times and his report and testimony on conditions 
in the South during the early period of Recon- 
struction are among the valuable sources of in- 
formation covering that field. 

[Autobiog. letter and other data in E. M. Treman 
and M. E. Poole, The Hist, of the Treman, Tremaine, 
Truman Family in America (1901), I, 193-98; Who's 
Who in America, 19 16-17; Printers and Printing in 



Trumbull 

Providence, 1762-1907 (n.d.), p. lxxxv ; The New In- 
tcrnat. Year Book, 1916 (1917); Mil. Order of the 
Loyal Legion . . . Commandery of Cat., Circular No. 24, 
Scr. of 1916 (1916) ; Sixty Years in Southern Cat. . . . 
Reminiscences of Harris Nczvmark (3rd ed., 1930), ed. 
by M. H. and M. R. Newmark ; N. Y. Times, July 30, 
1916, pt. Ill, p. 4; Los Angeles Times, July 19, 1916.] 

W.J.G. 

TRUMBULL, BENJAMIN (Dec. 19, 1735- 
Feb. 2, 1820), Congregational clergyman, his- 
torian, was born in Hebron, Conn., the eldest 
child of Benjamin and Mary (Brown) Trumble 
and a descendant of John Trumble who came to 
Roxbury, Mass., in 1639 and was made a free- 
man of Rowley in 1640. The spelling of the fam- 
ily name was changed to Trumbull about 1768. 
After preliminary study with the Rev. Elijah 
Lathrop, Benjamin entered Yale College and was 
graduated in 1759. Having completed his theo- 
logical studies with the Rev. Eleazar Wheelock, 
he was licensed to preach on May 21, 1760, by 
the Windham Association of Ministers, and in 
August of the same year was called to the Con- 
gregational Church in North Haven, Conn. 
There on Dec. 24, 1760, he began services as 
pastor which were to continue until his death 
sixty years later, interrupted only by a period of 
six months during the Revolution when he 
served as chaplain of General Wadsworth's bri- 
gade (June 24 to Dec. 25, 1776). Upon his re- 
turn to North Haven, he was chosen captain of 
a company of sixty volunteers. 

Trumbull was a man of great energy and char- 
acter. Though he never neglected his duty to his 
parish, he felt obligated to serve the state. This 
sentiment, combined with the repeated pleas of 
his friends, among whom were his father's first 
cousin, Gov. Jonathan Trumbull [q.v.~\, and Sec- 
retary of State George Wyllys, induced him to 
undertake the writings of a history of Connecti- 
cut. He worked under great difficulties, his pas- 
toral activities often necessitating the suspension 
of his writing for months at a time. In 1797, 
more than twenty years after he had undertaken 
the task, he published the first volume — A Com- 
plete History of Connecticut, Civil and Ecclesi- 
astical from the Emigration of Its First Planters, 
from England, in MDCXXX, to MDCCXIII. 
This was followed by a two-volume edition in 
1818 — A Complete History of Connecticut . . . to 
the Year 1764. A reprint of the 1818 edition, 
limited to one thousand copies, was published in 
1898 by H. D. Utley of New London. From the 
date of its appearance until the present time, 
Trumbull's work has proved invaluable to the 
student of Connecticut history. Though more a 
chronicle than a history, it faithfully records the 
events which took place during the period cov- 
ered. In recent years, a certain amount of new 



7 



Trumbull 



Trumbull 



material has been discovered which makes neces- 
sary some corrections and modification in Trum- 
bull's statements ; but the book yet remains one 
of the most important single pieces of writing de- 
voted to the history of Connecticut. After its 
completion he set to work on his A General His- 
tory of the United States of America . . . 1492- 
1792. It was to have been a three-volume work, 
but he lived to complete only the first volume, 
covering the period to 1765, which appeared in 
18 10. Although Trumbull's lasting fame rests 
on his historical writing, he published sixteen 
other books and pamphlets, thirteen of which 
were either sermons or theological treatises, and 
the remaining three discussions of current politi- 
cal problems. Worthy of special mention perhaps 
are A Plea, in Vindication of the Connecticut 
Title to the Contested Lands, Lying West of New 
York (1774) and An Appeal to the Public . . . 
with Respect to the Unlawfulness of Divorces 
( 1788). From material he had collected was pub- 
lished in 1924 A Compendium of the Indian Wars 
in New England, edited by F. B. Hartranft. 

A portrait of Trumbull, painted Dy George 
Munger in 1818, was reproduced as the frontis- 
piece to the 1818 edition of the history of Con- 
necticut. From this portrait one gathers the im- 
pression that Trumbull was a man of great 
melancholy. The statement of his contemporaries 
is to the effect that such he was. So keenly did 
he feel the weight of the sins of the world upon 
his shoulders that the fact was manifest not only 
in his sermons but also in his general demeanor. 
Those who listened to his preaching felt that he 
was about to weep at any moment. This lugu- 
briousness was not conducive to inspiring ser- 
mons, and the large attendance at his church serv- 
ices was due rather to his reputation as a patriot 
and historian than to any personal magnetism. 

He was married on Dec. 4, 1760, to Martha, 
daughter of Ichabod and Martha Tillotson Phelps 
of Hebron, Conn., by whom he had seven chil- 
dren, two of whom were sons ; Lyman Trumbull 
[<?.?'.] was his grandson. 

[Introduction to Trumbull's Complete Hist, of Conn. 
(edition of 1898) ; F. B. Dexter, Biog. Sketches Grads. 
Yale Coll., vol. II (1896); Christian Spectator, Mar. 
1820 ; H. P. Johnston, Yale and Her Honor-Roll in the 
Am. Revolution (1888) ; Proc. Mass. Hist. Soc, vol. 
XVII (1880) ; W. B. Sprague, Annals of the Am. Pul- 
pit, vol. I (1857) ; S. B. Thorpe, North Haven Annals 
(1892) ; J. H. Lea, Contributions to a Trumbull Geneal. 
(1895) ; A Geneal. Chart of Some of the Descendants 
of John Trumbull (n.d.) ; Columbian Reg. (New Haven, 
Conn.), Feb. 12, 19, 1820.] R M H 

TRUMBULL, HENRY CLAY (June 8, 
1830-Dec. 8, 1903), Sunday-school missionary, 
editor, and author, was born in Stonington, 
Conn., the sixth child of Gurdon and Sarah Ann 



(Swan) Trumbull, and a younger brother of 
James Hammond Trumbull \_q.v.~\. He was of 
Puritan stock, a descendant of John Trumbull, 
mariner, who settled in Charlestown, Mass., 
about 1636, and of William Cheseborough and 
Walter Palmer, earliest settlers of Stonington. 
The boy's father was a man of varied business 
interests — whaling and sealing, the New York 
and Stonington Railroad, and the local banks — 
who served at different times as postmaster, rep- 
resentative and senator in the General Assembly 
of Connecticut, and commissioner of the state 
school fund. Henry attended Stonington Acad- 
emy and Williston Seminary, but because of ill 
health had little formal education after the age 
of fourteen, being employed in later youth as a 
clerk in the Stonington bank. Beset by lung 
trouble, he t;ave up thought of a college education 
and at tv/enty-one removed to Hartford, where 
he became a clerk in the offices of the Hartford, 
Providence & Fishkill Railroad. 

Under the influence of revival meetings con- 
ducted by Charles G. Finney [q.v.], he became 
superintendent of a mission Sunday-school in 
April 1852, and on June 1 united with the historic 
First (Center) Church in Hartford. Common 
interest in the revival and the Sunday-school 
brought him into intimacy with the family of Dr. 
Thomas Hopkins Gallaudet \_q.v.~\, whose daugh- 
ter Alice Cogswell he married on May 23, 1854. 
From 1856 to 1858 he was an apothecary, an ed- 
itor, and a cotton and wool broker successively ; 
he was also prominent in the state campaigns of 
the newly organized Republican party. As sec- 
retary of the first Connecticut Sunday-school 
Convention, 1857, he prepared so thorough and 
pointed a report that plans were made, with the 
cooperation of the American Sunday School 
Union, to employ a state Sunday-school mission- 
ary, and he was offered and accepted the post, 
giving full time to its duties after Sept. 1, 1858. 
On Sept. 10, 1862, he was ordained in order that 
he might qualify for the chaplaincy of the 10th 
Connecticut Regiment, then stationed at New 
Bern, N. C, where he joined it. He was cap- 
tured by Confederates while ministering to the 
wounded after the assault on Fort Wagner in 
July 1863, and was held prisoner, suspected as a 
spy, for four months. After exchange, he was in 
active service on the Virginia front until the end 
of the war, being mustered out with his regi- 
ment, Aug. 25, 1865. 

Refusing attractive offers in various editorial, 
educational, and business relationships, he re- 
sumed his work for the Sunday-schools, becom- 
ing secretary for New England of the American 
Sunday School Union. As chairman of the ex- 



8 



Trumbull 



Trumbull 



ecutive committee of the National Sunday School 
Convention, he issued the call for the meeting of 
1872 which initiated the International Uniform 
Sunday School Lessons. In 1875 he became ed- 
itor and part owner of the Sunday School Times, 
and removed with his family to Philadelphia, 
which was henceforth his home. Through this 
periodical, he contributed powerfully to the de- 
velopment of the Sunday-school movement in the 
United States and throughout the world, and 
gave stimulus and guidance to the spread of Bible 
study under the regimentation of the uniform 
lesson system. In 1888 he delivered the Lyman 
Beecher Lectures at Yale, which were published 
under the title The Sunday School, Its Origin, 
Mission, Methods and Auxiliaries (1888). Vis- 
iting Palestine in 1881, he succeeded in identify- 
ing the site of Kadesh-Barnea, and his book en- 
titled Kadesh-Barnea, published in 1884 after 
two years of further study and research, remains 
the most important work on this subject. From 
1886 to 1897, he served as chaplain-in-chief of 
the Loyal Legion. 

Trumbull was an effective speaker and a stimu- 
lating and resourceful writer. He was, in the 
best sense of the term, a nineteenth-century Puri- 
tan. He wrote thirty-three books, notable among 
which, besides the two already mentioned, are : 
Teaching and Teachers ( 1884) , The Blood Cove- 
nant (1885), Hints on Child-Training (1891), 
Friendship the Master-Passion (1892), A Lie 
Never Justifiable (1893), War Memories of an 
Army Chaplain (1898), Border Lines in the 
Field of Doubtful Practices (1899), Illustrative 
Answers to Prayer (1900), Individual Work for 
Individuals (1901), Hozv to Deal with Doubts 
and Doubters (1903). At his death he was sur- 
vived by six of his eight children. 

[J. H. Lea, Contributions to a Trumbull Gcneal. 
(1895) ; P E. Howard, The Life Story of Henry Clay 
Trumbull (1905) ; Congregationalist, Nov. 7, Dec. 19, 
1903; Sunday School Times, Dec. 12, 19, 1903; The 
Congregational Y car-Book, 1904 (1904) ; Pub. Ledger 
(Phila.) and Phila. Inquirer, Dec. 9, 190?.] 

L. A. W. 

TRUMBULL, JAMES HAMMOND (Dec. 
20, 1821-Aug. 5, 1897), historian, philologist, 
and bibliographer, was the son of Gurdon and 
Sarah Ann (Swan) Trumbull of Stonington, 
Conn., and a brother of Henry Clay Trumbull 
[q.v.]. Prepared at Tracy's Academy, Norwich, 
he entered Yale College in 1838 but withdrew 
two years later because of poor health. After 
assisting James Harvey Linsley in cataloging 
the mammalia, birds, reptiles, fish, and shells of 
Connecticut, he was appointed assistant secretary 
of state in Connecticut in 1847. He received the 
nomination of the Whig party for the office of 



secretary of state in 1852, but failed to win the 
election and declined similar nominations in 1853 
and 1854. Following service as state librarian 
and registrar, he was again appointed assistant 
secretary of state in 1858. Three years later he 
was elected secretary of state on the Republican 
ticket and held the office until 1866. Upon the 
establishment of the Watkinson Library of Refer- 
ence at Hartford, he was appointed trustee and 
librarian, and after 1866 devoted his full time to 
the duties of librarian. In 1890 he was appointed 
librarian emeritus. 

While serving as assistant secretary of state 
Trumbull transcribed, edited, and published The 
Public Records of the Colony of Connecticut, 
Prior to the Union with New Haven Colony, 
May, 1665 ( 1850). This was followed in 1852 by 
a second volume, covering the period from 1665 
to 1677 ! ar >d in 1859 by a third, covering the peri- 
od from 1678 to 1689. In the appendix of the 
third volume was printed "Extracts from the 
Records of the United Colonies of New England," 
comprising such portions of the records as were 
not published in the second volume ( 1794) of 
Ebenezer Hazard's Historical Collections; these 
"Extracts" appeared as a separate publication in 
1859. He contributed "A Sketch of the Life of 
Thomas Lechford" to Lechford's Plain Dealing 
(1867), and to the Note-Book Kept by Thomas 
Lechford (1885). The caustic criticism of Con- 
necticut by Samuel Andrew Peters [g.z^.] evoked 
from Trumbull's pen The True-Blue Laws of 
Connecticut and New Haven and the False-Blue 
Laws Invented by the Rev. Samuel Peters 
(1876), and The Rev. Samuel Peters, His De- 
fenders and Apologists (1877), reprinted from 
the Hartford Courant. He also edited The Me- 
morial, History of Hartford County, Connecticut, 
1633-1884 (2 vols., 1886). 

Trumbull made his most noteworthy contribu- 
tions as the historian and philologist of the In- 
dians. He published in 1865 a translation of 
John Eliot's Catechism for the Indians, and ed- 
ited Roger Williams' "A Key into the Language 
of America" (Publications of the Narragansett 
Club, vol. I, 1866). Between 1869 and 1876 he 
contributed seven papers on the language of the 
Indians to the Transactions of the American 
Philological Association. He prepared "The 
Composition of Indian Geographical Names, Il- 
lustrated from the Algonkin Languages," for the 
Collections of the Connecticut Historical So- 
ciety (vol. II, 1870) ; "On Some Alleged Speci- 
mens of Indian Onomatopoeia," for the Trans- 
actions of the Connecticut Academy of the Arts 
and Sciences (vol. II, 1871-73) ; and an intro- 
duction for Abraham Pierson, Some Helps for 



Trumbull 

the Indians, published at Hartford in 1873 and 
included in Collections of the Connecticut His- 
torical Society (vol. Ill, 1895). His "Origin and 
Early Progress of Indian Missions in New Eng- 
land, with a List of Books in the Indian Lan- 
guage" appears in the Proceedings of the Ameri- 
can Antiquarian Society (1874), and his Indian 
Names of Places, Etc., in and on the Borders of 
Connecticut: with Interpretations of Some of 
Them was published at Hartford in 1881. To 
The Memorial History of Hartford County he 
contributed "Indians of the Connecticut Valley." 
Upon Trumbull's death, a "Natick Dictionary" 
in manuscript was deposited in the library of the 
American Antiquarian Society; it was published 
by the Smithsonian Institution in 1903 (Bureau 
of American Ethnology, Bulletin 25, 1903). 
Trumbull was also a bibliographer of note. His 
Catalogue of the American Library of the Late 
Mr. George Brinley of Hartford, Conn. (5 vols., 
1878-97) still serves as a guide to Americana. 
At the time of his death a "List of Books Printed 
in Connecticut, 1709-1800," existed in manu- 
script and it was subsequently edited by his 
daughter and published in 1904 by the Acorn Club. 
Trumbull's work brought him several honorary 
degrees, the complimentary appointment as lec- 
turer on Indian languages at Yale, and member- 
ship in many historical, philological, and scien- 
tific societies. After a brief illness he died at 
Hartford. He was survived by his widow, Sarah 
A. (Robinson) Trumbull, whom he had married 
in 1855, and a daughter, Annie Eliot Trumbull. 

[A. W. Wright, "Biog. Memoir of James Hammond 
Trumbull, 1821-1897," Nat. Acad, of Sciences, Biog. 
Memoirs, vol. VII (1913), separately printed in 1911 ; 
Proc. Am. Antiquarian Soc, n.s., vol. XII (1899) ; Cat. 
of the Officers and Grads. of Yale Univ. in New Haven, 
Conn., 1 701-1924 (1924) ; Hartford Courant, Aug. 6, 
i897. 1 I.M.C. 

TRUMBULL, JOHN (Apr. 13, 1750 o.s.- 
May 11, 1831), poet and jurist, was a member of 
an illustrious Connecticut family whose first 
American representative, John Trumble, was in 
Roxbury, Mass., in 1639, and the following year 
was made a freeman of Rowley. John Trumbull 
the poet was born at Westbury (now a part of 
Watertown), Conn. His father, John, a Congre- 
gational minister and a fellow of Yale College, 
was known as a man of sound judgment in prac- 
tical affairs ; he was a first cousin of Jonathan 
Trumbull, 1710-1785 [q.v.], Revolutionary gov- 
ernor of Connecticut. The poet's mother, Sarah 
(Whitman), a grand-daughter of Solomon Stod- 
dard [q.v.~\, instructed and encouraged the boy 
while he made an almost incredible but well au- 
thenticated record of precocity, which culmi- 
nated in a successful examination for entrance 



Trumbull 

into Yale College at the age of seven. Being 
over-young for college life, Trumbull was honor- 
ably rusticated to Westbury until he was thir- 
teen. He matriculated at Yale in 1763. 

Although a faithful student, he disapproved of 
the Yale curriculum because of its concentration 
on "solid learning," i.e., theology, mathematics, 
and linguistics, to the neglect of English compo- 
sition and the interpretation of literature. Ac- 
cordingly, with the cooperation of friends, in- 
cluding Timothy Dwight and David Humphreys 
[qq.v.], he satirized the course of study and at- 
tempted by example to create among the students 
a love of belles-lettres. The poetry which he 
wrote as a student was chiefly of two kinds : 
"correct" but undistinguished elegies written un- 
der the aegis of the neo-classical school, and 
brilliant, if fragmentary, comic verses with an 
occasional admixture of mild bawdry. From the 
former type he hoped ultimately for fame; the 
latter, which exhibited his true talents, he circu- 
lated privately among friends. His burlesque 
"Epithalamium," written in 1769, artfully com- 
bined wit and scholarship. In prose he produced 
a series of polished Addisonian essays, which 
were published in The Boston Chronicle (Sept. 
4-7, 1769-Jan. 18-22, 1770). His valedictory 
oration, An Essay on the Uses and Advantages 
of the Fine Arts, which was promptly printed in 
1770, was distinguished by its early plea for the 
abandonment of neo-classical rules in poetry; 
but the verses which concluded the oration were 
an egregious example of the very practices its 
thesis had condemned. Graduated and awarded 
a Berkeley fellowship in 1767, he continued his 
studies at Yale for three years more. 

After receiving his master's degree in 1770, 
he spent a year in Wethersfield, Conn., studying 
law, writing verse, and (probably) teaching 
school. Upon returning to Yale in 1772 as a 
tutor, he soon commenced the composition of his 
comic satire on the abuses of collegiate instruc- 
tion, The Progress of Dulncss, a poem of seven- 
teen hundred lines in octosyllabic couplets. Pub- 
lished in three parts during 1772 and 1773, it 
provoked local storms of criticism ; but it pleased 
impartial judges and was reprinted in 1794, 1797, 
and 1 80 1. During the second year of his tutor- 
ship Trumbull al-so brought to completion a 
series of thirty-eight essays, begun in 1770 un- 
der the pen-name, "The Correspondent," which 
he published in The Connecticut Journal (Feb. 
23-July 6, 1770; Feb. 12-Sept. 3, 1773). 

Having passed his bar examination in 1773, 
Trumbull moved to Boston, there to continue his 
legal studies under John Adams, whose confi- 
dential friend he remained for many years. In 



10 



Trumbull 

Boston, Trumbull gained some of the political 
background for his comic epic, M'Fingal; but 
the poems that he wrote at the time showed him 
to be still dominated by the duller vices of the 
age of Pope. His first poem reflecting national 
affairs, An Elegy on the Times (i?74). a gut- 
tering, bombastic piece, bore a patriotic message 
that was vitiated by the poet's untimely note of 
caution against violence. When Adams left Bos- 
ton in August 1774, Trumbull retired to .the 
relative security of New Haven, where he com- 
menced the practice of law. He remained at 
New Haven until the menace of a British in- 
vasion in 1777 influenced him to withdraw to his 
native hamlet, Westbury. In 1781 he established 
himself at Hartford. 

In the fall of 1775, at the suggestion of "some 
leading members of the first Congress," Trum- 
bull wrote the initial canto of M'Fingal. This 
was published early in 1776 with a 1775 imprint. 
After the war, he divided this part into two 
cantos and wrote two additional ones. The whole 
work, containing approximately three thousand 
lines, was first published at Hartford in 1782. 
The framework of the poem is a loosely unified 
narrative of the misfortunes of the Tory squire, 
M'Fingal ; but the poem virtually constitutes a 
comprehensive review of the blunders and 
cowardice of the British leaders throughout the 
Revolution. Despite its pro- Whig bias, the effi- 
cacy of M'Fingal as an agent of anti-Tory propa- 
ganda has been exaggerated. It had but three 
editions during the war, whereas Paine's Com- 
mon Sense, published at the same time, had a 
sale of more than one hundred thousand copies 
within a few months. Though a patriot, Trum- 
bull was not a fiery revolutionist of the stripe of 
Paine or Freneau. His principal powers were 
intellectual and critical rather than emotional. 
Consequently he invested his poem with literary 
qualities which received their fullest recognition 
after the war, when, despite Puritan prejudice 
against satirical poetry, M'Fingal was accepted 
as an important contribution to belles-lettres. 
Its inexhaustible wit, its air of learning without 
pedantry, and its buoyant Hudibrastic couplets 
that fitted snugly in the memory made it a cher- 
ished possession of the American people in an 
era when good native poets were not plentiful. 
Reprinted more than thirty times between 1782 
and 1840, it was the most popular American 
poem of its length before Longfellow's Evange- 
line. 

The merits of M'Fingal gave Trumbull the po- 
sition of literary leader of the "Hartford Wits" 
during the eighties and nineties. Notwithstand- 
ing the grave competition of Dwight and Bar- 



Trumbull 

low, however, he did little to sustain his repu- 
tation. After 1782 he commenced no poetry of 
major importance; his small part in "The An- 
archiad," which appeared in The New Haven 
Gazette and the Connecticut Magazine (1786- 
87), and in The Echo (1807), first published in 
the American Mercury, his miscellaneous news- 
paper verses and critical essays, and his lexi- 
cographical assistance to Noah Webster merely 
called attention to his declining creative powers. 
His literary defection, however, was balanced 
by his increasing interest in law and politics. 
After the Revolution, like most of the "Hartford 
Wits," he became a strong Federalist. He first 
held office in 1789, when he became state's at- 
torney for the county of Hartford. In 1792 and 
1800 he was elected to the state legislature. He 
was appointed judge of the superior court of 
Connecticut in 1801 and judge of the supreme 
court of errors in 1808. Both of these positions 
he held until he was removed from office by poli- 
tics in 1819. Although the jurist thus survived 
the poet, the latter was not forgotten. In 1820 
The Poetical Works of John Trumbull was is- 
sued in two volumes. The last six years of his 
life Trumbull spent at Detroit, Mich., where he 
died at two in the morning on May 11, 1831. 
On Nov. 21, 1776, he married Sarah Hubbard, 
by whom he had two sons and two daughters. 

[The two principal collections of Trumbull MSS. are 
in the possession of Cornell Univ. Lib. and the Burton 
Hist. Coll. (Detroit). Yale Univ. possesses indispensa- 
ble biog. material ; the best collection of editions of 
M'Fingal is in the Watkinson Library (Hartford) ; the 
"Memoir of the Author" prefixed to Trumbull's Poeti- 
cal Works is autobiographical but not infallible as to 
fact ; the only full-length work on Trumbull is Alex- 
ander Cowie, John Trumbull : Connecticut Wit (1036) ; 
useful articles and books include Henry Bronson, The 
Hist, of Watcrbury, Conn. (1858) ; Alexander Cowie, 
"John Trumbull as Revolutionist," in Am. Lit., Nov. 
1 93 1 ; F. B. Dexter, Biog. Sketches of the Grads. of 
Yale Coll., vol. Ill (1903) ; S. G. Goodrich, Recollec- 
tions of a Lifetime (1857) ; Annie Marble, Heralds of 
Am. Literature (1907); V. L. Parrington, The Con- 
necticut Wits (1926), and The Colonial Mind (1927) ; 
A. P. Stokes, Memorials of Eminent Yale Men (1914) ; 
J. H. Trumbull, The Origin of M'Fingal (1868) ; M. 
C. Tyler, The Lit. Hist, of the Am. Revolution (1897) ; 
R. J. Purcell, Conn, in Transition (1918) ; A Gcncal. 
Chart of Some of the Descendants of John Trumbull 
(n.d.) ; J. H. Lea, Contributions to a Trumbull Gcncal. 
(1895); Detroit Courier, May 12, 1831; Proc. Am. 
Antiquarian Soc, Oct. 17, 1934.] A. C. 

TRUMBULL, JOHN (June 6, 1756-Nov. 10, 
1843), the painter of the Revolution, was born 
in Lebanon, New London County, Conn. The 
youngest of six children of Gov. Jonathan Trum- 
bull [q.v.~\ and Faith (Robinson) Trumbull, he 
was "emphatically well born." Soon after his 
birth he was subject to convulsions caused by the 
overlapping of the bones of the cranium, but the 
natural form of his head was restored at the age 
of three. A year or so later he severely injured 



I I 



Trumbull 



Trumbull 



his left eye. Gilbert Stuart, once puzzling over 
one of Trumbull's drawings, remarked, "This 
looks as if it was drawn by a man with but one 
eye" (Dunlap, post, I, 217). The sickly child 
attended the local school, learning to read Greek 
at the age of six, and was ready for college at 
twelve. His predilection for drawing began at 
an early age. He begged his father to allow him 
to study under John Singleton Copley [q.v.~\, 
but the governor packed him off to Harvard at 
the age of fifteen in the middle of his junior year. 
He graduated in 1773, the youngest boy in his 
class. On the side he learned French and copied 
engravings. Returning to Lebanon, he taught 
school temporarily, copied more engravings, and 
made his first essays at historical composition. 

Shortly after the outbreak of the Revolution 
the governor secured his son's appointment as 
adjutant, and a "sort of aid-du-camp" to Gen. 
Joseph Spencer of the 1st Connecticut Regiment. 
Brought to Washington's attention by the accu- 
rate drawings he had made of the British gun 
emplacements, Trumbull was appointed second 
aide-de-camp to the new commanding general 
(General Order, July 27, 1775, Proceedings of 
the Massachusetts Historical Society, vol. XV, 
1878, p. 132), but he felt himself unequal to the 
"elegant duties" of this post and was thankful 
when commissioned major of brigade (August 
1775). He participated in the action at Dorches- 
ter Heights the following March and witnessed 
the British evacuation of Boston, proceeding af- 
terwards to New York. On June 28, 1776, he 
became deputy adjutant-general with the rank of 
colonel under Gen. Horatio Gates, going with 
him to Crown Point and Ticonderoga, and later 
into Pennsylvania ; he afterwards accompanied 
Gen. Benedict Arnold to Rhode Island, winter- 
ing in Providence. When in February he finally 
received his signed commission from Congress, 
he returned it "within an hour" because it was 
dated three months late. 

His military career suddenly terminating, 
Trumbull, now twenty-one, went to Boston to 
take up art. For a time he rented the famous 
painting rooms occupied by John Smibert [<7.?\], 
but in the summer of 1778 he offered his services 
to Gen. John Sullivan as a volunteer aide-de- 
camp in the Rhode Island campaign, during 
which he conducted himself gallantly. The fol- 
lowing year Trumbull was in Boston once more, 
pursuing his study of painting. In the fall of 
1779, however, he undertook a speculation for the 
supply of military stores to the American army. 
Foreseeing the possible failure of the project, the 
rebel officer secured through his father's friend 
John Temple, afterwards British consul-general, 



permission to study painting in London and in 
May 1780 sailed for France. He obtained a let- 
ter to Benjamin West [q.v.~\ from Franklin in 
Paris, proceeded to London, and was received 
with the usual kindness by West, who accepted 
him as a pupil. The pleasant life of making twice- 
removed copies after the old masters at West's 
studio on Newman Street was rudely interrupted 
by Trumbull's arrest on Nov. 19, 1780, on "sus- 
picion of treason" under suspension of the habeas 
corpus act. His imprisonment in Tothill Fields 
Bridewell was said to have been a reprisal for 
the tragic hanging of Major Andre. Both Charles 
James Fox and Edmund Burke interested them- 
selves in the case and ultimately secured his re- 
lease (see Lewis Einstein, Divided Loyalties, 
1933, p. 374). Trumbull immediately crossed to 
the Continent, where he attempted to negotiate 
a loan for Connecticut through his father's Am- 
sterdam bankers, M. de Neufville & Son, for 
whom he painted a full-length portrait of Wash- 
ington (1780). This was engraved by Valentine 
Green and published the following year, the first 
authentic portrait of Washington issued in Eu- 
rope. After a vexatious delay in Spain he re- 
turned to Boston. During the winter of 1782 and 
the fall of 1783 he acted as confidential agent for 
his brother Joseph [</.£'.], then engaged in a con- 
tract for army supplies, at New Windsor, N. Y. 
At the end of the war he again considered enter- 
ing "regular commerce." His practical father 
urged law. When the painter "dwelt upon the 
honors paid to artists" in antiquity, his father 
rejoined in the oft-quoted phrase, "You appear 
to forget, sir, that Connecticut is not Athens" 
(Autobiography, p. 89). 

In December 1783 Trumbull embarked for 
London. When hoped-for commercial connec- 
tions did not develop he went to the benevolent 
Mr. West and was again accepted as a pupil, 
working in the studio by day and attending the 
Royal Academy school evenings. In 1785, after 
copying West's celebrated "Battle of La Hogue" 
for his master, and composing his "Priam and 
the Dead Body of Hector," he fortunately aban- 
doned the Greeks and the Romans for contempo- 
rary history. His first subjects, the "Battle of 
Bunker's Hill" and the "Death of General Mont- 
gomery in the Attack of Quebec," were painted 
in West's studio and under his direction, and 
were completed in the spring of 1786. Inspired 
by Boydell's publications and encouraged by his 
master, he embarked on a plan of publishing en- 
gravings after the paintings and associated him- 
self in this undertaking with Antonio C. de 
Poggi, an Italian artist and publisher of Bond 
Street, London, by whom six plates were issued. 



12 



Trumbull 

Armed with letters from John Adams, the min- 
ister to Great Britain, Trumbull proceeded to 
Paris in the summer of 1785 in search of suitable 
engravers, and there was encouraged by Thomas 
Jefferson to continue the scheme. After travel- 
ing in France and in Germany, where he left his 
paintings with his agent Poggi, he returned to 
London in November 1786. "Bunker's Hill" was 
ultimately engraved by John G. von M filler of 
Stuttgart, and "Quebec" by J. F. Clemens of 
Denmark, both dated 1798, twelve years after 
the completion of the paintings. 

The next three years in London, stimulated by 
travel, broadened by study, and encouraged by 
praise, were the most creative in the artist's life. 
The small painting of the "Declaration of In- 
dependence," which occupied eight years, was 
begun. This brilliant and dignified achievement 
remains the most important visual record of the 
heroic period of American history, although not 
historically accurate in every detail. Thirty-six 
of the forty-eight portraits were from life, the 
rest from portraits by others and from memory ; 
thirteen signers were not represented ; and four 
non-signers were included. The "Surrender of 
Lord Cornwallis at Yorktown," the "Death of 
General Mercer at the Battle of Princeton," and 
the "Capture of the Hessians at Trenton" fol- 
lowed, all painted in West's studio. Finding his 
American Revolutionary subjects none too popu- 
lar in England, Trumbull expediently undertook 
to celebrate a feat of British arms, selecting the 
"Sortie Made by the Garrison of Gibraltar" and 
producing a little masterpiece (Jean L. Brock- 
way, "Trumbull's Sortie," Art Bulletin, March 
1934, with checklist of replicas. In 1787 and 
again in 1789 Trumbull was in Paris, painting 
French and British officers, staying with Jeffer- 
son, who tentatively offered him a post of private 
secretary in the American legation in Paris at 
£300 a year (letter, May 21, 1789, Autobiog- 
raphy, p. 155). Trumbull declined this offer, 
however, and returned to America to further his 
"national work." 

Congress was then meeting in New York, 
whither Trumbull repaired in December 1789 to 
obtain portraits for the four historical compo- 
sitions already undertaken and to secure sub- 
scriptions for the engravings of the first two. 
Washington headed the list with four sets and, 
as his Diary records, obligingly sat a number of 
times for his former aide. Later in the same city 
Trumbull solicited commissions from the city 
council and painted twelve portraits in all. 
"Heads" and subscribers were collected in New 
England, Pennsylvania, Virginia, and South 
Carolina. Yorktown was visited and the terrain 



Trumbull 

for the "Surrender of Cornwallis" studied. In 
1792 Trumbull was again in Philadelphia, where 
he painted the large portrait of "Washington be- 
fore the Battle of Princeton" (engraved in stip- 
ple by Thomas Cheesman) for Charleston, S. C. 
The picture was rejected, and another had to be 
painted. Subscriptions languished, and Trum- 
bull, the best portrait-painter in America, Stuart 
excepted, again abandoned painting, never to re- 
sume it on the same plane or with so little com- 
petition. 

In 1793 at the particular request of John Jay, 
envoy extraordinary to Great Britain, Trumbull 
became his private secretary, prompted perhaps 
by the realization of an earlier ambition (he had 
solicited a foreign secretaryship from Congress 
after his resignation from the army) or by the 
opportunity to supervise the engraving of his 
paintings. The mission set out from New York 
in May 1794, and the complicated negotiations 
were concluded in November. After committing 
Jay's Treaty to memory, Trumbull proceeded to 
Paris to repeat it to Monroe, visited Stuttgart to 
ascertain what progress had been made with his 
"Bunker's Hill," and then returned to Paris, 
where he undertook a series of unsuccessful 
commercial ventures. Paintings from broken-up 
noble collections were purchased with funds sup- 
plied by West and auctioned at Christie's in Lon- 
don in 1797 (W. Buchanan, Memoirs of Paint- 
ing, 1824, I, 257). The second speculation, the 
purchase of brandy in France, a business involv- 
ing eight months' time, ended disastrously. In 
August 1796 Trumbull was appointed the fifth 
member of the commission to oversee the execu- 
tion of the seventh article of the Jay Treaty, a 
post which he accepted with some hesitancy, but 
in which he acquitted himself with distinction. 
In the summer of 1797 he revisited Stuttgart to 
get his picture and the engraved plate. Return- 
ing via Paris, he found himself listed among the 
suspect and was denied permission to proceed to 
Calais, but his friend, the painter David, got him 
out of his uncomfortable predicament (see C. L. 
Lokke, in Neiv England Quarterly, March 1934). 
In London once more (November 1797) the 
work of the commission was resumed, terminat- 
ing in May 1804. 

The years between 1799 and 1804 are passed 
over without comment in Trumbull's Autobi- 
ography. He resided in Bath in 1801 and 1802. 
He married, without consulting or advising his 
family, a pretty Englishwoman, Sarah (Hope) 
Harvey, Oct. 1, 1800, about whom there has 
been much mystery (see Diary of William Dun- 
lap, 1930, III, 738-39, 800-01, for gossip). Who- 
ever she was, her social position was inferior to 



Trumbull 



Trumbull 



that of her husband, who devoted only six lines 
to her in the Autobiography, on the occasion of 
her death in 1824. Two pleasing portraits exist 
of her at Yale, one by Samuel L. Waldo and the 
other by her husband (1800), who also painted 
her on her death bed. There were no children. 
As a young man in Connecticut, Trumbull, with 
a number of others, was involved with a country 
girl. A child was born, and Trumbull, the most 
affluent of the group, was claimed as father. He 
contributed towards the support of the child, 
John Trumbull Ray, as he was later named, ap- 
prenticing him to a gentleman farmer in Eng- 
land and finally purchasing him a lieutenant's 
commission in the British army. (A miniature 
portrait of Ray in a scarlet uniform is in the pos- 
session of Maria Trumbull Dana of New Haven.) 

Wearying of Europe, Trumbull decided to set- 
tle in Boston, sailing with his wife in April 1804, 
but he found Gilbert Stuart [q.v.~\ so well estab- 
lished there that he wisely decided to go to New 
York. Trumbull was a rapid painter, averaging 
five sittings to a head, for which he charged one 
hundred dollars, and correspondingly more for 
half and full lengths. The Timothy Dwight and 
the Stephen van Rensselaer at Yale are in the 
new and less fortunate style of the erstwhile dip- 
lomat and merchant, to whose art the constant 
interruptions in his work proved fatal. A large 
collection of pictures purchased in Paris was 
hung in the Park Theatre, the "first public ex- 
hibition of original pictures by the old masters 
of Europe ... in America" (Dunlap, post, II, 
49), did not pay the costs, and was returned to 
London. In December 1808, thoroughly soured 
by lack of patronage, Trumbull sailed for Lon- 
don for the fourth and last time, but neither por- 
trait painting, a projected panorama of Niagara 
Falls, nor his "large pictures" proved successful. 
Hope of a speedy return to America was de- 
stroyed by the declaration of war in 18 12. 

As soon as hostilities ceased, Trumbull em- 
barked for New York, arriving in September 
1815. There, because of his own waning talents 
and competition from such men as S. F. B. Morse, 
Thomas Sully, John Wesley Jarvis, John Van- 
derlyn [qq.v.], and others, he met with little 
success. In Washington, however, where Con- 
gress was in session, Timothy Pitkin championed 
the aging pamter's "long suspended" plan for the 
painting of his Revolutionary subjects in the 
Capitol. The subjects already executed (in mini- 
ature for the engraver) were exhibited in the 
House in 1816: and at length Trumbull was 
commissioned by Congress (Feb. 6, 1817) to 
paint four pictures in the Rotunda. A contract 
was eventually drawn up (March 1817) for the 



execution of the "Surrender of General Bur- 
goyne at Saratoga," the "Surrender of Lord 
Cornwallis at Yorktown," the "Declaration of 
Independence," and the "Resignation of Wash- 
ington," the price being settled at $8,000 each. 

President Madison unhappily insisted that the 
figures be "as large as life," which the monocu- 
lar Trumbull rarely painted well even in his best 
period. Other painters, especially Vanderlyn, 
resented the award to the combative and over- 
bearing ex-Revolutionary soldier. The last of 
the four twelve-by-eighteen-foot canvases — all 
painted in New York — , replicas of the minia- 
ture paintings now at Yale, was finished in April 
1824 after seven years of effort, twenty-five years 
or more after their conception. The heavy- 
handed, chalky-colored replicas (see Trumbull's 
Description of the Four Pictures . . . in the Ro- 
tunda of the Capitol, 1827) were not successful. 
John Quincy Adams records his disappointment 
in seeing the enlarged "Declaration" (Diary, 
Sept. 1, 1818), which Trumbull exhibited com- 
mercially before its installation, in New York, 
Philadelphia, and Baltimore. The other enlarge- 
ments were exhibited in like manner and with 
considerable profit. The pictures were installed 
under the supervision of the artist in 1824. Four 
years later it was found necessary to remove and 
repair them on account of dampness and wanton 
injury (Autobiography, p. 281). 

In the meantime other troubles beset the aging 
painter. His wife died in 1824, and the apart- 
ments at Park Place and Church Street were 
given up. Negotiations were undertaken for the 
engraving of the "Declaration," subscriptions 
for which were solicited in advance, the work 
finally being entrusted (contract December 1820) 
to the young Asher Brown Durand \_q.v."]. Al- 
though the print established the reputation of the 
engraver it was another financial disappoint- 
ment to Trumbull. In 1817 Trumbull had be- 
come president of the American Academy of Fine 
Arts; but lack of public' interest, the opposition 
of cliques, and finally the secession of most of the 
artists resulted in the founding of the National 
Academy of Design (1826) under the presidency 
of Morse, leaving the dictatorial and cantanker- 
ous Trumbull the captain of a sinking ship. For 
years he had been in debt to his bankers, and at 
length, pressed for settlement, he liquidated his 
New York State land holdings. In 1832 a mili- 
tary pension was secured. Replicas of earlier 
work and large religious paintings, "nearly all of 
which should have been destroyed" (Weir, post, 
p. 42), were unhappily completed by the artist. 

At this juncture Prof. Benjamin Silliman of 
Yale, Trumbull's nephew by marriage, suggested 



H 



Trumbull 



Trumbull 



the establishing of a gallery at New Haven to 
contain Trumbull's unsalable pictures. He in- 
duced friends to finance an annuity of one 
thousand dollars on condition that Trumbull's 
collection be turned over to Yale College, which 
agreed to erect a gallery after the artist's design 
for the reception of the pictures. The Trumbull 
Gallery, the earliest art museum connected with 
an educational institution in America, was 
opened to the public in October 1832. The artist 
wrote a carefully prepared catalogue (1832), 
and Silliman became curator. Silliman was also 
somewhat responsible for the publication of 
Trumbull's Autobiography. When William Dun- 
lap \_q.v.~\ wrote his history of American painting 
in 1834 he used the manuscript biography that 
Trumbull had dictated to James Herring \_q.v.~\, 
adding his own emotional observations and gos- 
sip. Trumbull justly attacked the Arts of Design 
(New York American, Dec. 13, 1834), Dunlap 
replying. Silliman urged the aged artist to elab- 
orate and publish his early notes, and in 1841 
the defensive Autobiography, Letters, and Remi- 
niscences of John Trumbull, from 1756 to 1841 
appeared. It has remained the chief source for 
all later writers. In 1841 the old man returned 
from New Haven to New York, where he died 
two years later at the age of eighty-seven. Ac- 
cording to his instructions he was buried beside 
his wife beneath the Trumbull Gallery. The 
bodies were removed, along with the pictures, 
in 1866 to a new and larger building, and again, 
April 1928, to the new Yale Gallery of Fine Arts. 

Trumbull was a handsome man, as can be seen 
from Stuart's early portrait, his two self-por- 
traits, the small full-length by George W. Twi- 
bill, and especially the Waldo and Jewett at Yale. 
Ball Hughes's marble bust of Trumbull is at Yale. 
In 1849 the American Art-Union issued a por- 
trait medal. Trumbull was dignified and courtly 
in bearing, punctilious, frank and abstemious, 
high-strung, excitable, impetuous, exceedingly 
sensitive and ready to take offense. As an old 
and disappointed man he was irritable, uncom- 
promising, and haughty. He was, however, a 
gentleman by birth, education, and instinct. 

Some notice should be paid to Trumbull, the 
amateur architect. He drew up plans for a series 
of dormitory buildings for Yale in 1792 and de- 
signed the Barclay Street quarters of the Amer- 
ican Academy (1831), the Trumbull Gallery, and 
the Congregational church in Lebanon (1804). 
He might have become a better architect than 
he was painter ; the opportunity, as Edmund 
Burke had once told him, was far greater. Yet 
it is impossible not to be grateful for Trumbull's 
determined devotion to historical painting. Far 



as he is from being America's greatest painter, 
he is nevertheless inextricably a part of Amer- 
ica's past ; no schoolboy but sees the Revolution 
through his eyes. His 250 to 300 faithful repre- 
sentations, drawn from life, of the principal 
actors and actions of the Revolution make him 
at once the chief, the most prolific, and the most 
competent visual recorder of that heroic period. 

[For biog. materials, in addition to the incomplete 
and stuffy Autobiog., Reminiscences, and Letters of 
John Trumbull (1841), and William Dunlap, The Hist, 
of the Rise and Progress of the Arts of Design in the 
U. S. (3 vols., 1918), ed. by F. W. Bayley and C. E. 
Goodspeed, see A Geneal. Chart of Some of the De- 
scendants of John Trumbull of Newcastle-on-Tyne 
(n.d.) ; J. H. Lea, A Geneal. of the Ancestors . . . of 
George Augustus and Louisa (Clap) Trumbull (1886) ; 
Trumbull's Letters Proposing a Plan for the Permanent 
Encouragement of the Fine Arts by the Nat. Govern- 
ment (1827), Address Read before the Am. Acad, of 
Fine Arts (1833), and a series of cats, and explanations 
of his pictures prepared by Trumbull ; Cat. of Paintings 
by Col. Trumbull . . . Am. Acad, of the Fine Arts 
(1831) ; S. F. B. Morse, Examination of Col. Trum- 
bull's Address (1833) '> Benjamin Silliman, in Am. Jour, 
of Science and Arts, vol. I, no. 2 (1819), vol. VIII, no. 
1 (1824), July-Sept. 1840, and Oct.-Dec. 1843; Am. 
Acad, of Fine Arts, Charter and By-Laws (1817) ; T. 
S. Cummings, Hist. Annals of the Nat. Acad, of Design 
(1865) ; and obituaries in N. Y. American, Nov. 10, N. 
Y. Spectator, Columbian Reg. (New Haven), Nov. 11, 
and Daily Morning Courier (New Haven), Nov. 1 1, 13, 
1843. See also John Durand, John Trumbull (1881) ; 
J. F. Weir, John Trumbull (1901), with an excellent 
appraisal of the paintings ; Theodore Bolton, Early Am. 
Portrait Painters in Miniature ( 1921), with a checklist ; 
J. H. Morgan, Paintings by John Trumbull at Yale 
Univ. (1926) ; with good illustrations and keys to the 
eight hist, pictures ; S. L. Belden, Indian Peace Medals 
Issued in the U. S. (1927), pp. 23-24; Theodore Sizer, 
"The Trumbull Gallery, 1 832-1 932," Yale Alumni 
Weekly, Oct. 28, Nov. 4, 1932 ; Conn. Tercentenary . . . 
John Trumbull and Trumbull Memorabilia . . . Yale 
Univ. (1935), a convenient checklist ; Theodore Bolton 
and H. L. Binsse, in Antiquarian, July 1931. The Trum- 
bull and Silliman papers at Yale, which include Trum- 
bull's marriage certificate, are the largest manuscript 
source. Important material is in the possession of the 
Robert Fridenberg Gallery, New York ; the N. Y. Pub. 
Lib. ; the N. Y. Hist. Soc. ; the Conn. Hist. Soc. ; the 
Mass. Hist. Soc; the Boston Athenaeum; M. B. 
Brainard of Hartford, Conn. ; and in the records of the 
First Ecclesiastical Soc, Lebanon, Aug. 13, 1804. 
Many references to Trumbull occur in the writings of 
Jefferson, Rufus King, J. Q. Adams, and others. Trum- 
bull's paintings and drawings, and engravings after his 
designs are scattered in pub. and private colls., among 
them those at Yale ; the Wadsworth Athenaeum, Hart- 
ford ; the City Hall and Chamber of Commerce, New 
York, and the coll. of Mrs. I. Sheldon Tilney, N. Y. 
City. His painting cabinet, etc., is at Yale. Forgeries 
abound, particularly of his pencil and sepia portrait 
studies ; the largest group appears in the Ed. Frossard 
sale of 1894. The most important of many auction sales 
were those of Dec 1896 and Feb. 1897 (the "Silliman 
Sale"), Jan. 1926, and Mar. 193 1 (Trumbull-Silliman 
correspondence), Am. Art Asso., N. Y.] f. g — n 

TRUMBULL, JONATHAN (Oct. T2, 1710- 
Aug. 17, 1785), governor of Connecticut, was 
born at Lebanon, Conn., the second son of Joseph 
and Hannah (Higley) Trumble. He did not 
adopt the present spelling of the name until 1766. 
His great-grandfather, John Trumble, had emi- 



15 



Trumbull 



Trumbull 



grated from England to Roxbury, Mass., in 1639 
and the following year was made a freeman of 
Rowley ; his father was an early settler in Leb- 
anon, where he developed a considerable mer- 
cantile business. In 1727 Jonathan graduated 
from Harvard and returned to Lebanon to pre- 
pare for the ministry. He was licensed to preach 
by the Windham Association and in 1731 was 
considering a call to the church of nearby Col- 
chester when his elder brother Joseph, their fa- 
ther's business associate, died. Recognizing a 
call to duty, Jonathan abandoned his own plans 
and took his brother's place. On Dec. 9, 1735, 
he married Faith Robinson, daughter of Rev. 
John Robinson of Duxbury, Mass., a union which 
raised his social standing considerably. To them 
were born four sons and two daughters. Joseph 
[q.v.~\, the eldest son, was the first commissary- 
general of the Continental Army; Jonathan 
[g.7'.], after a military and political career, also 
became governor of Connecticut ; and John, 
1756-1843 [q.z'.~\, acquired fame as a painter. 
John Trumbull, 1750-1831 [q.v.~], the poet and 
wit, was a second cousin of these three. 

Trumbull soon disclosed an exceptional apti- 
tude for commerce. With various partners he 
developed an extensive trade, establishing direct 
commercial connections with Great Britain in- 
stead of dealing only indirectly through Boston 
and New York as did most Connecticut mer- 
chants. By the 1760's Trumbull was one of the 
outstanding figures of Connecticut commerce; 
but in 1766 came a change. For reasons not en- 
tirely clear, his business suffered a reversal from 
which it never recovered. He was forced into 
virtual — though not legal — bankruptcy, and at 
the outbreak of the Revolution Gtill owed large 
sums to his British creditors. 

While Trumbull was still in his early twen- 
ties he entered politics. First sent to the General 
Assembly in 1733, he was returned frequently 
and in 1739 served as speaker. His abilities soon 
attracted attention and he was chosen assistant 
in 1740, the first time his name appeared in 
nomination — an unusual achievement for a man 
of thirty. For the next ten years he was regu- 
larly reelected until a political reversal in 1750- 
51 led to his loss of the assistantship. Elected 
again to the Assembly, he served twice more as 
speaker. He was restored to the Council in 1754 
in his previous order of seniority. In 1766 Gov. 
Thomas Fitch \_q.v.~\, who had taken the oath 
required of all governors by the Stamp Act, was 
defeated for reelection. Trumbull, now second 
councilor, had sided with the majority in this 
dispute and was in consequence advanced to the 
deputy governorship. In this capacity he served 



for three and a half years. As deputy governor 
he was also regularly named chief justice of the 
superior court. Though not trained in the law, 
he had judicial experience. In 1744 he had be- 
come a justice of the quorum and two years later 
was named judge of the Windham county court, 
a position which he had held, with one three-year 
interruption, ever since. He had also served con- 
tinuously as judge of the Windham probate 
court since 1747. His most conspicuous action 
as chief justice was in successfully turning aside 
the application of the royal customs officers for 
writs of assistance (1768-69). 

Upon the death of Gov. William Pitkin, 1694- 
T /69 [<7-7'.] in October 1769, the Assembly named 
Trumbull to the governorship, a position which 
he continued to fill until his voluntary retirement 
in 1784. In the period of increasing tension be- 
tween the colonies and the mother country Trum- 
bull stood as a stanch supporter of colonial 
rights. As early as 1770 he foresaw the possi- 
bility of independence, distressing as the thought 
still seemed to him ("The Trumbull Papers," 
post, I, 403). When hostilities actually began 
he was the only colonial governor to take the 
radical side. He threw himself at once into ac- 
tive support of the Continental Army, and when 
independence was proclaimed, welcomed its dec- 
laration. The scene of little actual fighting, but 
close to several major fields of operation, Con- 
necticut became a principal source of supply for 
the American troops. In supervising this work, 
for which his previous business experience well 
fitted him, Trumbull made his chief contribution 
to the cause. His relations with Washington be- 
came close, the commander writing him on an 
average of every ten days until 1778, letters ap- 
pearing less frequently thereafter except in times 
of emergency. The General counted heavily 
upon the Governor's supplying him with food, 
clothing, and munitions. To a large extent Trum- 
bull was able to meet Washington's expectations 
— if not his hopes — but at times the General ex- 
pressed bitter disappointment at what seemed 
indifference to his most pressing needs. Neither 
man could always comprehend the other's situ- 
ation. Trumbull sometimes failed to appreciate 
the inevitable waste of materiel incident to mili- 
tary operations and felt that Washington's 
demands exceeded what Connecticut could reason- 
ably be expected to provide. The General simi- 
larly failed to understand the difficulty of Trum- 
bull's position as head of a community that had 
always been freer from outside control than any 
other colony and was now living in terror of oc- 
casional British raids. At one time Trumbull 
seemed to show a greater admiration for Gates 



Trumbull 



Trumbull 



than for Washington, but there is at present no 
available evidence that he was involved in the 
"Conway cabal." In spite of difficulties, Trum- 
bull and Washington cooperated loyally. With- 
out the former's help as a civilian leader the 
army's sufferings would have been immeasurably 
increased, and on his death Washington acknowl- 
edged that his services "justly entitled him to 
the first place among patriots" (Colonial So- 
ciety of Massachusetts Publications, vol. VII, 
1905, p. 183). In 1846 a newspaper story ap- 
peared telling how Washington's reliance upon 
Trumbull's advice and help had led the General 
to remark at a moment of perplexity, "We must 
consult Brother Jonathan." The expression was 
said to have spread throughout the army and 
the people until "Brother Jonathan" became a 
generic term to describe America and Ameri- 
cans. The historical accuracy of the legend must 
be doubted, however. The British, indeed, used 
the term "Brother Jonathan" to designate the 
Americans as early as March 1776, but there is 
no contemporary evidence to connect Jonathan 
Trumbull with the origin of the phrase (Albert 
Matthews, "Brother Jonathan, "Ibid., pp. 95-125). 
While Trumbull was devoting his energies to 
the prosecution of the war, he was also facing 
political difficulties at home. He became the vic- 
tim of a whispering campaign to the effect that 
he was secretly trading with the enemy. The 
rumor helped reduce his popular majority to a 
mere plurality in the elections of 1780 and 1781, 
although in both years the Assembly returned 
him to office over his rivals. In January 1782 he 
demanded a legislative investigation, which led 
to his complete vindication, the committee ex- 
pressing the belief that the rumors were circu- 
lated by the British in an effort to discredit a 
leading patriot. The committee's report quieted 
the opposition but a year later political storms 
broke once more. Trumbull's firm belief in the 
necessity of a stronger central government and 
his support of the unpopular plan for half pay 
for disbanded officers brought renewed oppo- 
sition in May 1783. Again he was chosen only 
by the Assembly. Wearied by his years of stren- 
uous service and disliking the prospect of further 
opposition, the old man, just passing his seven- 
ty-third birthday, informed the October Assem- 
bly that he would not again be a candidate. His 
Address . . . Declining Any Further Election to 
Public Office (1783), which pled for a federal 
union stronger politically and financially than 
the existing government, marks him as a John 
the Baptist of Federalism. In May 1784 he re- 
tired from office and devoted the remaining fif- 
teen months of his life to his long-neglected 



personal affairs and to the subject of his youth- 
ful interest, the study of theology. 

Trumbull, as described by a contemporary, 
was "about five feet, seven inches high, has dark 
eyes, a Roman nose, sallow countenance, long 
chin, prominent forehead, high and broad cheek 
bones, hollow cheeks and short neck. In person 
of a handsome figure and very active" (Peters, 
post, p. 10). He had little interest in what 
seemed the lighter things of life. His son John's 
artistic ambitions gained no sympathy from him 
and his own election to the American Academy 
of Arts and Sciences in 1782 would have re- 
mained unacknowledged but for the prompting 
of Ezra Stiles ("Trumbull Papers," IV, 404, 
412). For Hebrew, Greek, and Latin, however, 
he retained a lasting affection. Yale and the 
University of Edinburgh conferred the degree 
of LL.D. upon him. A strong sense of duty and 
of divine leadership was part of his Puritan 
heritage. Throughout the war, in times of deep- 
est gloom as well as in the hour of final triumph, 
his letters repeat the thought "the Lord reigneth," 
which conviction was the unshakable foundation 
of his faith. 

[Sources include Trumbull MSS., Conn. State Lib. 
and Conn. Hist. Soc, Hartford ; "The Trumbull Pa- 
pers," 4 vols., in Colls. Mass. Hist. Soc, 5 ser. IX and 
X (1885), 7 ser. II and III (1902) ; Peter Force, Am. 
Archives (9 vols., 1837-53) ; Jared Sparks, The Writ- 
ings of George Washington (12 vols., 1834-37) I W. C. 
Ford, The Writings of George Washington (14 vols., 
1889-93), J- C. Fitzpatrick, The Writings of George 
Washington, vols. I-XI (1931-34) ; C. J. Hoadly, The 
Public Records of the Colony of Conn., vols. VII-XV 
(1873-90), and The Public Records of the State of 
Conn., 1776-81 (3 vols., 1894-1922) ; Zebulon Ely, The 
Death of Moses the Servant of the Lord ; a Sermon 
Preached at the Funeral Solemnity of His Excellency 
Jonathan Trumbull (1786). I. W. Stuart, Life of Jona- 
than Trumbull, Sen., Gov. of Conn. (1849) ; Jonathan 
Trumbull, Jonathan Trumbull Gov. of Conn., 1760-1784 
(1919) ; Samuel Peters, "Hist, of Jonathan Trumbull, 
the Present Rebel Governor of Conn.," Political Mag., 
Jan. 1 78 1. For family connections see J. H. Lea, Contri- 
butions to a Trumbull Gencal. (1895) ; A Geneal. Chart 
of Some of the Descendants of John Trumbull (n.d.). 
Portraits of Trumbull by his son John are in the Gal- 
lery of Fine Arts and Trumbull College, Yale Univer- 
sity, and in the Wadsworth Athenaeum, Hartford, 
Conn.] l_ w. L. 

TRUMBULL, JONATHAN (Mar. 26, 1740- 
Aug. 7, 1809), Revolutionary soldier, governor 
of Connecticut, congressman, and senator, was 
born in Lebanon, Conn., the son of Jonathan 
Trumbull \_q.v^] and his wife Faith (Robinson) 
Trumbull. At the age of fifteen he entered Har- 
vard College and was graduated in 1759 as saluta- 
torian of his class. Three years later he was 
awarded the degree of M.A. and delivered the 
valedictory oration at the commencement exer- 
cises. In March 1767 he married Eunice Backus 
of Norwich, Conn., by whom he had a son and 
four daughters. 



17 



Trumbull 

His political career began with his election in 
1770 as selectman of Lebanon, an office which 
he held during the succeeding five years. He 
also represented Lebanon in the state legislature 
at various times — in 1774, 1775, 1779, 1780, 1788. 
In May of the last-mentioned year he was elect- 
ed speaker of the House. On July 28, 1775, the 
Continental Congress unanimously chose him 
"Pay master of the forces for the New York de- 
partment," an office which he occupied, in the 
face of grave difficulties arising from an im- 
poverished treasury, until July 29, 1778, when 
he retired in order to undertake the task of set- 
tling the accounts of his brother Joseph [q.z'.], 
commissary-general of the army, who had re- 
cently died. He was the first person to serve as 
comptroller of the treasury, a position to which 
he was unanimously elected by Congress on Nov. 
3, 1778. He resigned in April 1779, and on Nov. 
9 was chosen commissioner of the board of treas- 
ury but declined the office. On June 8, 1781, he 
was appointed secretary to Washington and re- 
mained a member of the latter's military family 
until the close of the war, when he retired for a 
period from public life in order to look after his 
private affairs. 

Upon the erection of the new government un- 
der the Constitution, he was elected to the First, 
Second, and Third congresses. The esteem in 
which he was held by his fellow legislators is 
attested by the fact that in October 1791 he was 
chosen speaker of the House. In October 1794 
he was elected to succeed Stephen Mix Mitchell 
[q.i'.~] in the Senate of the United States. After 
serving from Mar. 4, 1795, to June 10, 1796, he 
resigned in order to become deputy governor of 
Connecticut. Upon the death of Oliver Wolcott 
[q.v.~\ in December 1797, he succeeded to the 
governorship, an office which he held by annual 
election during the remainder of his life. Ever 
a stanch Federalist, he viewed the policies of 
Jefferson and his followers with repugnance. 
When Henry Dearborn [q.v.~\, the secretary of 
war, requested the use of the militia in conform- 
ity with the act passed by Congress on Jan. 9, 
1809, for the enforcement of the Embargo, Trum- 
bull refused on the ground that the measure in 
question was an unconstitutional invasion of the 
rights of the states. On Feb. 23, in an address 
(published in the Connecticut Conrant, Mar. 1, 
1809) to the legislature which had been called 
into special session to consider the situation, he 
justified the opposition of Connecticut to the Em- 
bargo by ironically employing the language of 
the Virginia Resolves of 1798, of which James 
Madison, president-elect and heir to Jefferson's 

I 



Trumbull 

policies, was the author (Henry Adams, History 
of the United States, vol. IV, 1890). 

Trumbull died of dropsy of the heart and was 
buried at Lebanon. While his successes in pub- 
lic life may be ascribed in part to family influ- 
ence, they were mainly due to his natural ca- 
pacity for the management of large affairs. In 
the transaction of business he was orderly and 
unhurried. A man of cheerful spirit and affable 
manners, he possessed the gift of easy inter- 
course with all ranks of society. 

[Manuscript correspondence of Trumbull in the Conn. 
Hist. Soc. ; Zebulon Ely, The Peaceful End of the Per- 
fect Man . . . (1809) ; Timothy Dwight, A Discourse 
Occasioned by the Death of His Excellency Jonathan 
Trumbull (1809) ; O. D. Hine, Early Lebanon (1880) ; 
W. C. Ford, The Writings of George Washington (14 
vols., 1889-93) ; J- C. Fitzpatrick, The Writings of 
George Washington, vols. I-XI (1931-34) ; "The Trum- 
bull Papers," Mass. Hist. Soc. Colls., 7 ser. II, III 
(1902) ; W. C. Ford and J. C. Fitzpatrick, Jours, of the 
Continental Congress, vols. I-XXXI (1904—34) ; Jona- 
than Trumbull, Jonathan Trumbull, Gov. of Conn., 
1764-1784 (1919) ; E. C. Burnett, Tetters of Members 
of the Continental Congress, vols. I-VI (1921-33) ; R. 
J. Purcell, Conn, in Transition (1918) ; Conn. Conrant 
(Hartford), Aug. 16, 1809.] E. E. C. 

TRUMBULL, JOSEPH (Mar. 11, 1737-July 
2 3» I 7/8), commissary-general of the Continen- 
tal Army, was born at Lebanon, Conn., the eldest 
son of Jonathan Trumbull [5.7'.] and his wife, 
Faith Robinson ; the younger Jonathan and the 
painter John Trumbull \qq.v.~\ were his broth- 
ers. After graduating from Harvard in 1756, he 
was engaged for eleven years in his father's firm, 
making two trips to England in behalf of its in- 
terests. In 1767 he was elected to the General As- 
sembly of Connecticut and served therein almost 
continuously for six years. In May 1773 he was 
chosen a member of the state committee of cor- 
respondence, and in August 1774 was selected 
to represent Connecticut in the Continental Con- 
gress as alternate to Roger Sherman [g.T.J. He 
had in the meantime joined to his knowledge of 
business affairs some acquaintance with military 
matters by serving as captain of a trainband. 
Hence in April 1775 he was appointed by the 
Assembly commissary-general of the Connecti- 
cut troops, concentrated near Boston. His effi- 
ciency in provisioning them so favorably im- 
pressed Washington that on July 10, 1775, he 
urged Congress to entrust Trumbull with the task 
of victualing all tlie patriot forces, and on July 19 
Congress appointed him commissary-general of 
the army with the rank and pay of colonel. 

His problem was to produce order out of the 
chaos which characterized the business of Seed- 
ing the army. It was a task fraught with numer- 
ous difficulties. Transportation was slow and 
laborious. Purchasing was hampered by cur- 
• rency depreciation, lack of funds, and state em- 

8 



Trumbull 



Trumbull 



bargoes. Both Congress and the states appoint- 
ed numerous commissaries who disputed his 
authority. Such disputes were often intensified 
by personal and sectional animosities. A court 
of inquiry appointed by Washington in Decem- 
ber 1775 to examine complaints against him 
found fault with the prices fixed by him for pro- 
visions but acquitted him of any fraudulent in- 
tent. In 1776 he was drawn into controversy 
with General Schuyler regarding the right of the 
commissary-general to exercise plenary control 
over the provisioning of the northern army. 
While Trumbull's conduct in the matter was not 
without blemish, his claim of authority was sus- 
tained by both Washington and Congress (J. C. 
Fitzpatrick, The Writings of George Washing- 
ton, vol. V, 1932, pp. 257, 357-58). 

In the spring of 1777 Congress voted to reor- 
ganize the commissary department by creating 
two commissary-generals, one of purchases and 
the other of issues. Trumbull was offered the for- 
mer post, but declined it on the. ground that the 
new scheme was unworkable since the deputy 
commissaries were to be appointed by and made 
responsible to Congress. Subsequent events 
seemed to justify his contention, for in the fol- 
lowing year Congress reestablished the previous 
system. In the meantime Trumbull had been 
elected to membership on the board of war, but 
after brief service (November 1777-April 1778) 
was compelled to resign by reason of poor health. 
Retiring to Lebanon, he succumbed to illness in- 
duced by his exhausting labors as commissary- 
general. While his services to the Continental 
Army were undramatic, they were indispensable. 
"Few armies, if any," wrote Washington, "have 
been better and more plentifully supplied than 
the troops under Mr. Trumbull's care" (Ibid., 
V, 192). In March 1777 Trumbull was married 
to Amelia Dyer. 

[Papers of Joseph Trumbull in possession of the 
Conn. Hist. Soc. ; Jonathan Trumbull, "Joseph Trum- 
bull," in Records and Papers of the New London Coun- 
ty Hist. Soc., Pt. Ill, vol. II (1897); C. J. Hoadly, 
The Pub. Records of the Colony of Conn., vols. XII- 
XIV (1881-87), and The Pub. Records of the State of 
Conn. (3 vols., 1894-1922) ; "The Trumbull Papers," 
in Mass. Hist. Soc. Colls., 7 ser. II (1902) ; Jonathan 
Trumbull, Life of Jonathan Trumbull , Gov. of Conn. 
(1919) ; E. C. Burnett, Letters of Members of the Con- 
tinental Cong., vols. I-IV (1921-28), and "The Con- 
tinental Cong, and Agric. Supplies," in Agric. Hist., 
July 1928.] E.E. C. 

TRUMBULL, LYMAN (Oct. 12, 1813-June 
25, 1896), jurist, United States senator, was 
born in Colchester, Conn., the son of Benjamin 
and Elizabeth (Mather) Trumbull, and a grand- 
son of Benjamin Trumbull [q.v.^. He attended 
Bacon Academy in his native town, and when 
twenty years old went to Greenville, Ga., where 



he taught school for three years. In the meantime 
he read law and in 1836 was admitted to the bar. 
The following year he began practice in Belle- 
ville, 111., and soon entered politics. He was 
elected to the state legislature as a Democrat in 
1840, but resigned in 1841 to accept appointment 
as secretary of state, in which capacity he served 
until removed by the governor in 1843. He then 
practised law and was a candidate for various 
offices until 1848, when he was elected justice of 
the state supreme court; in 1852 he was reelect- 
ed for a term of nine years. 

He had served but two years of this term, 
however, when he was elected to the United 
States House of Representatives as an anti- 
Nebraska Democrat, but before taking his seat 
a three-cornered legislative contest, in which 
Lincoln, in order to elect a free-soiler, threw his 
Whig support to Trumbull, resulted in his being 
sent to the Senate. The three terms that he 
served (1855-73) were marked by the bitter 
struggle over slavery and reconstruction, during 
which he was first a Democrat, next a leading 
Republican, and ultimately a supporter of the 
ill-starred Liberal Republican movement. The 
failure of this movement left him no haven but 
the long-deserted Democratic fold. This pil- 
grimage appears opportunistic, but it was funda- 
mentally dictated by convictions determined by 
considerations of law as well as of politics. 

In the Kansas controversy Trumbull and his 
colleague, Stephen A. Douglas \_q.v.~\, were dia- 
metrically opposed in matters of principle. 
Countering Douglas' proposal to admit Kansas 
(1856), Trumbull presented a bill uniting Kan- 
sas and Nebraska (Congressional Globe, 34 
Cong., 1 Sess., p. 1369). Both senators opposed 
the Lecompton constitution, but on differing 
grounds. Douglas would have the people settle 
the question of slavery by vote ; Trumbull, now 
a full-fledged Republican, asserted plenary con- 
gressional jurisdiction. When secession became 
an issue, he opposed the Crittenden compromise 
and supported a resolution declaring that the 
Constitution was ample in its scope and needed 
to be obeyed rather than amended — an earnest 
of his later war-time defense of that much trans- 
gressed document. 

During the war he was at once Lincoln's able 
helper and stanch opponent, his attitude being 
determined by that of the executive toward the 
Constitution. An authoritative spokesman of the 
administration, he often tried to school his mas- 
ter in matters of executive propriety. He op- 
posed legalizing Lincoln's extraordinary acts per- 
formed while Congress was in recess, saying: "I 
am disposed to give the necessary power to the 



!9 



Trumbull 



Truteau 



Administration to suppress this rebellion ; but 
I am not disposed to say that the Administration 
has unlimited power and can do what it pleases, 
after Congress meets" (Congressional Globe, 2,1 
Cong., i Sess., p. 392). In introducing his radi- 
cal confiscation bill (December 1861) he de- 
clared that he wanted "no other authority for 
putting down even this gigantic rebellion than 
such as may be derived from the Constitution 
properly interpreted." He would suppress the 
"monstrous rebellion according to law, and in 
no other way" (Ibid., 2 Sess., p. 18). He cen- 
sured the method, but not the motive, of Lin- 
coln's arbitrary arrests and led the movement 
which, while indemnifying the President for 
previous suspensions of the writ of habeas corpus, 
regulated further suspensions. In 1864, as chair- 
man of the judiciary committee, he introduced 
the resolution which became the basis of the 
thirteenth amendment to the Constitution. When 
the first state sought admission under Lincolnian 
reconstruction he was the President's agent, but 
was foiled by Sumner and the Democrats. 

Trumbull's powerful personal and committee 
influence aided the Radicals in the early stages 
of the fight with Johnson. His bill to enlarge 
the powers of the Freedmen's Bureau failed to 
pass over the veto. The veto of his civil rights 
bill, designed to give effect to the thirteenth 
amendment, alienated him from the Administra- 
tion after a period of patient tolerance and dig- 
nified expostulation. He urged its repassage to 
offset the actions of the executive, and spoke of 
"the spirit of this message, of the dangerous doc- 
trines it promulgates, of the inconsistencies and 
contradictions of its author, of his encroach- 
ments upon the constitutional rights of Congress, 
of his assumption of unwarranted powers, which, 
if persevered in and not checked by the people, 
must eventually lead to a subversion of the Gov- 
ernment and the destruction of liberty" (Ibid., 
39 Cong., 1 Sess., p. 1760). These episodes mark 
an opposition which lasted until the impeach- 
ment furor. They also presage his departure 
from the leadership of radicalism. His decreas- 
ing activity in the Stevens-Sumner program was 
followed, as this group insisted on more and 
more humble submission of the rebel states, by 
participation with the moderates who attempted 
rather ineffectually to check the Radicals. Again, 
his was a legal criterion; he was one who was 
"willing to be radical lawfully" rather than one 
"who would rather be radical than right" (Chi- 
cago Tribune, May 26, 1870). This viewpoint 
drove him to oppose the impeachment proceed- 
ings and he was one of the famous seven who 
saved Johnson from conviction. This heresy, 



together with his reconstruction attitude, lost 
him Republican leadership. The excesses of the 
Grant administration drove him into the Liberal 
Republican movement. He was among those 
suggested for the presidential nomination, but 
loyally stumped several states for Greeley. After 
the movement collapsed he finished his sena- 
torial term and then retired to Chicago, where 
he practised law. 

His appearance as counsel for the Tilden side 
in the disputed election of 1876 marked his re- 
turn to the Democratic fold and he was that 
party's unsuccessful candidate for the gover- 
norship of Illinois in 1880. His last political 
excursion found him skirting the edges of Popu- 
lism ; in 1894 he drafted a platform which Chi- 
cago Populists took to a national conference in 
St. Louis. His death removed one of the ablest 
statesmen of his generation, an unpretentious, 
scholarly constitutionalist, who failed to scale 
political heights because of a conscience and a 
lack of popular appeal. The conscience drove 
him from party to party seeking a place where 
he could abide, and his colorless public person- 
ality denied him the kind of support on which 
spectacular careers are built. He was twice mar- 
ried : first, June 21, 1843, to Julia Maria Jayne, 
who died in August 1868; and second, Nov. 3, 
1877, to Mary Ingraham ; three sons by his first 
wife survived him. 

rTrumbuIl Papers, Lib. of Cong. ; Horace White, The 
Life of Lyman Trumbull (1913); A. H. Robertson, 
"The Political Career of Lyman Trumbull" (1910), M. 
A. thesis, Univ. of Chicago ; L. E. Ellis, "A Hist, of 
the Chicago Delegation in Cong., 1843-1925," Trans. 
III. State Hist. Soc, 1930 ; E. D. Ross, The Liberal Re- 
publican Movement (1919) ; Chicago Tribune, June 26, 
1896.] L.E.E. 

TRUTEAU, JEAN BAPTISTE (Dec. 11, 
1748-Jan. 30?, 1827), Indian trader, explorer, 
school-master, was born in Montreal, Canada, 
the son of Joseph and Catherine ( Menard) Tru- 
teau. He always spelled the name Truteau but 
was generally referred to as Trudeau. His own 
children adopted this corrupt spelling. He estab- 
lished himself as school-master of the village of 
St. Louis in 1774 and continued to teach for 
more than forty years. In June 1794 he was en- 
gaged by the Missouri Trading Company for a 
term of three years to take charge of an explor- 
ing expedition under the direction of Jacques 
Clamorgan and Antoine Reihle. This company 
was organized in that year by some St. Louis 
merchants under the advice of Zenon Trudeau, 
the Spanish lieutenant-governor, who took a 
great interest in the exploration of the Upper 
Missouri country and the expansion of the fur 
trade. The avowed object was to exploit the fur 



20 



Truxtun 



Truxtun 



trade of the Upper Missouri and to penetrate the 
sources of the Missouri River, and "beyond to 
the Southern Ocean," a term applied in that day 
to the Pacific Ocean. The instructions given to 
Truteau, approved by the governor, directed him 
to keep a record of all that should come under 
his observation. Accordingly, Truteau began his 
journal June 7, 1794, the day of his departure. 
It was in two parts, the first to Mar. 26, 1795 
(in American Historical Review, Jan. 1914), 
and the second from May 24, 1795, to July 
20, 1795 (in Missouri Historical Society Col- 
lections, vol. IV, 1912, with biographical sketch). 
This journal came to the attention of Thomas 
Jefferson, who sent extracts from it to Capt. 
Meriwether Lewis on Nov. 16, 1803, and on Jan. 
22, 1804, a translation of the whole journal. 
Truteau's journal proved a valuable contribution 
to the knowledge of the Upper Missouri and its 
tribes of Indians, especially applicable to the 
years 1794 and 1795. The expedition, however, 
was not a profitable venture on account of de- 
sertions, jealousies, and lack of confidence in 
Jacques Glamorgan, who was one of the most 
active among the organizers. 

He was at home in 1798, and the following 
year Governor Trudeau made a gift of a mort- 
gage debt on Truteau's dwelling, amounting to 
four hundred dollars, to the school-master's two 
sons, "under grateful acknowledgments . . . for 
having educated my numerous family and for 
many favors." This dwelling was a stone house 
known as 18 and 20 North Main Street in St. 
Louis. Governor Trudeau described the school- 
master as his kinsman. Jean Baptiste Truteau 
was a man of importance in the village of St. 
Louis, and his name appeared in public docu- 
ments of the time with many of the principal 
citizens. A subscription list of "well-to-do peo- 
ple," making patriotic gifts to aid Spain in war, 
mentions his name. He was married on May 1, 
1781, to Madeleine Le Roy, the widow of Fran- 
cois Herbert dit Bellhomme and the daughter of 
Julien and Marie (Saucier) Le Roy. They had 
five children. He died in the neighboring village 
of St. Louis and was buried in Carondelet. 

[Cyprien Tanguay, Dictionnaire Genealogique des 
Families Canadicnnes, vol. VII (1890), p. 377; St. 
Louis Cathedral marriage and burial registers ; Tru- 
deau letters in possession of Mo. Hist. Soc. ; journals, 
ante ; Louis Houck, A Hist, of Mo. (1908), vol. II and 
Spanish Regime in Mo. (1909), vols. I— II ; "Trudeau's 
Journ.," in S. D. Hist. Colls., vol. VII (1914) ; "Tru- 
deau's Description of the Upper Missouri," in Miss. 
V alley Hist. Rev., July, Sept. 1921 ; Original Journals 
of the Lewis and Clark Expedition, vol. VII (1905), 
ed. by R. G. Thwaites.] S M D 

TRUXTUN, THOMAS (Feb. 17, 1755-May 
5, 1822), naval officer, was born near Hemp- 



stead, Long Island, the son of Thomas and Sarah 
(Axtell or Axtill) Truxtun. His father was an 
English barrister practising in New York, and 
an incorporator of Grace Church, Jamaica, L. I. 
The son in 1761 attended the Rev. Samuel Sea- 
bury's school at Hempstead. After his father's 
death about 1765, he came under the guardian- 
ship of his father's executor, John Troup of 
Jamaica, and at twelve went to sea, sailing under 
Capt. Joseph Holmes and later Capt. James 
Chambers in the London trade. At fifteen he was 
impressed and served briefly in H.M.S. Prudent, 
attracting the attention of the commander, who 
noted his abilities and offered him aid in ad- 
vancement. He obtained his release, however, 
and, reentering the merchant service, was at 
twenty a ship commander. In 1775 he brought 
a powder shipment to the colonies, and later that 
year he was captured with his vessel and cargo 
in the West Indies. 

Subsequently, in the Revolution, he became an 
ardent privateersman, serving as lieutenant in 
the Congress, and then in command successively 
of the Independence, 10, which in 1777 cap- 
tured a sugar ship of sixteen guns and other 
prizes ; of the Mars, 24, which aroused British 
protests by sending into French ports prizes 
taken in the Channel ; of the Independence again 
in 1780, in which at L'Orient he was reprimand- 
ed by John Paul Jones for flying "a kind of 
broad pennant" ; and of the St. James, 20, which 
in 1781-82 sailed for France after beating off a 
32-gun British blockader. The St. James brought 
back the most valuable cargo entered at Phila- 
delphia during the Revolution, and Washington, 
at a dinner in Truxtun's honor, declared his serv- 
ices worth a regiment. He was master or part 
owner of other privateers (Naval Records of the 
American Revolution, MSS., Library of Con- 
gress), and in 1780 paid taxes in Philadelphia 
on $15,200 (Pennsylvania Archives, 3 ser. XV, 
1897, p. 210). 

After the war he returned to commerce, mak- 
ing many voyages and taking out the first Phila- 
delphia ship to China, the Canton, in 1786. In 
June 1794 he was made a captain in the new 
American navy, ranking fifth among the six 
captains then appointed. In this year he pub- 
lished Remarks, Instructions, and Examples Re- 
lating to Latitude and Longitude, together with 
a chart of his voyages showing favorable routes, 
a treatise on winds and currents, and appendices 
on the masting of warships and the duties of 
naval officers. Three years later he published 
Instructions, Signals, and Explanations Offered 
for the U. S. Fleet (1797), and in 1806, A Few 
Extracts from the Best Authors on Naval Tac- 



21 



Truxtun 



Truxtun 



tics ; all of these evidence a keen mind and high 
professional attainments. In June 1798 at the 
outbreak of naval warfare with France, he sailed 
in the frigate Constellation, whose construction 
he had supervised in Baltimore, and after two 
short cruises commanded a squadron consisting 
of the Constellation and four smaller vessels sta- 
tioned between St. Christopher and Puerto Rico. 
In these waters, Feb. 9, 1799, he won the first of 
his two celebrated victories, capturing after an 
hour's fighting the French frigate Insurgcntc. 
His return home in May was greeted with gen- 
eral acclamation. "I wish," wrote President 
Adams {Works, VIII, 636), "all the other of- 
ficers had as much zeal." Though in August the 
restoration of two former captains, Silas Talbot 
and Richard Dale [qq.v.~\, with senior rank, an- 
gered Truxtun to the point of resignation, he 
was persuaded to continue in the service, and in 
December sailed in the Constellation for his 
former station, with his command increased to 
ten vessels. On the night of Feb. 1-2, 1800, after 
an all-day chase, occurred his battle with La 
Vengeance, lasting from 8 p.m. to 1 a.m. Re- 
versing the odds of the Insurgcnte action, the 
Vengeance had a broadside of 555 pounds to the 
Constellation's 372. After "one of the warmest 
combats between frigates that is on record" 
(Cooper, post, I, 354) , the guns of the Vengeance 
were completely silenced, but as Truxtun was 
about to board his mainmast was carried away 
and the enemy escaped in the darkness. The 
Constellation, after repairs at Jamaica, returned 
late in March to Norfolk. For his hard-fought 
action Truxtun received the thanks of Congress 
and a gold medal, and in popular regard he be- 
came unquestionably the hero of the war. 

After commanding the President during the 
last months of hostilities, he retired to his home 
at Perth Amboy, N. J., opposite the governor's 
mansion. A visitor at this time described him as 
suffering from gout : "Hercules at his distaff 
and Achilles in female attire were not stranger 
figures, than the brave commodore, sitting at 
his desk, penning his instructions for the Ameri- 
can Navy, arrayed in his uniform coat, cocked 
hat and cockade, a flannel petticoat in place of 
breeches, and his feet rolled up in pieces of the 
same texture." The visitor added : "But he is 
now about to leave us, perhaps forever, and as 
he rises in his wrath, let the Bey [sic] of Al- 
giers and all perfidious pirates tremble" ("A 
Colonial Capital," Proceedings of the New Jersey 
Historical Society, 4 ser. Ill, 1918, p. 15). The 
new assignment to which the visitor referred, in 
the spring of 1801, was to the Chesapeake at 
Norfolk, to command the second squadron 



against Tripoli. But the new Jefferson admin- 
istration, hostile politically, refused Truxtun a 
captain for his flagship, and construed his con- 
sequent withdrawal from the command as resig- 
nation from the navy. The loss to the country 
was serious, for Truxtun was only forty-seven, 
and his positive, energetic character would have 
animated the Tripolitan campaign. His fighting 
spirit and rigid discipline, however, had already 
set excellent standards for the young navy. He 
lived for four or five years after his retirement 
at Perth Amboy, and later in Philadelphia. In 
1806 he was approached by Aaron Burr [q.v.J 
with offers of a naval command in connection 
with Burr's projected western state, but he de- 
clined on discovering Burr's schemes to be un- 
sanctioned by the President. He was prominent 
in Philadelphia politics, a leader in the agitation 
of 1809 against the Embargo, unsuccessful Fed- 
eralist candidate for Congress in 1810, and sher- 
iff of Philadelphia, 1816-19. He was married, 
May 27, 1775, to Mary Fundran (probably 
anglicized from Vaudreuil or Von Drieull) of 
Perth Amboy, and had two sons and eleven 
daughters. He was buried in Christ Church 
yard, Philadelphia. William Talbot Truxtun 
[(j.t'.J was his grandson. 

[For parentage, etc., see "Records of St. George's 
Church, Hempstead, L. I.," N. Y. Geneal. and Biog. 
Record, July 1881, p. 145 ; Henry Onderdonk, Antiqui- 
ties of the Parish Church, Jamaica, L. I. (1880) ; "Ab- 
stract of Wills, N. Y., 1760-66," N. Y. Hist. Soc. Colls., 
i&gy (1898), p. 421. Truxtun's biography appeared first 
in Isaac Bailey, Am. Naval Biog. (1815), and was in- 
cluded with slight additions in the later compilations 
of Frost and Peterson ; see also J. F. Cooper, Hist, of 
the Navy of the U.S. (1839), esp. I, 354 ; G. W. Allen, 
Our Naval War with France (1909), containing refer- 
ences to manuscript sources ; S. S. Robison, "Com- 
modore Thomas Truxtun, U. S. Navy," Proc. U. S. 
Naval Inst., Apr. 1932; Truxtun Papers (1798-1800) 
in Hist. Soc. of Pa., Phila. ; Letters to Officers, vols. 
I-V (1794-98) and other papers in Navy Dept. Lib.; 
The Works of John Adams, vols. VIII (1853), IX 
(1854); The Works of Alexander Hamilton (1851), 
vols. V, VI ; S. H. Wandell and Meade Minnigerode, 
Aaron Burr (2 vols., 1925) ; James Parton, The Life 
and Times of Aaron Burr (1886), II, 141 ; J. T. Scharf 
and Thompson Westcott, Hist, of Phila. (1884), vol. 
I: Paulson's Am. Daily Advertiser (Phila.), May 7, 
1822] A..W— t. 

TRUXTUN, WILLIAM TALBOT (Mar. u, 
1824-Feb. 25, 1887), naval officer, was born 
in Philadelphia, Pa., grandson of Commodore 
Thomas Truxtun [q.v.~\, and only son of Wil- 
liam Truxtun by his marriage to Isabelle Shute 
Martin of South Carolina. His father was a 
naval lieutenant who died at Key West in 1830. 
The son became a midshipman on Feb. 9, 1841, 
and his early service at sea was in the Dolphin 
and Falmouth of the Home Squadron. He next 
cruised in the brig Truxtun on the African coast, 
in the suppression of the slave trade, and after 



22 



Truxtun 

six months at the newly established Naval Acad- 
emy was made passed midshipman, Aug. 10, 
1847. I n 1847-48 he was on the Brazil station, 
and came home as prize-master of the former 
slaveship Independence, captured off Rio. After 
three years in the Pacific, he served on board 
the Dolphin in 1853 in soundings for the first 
Atlantic cable, and in 1854 in the Strain expe- 
dition, surveying the Isthmus of Darien for a 
canal route. Only his iron constitution carried 
him through the hardships of this latter duty in 
the tropics, which is believed to have caused 
some permanent injury to his health. 

After the outbreak of the Civil War, he was 
assigned in June 1861 as executive of the sailing 
sloop-of-war Dale in the North Atlantic Block- 
ading Squadron, and subsequently commanded 
her on the southeast coast blockade, being senior 
officer during the summer of 1862 in St. Helena 
Sound, S. C. Made lieutenant commander July 
16, 1862, he commanded the Chocura from Oc- 
tober 1862 to November 1863, chiefly on the 
Wilmington blockade, and thereafter the gun- 
boat Tacony until the close of the war. The 
Tacony operated in the North Carolina sounds 
during the summer of 1864, took part in an hour's 
sharp action with batteries at Plymouth, N. C, 
Oct. 31, 1864, before its occupation, and was en- 
gaged in Admiral Porter's squadron in both 
attacks on Fort Fisher, December 1864 and 
January 1865. Porter in a letter to Truxtun 
(Feb. 18, 1865) remarked: "There has been no 
other officer in this squadron in whom I have 
more confidence or for whom I have a higher 
respect" (Official Records, post, XI, 473). 

His post-bellum service included duty as su- 
perintendent of naval coal shipments, 1866-67; 
in command of the Jamestown, North Pacific 
Squadron, 1868-70 ; in command of the Brooklyn 
in the North and South Atlantic, 1873-75 ; and 
at the Boston and Norfolk navy yards, 1876-80. 
Thereafter he had special duty on the Norfolk 
harbor commission, and from 1885 until his re- 
tirement he commanded the Norfolk yard. He 
was commissioned commodore May 1, 1882, and 
was nominated for rear admiral in February 
1886, but he had aroused some political oppo- 
sition during his navy-yard administration, and 
his promotion was delayed until prevented by 
his retirement for age Mar. 11, 1886. Truxtun 
was popular at Norfolk, where he had made his 
home for a considerable period and identified 
himself with commercial and social interests, 
and his funeral in Christ Church was described 
as the most imposing and largely attended in 
that city since the war. He was twice married : 
first, Oct. 15, 1856, to Annie Elizabeth, daughter 



Try on 

of John E. Scott of Philadelphia, who died in 
1873 I ar >d second, Sept. 2, 1875, to Mary Calvert 
Walke of Norfolk. There were three children 
of the first marriage, and five of the second ; one 
of the sons, William, became a lieutenant com- 
mander in the navy and died in 1905. 

[L. R. Hamersly, The Records of Living Officers of 
the U. S. Navy and Marine Corps (4th ed., 1890) ; War 
of the Rebellion: Official Records (Navy), see Index; 
W. H. Powell and Edward Shippen, Officers of the 
Army and Navy Who Served in the Civil War (1892) ; 
The Virginian (Norfolk), and the Norfolk Landmark, 
Feb. 26, 1887 ; Army and Navy Journal, Mar. 12, 1887 ; 
other material from family sources.] a W t 

TRYON, DWIGHT WILLIAM (Aug. 13, 
1849-July 1, 1925), landscape painter, was born 
at Hartford, Conn. His mother was Delia O. 
(Roberts) Tryon. His father, Anson Try on, the 
descendant of New England artisan stock, died 
in Dwight's infancy, and the boy came up in 
narrow circumstances with only a common-school 
education. From early childhood he drew and 
drew well. At fifteen he became clerk and book- 
keeper for Brown & Gross, booksellers, at Hart- 
ford. The work brought before him handsomely 
illustrated books, among them some with illus- 
trations after Turner, for whom he conceived an 
admiration that was to be life long. To the shop 
came such notables as Horace Bushnell, Samuel 
L. Clemens (Mark Twain), Harriet Beecher 
Stowe [qq.v.], all of whom Tryon came to know. 
Meanwhile he began to paint in such spare mo- 
ments as his work in the book store permitted. 
Thus he had to cultivate the useful habit of work- 
ing much from memory. His mother was cus- 
todian of the Wadsworth Athenaeum, where 
hung impressive landscapes by Thomas Cole and 
Frederick Edwin Church [qq.vJ]. At twenty- 
one Tryon sold his first picture. About this time 
he considered studying medicine, and his read- 
ing to this end grounded him in anatomy. In 

1872 he exhibited, at the National Academy of 
Design in New York, a picture that was bought 
by the dealer Samuel Putnam Avery [q.vJ\. In 

1873 he married Alice H. Belden and, against 
the advice of "Mark Twain" and others of his 
notable acquaintances, set up a studio at Hart- 
ford. His support was giving lessons — as was 
to be the case all his life — but he soon began to 
sell his pictures. His first really notable picture, 
"Clay Cliffs, Block Island," painted for the Cen- 
tennial Exhibition of 1876 in Philadelphia, is a 
stately affair executed rather tightly in the man- 
ner of such older contemporaries as John Fred- 
erick Kensett or William Trost Richards [qq.vJ], 
but in every way a remarkable performance for 
a self-trained artist of twenty-seven. 

Feeling the defects of such training, at the 



2 3 



Tryon 

end of 1876, having auctioned off his pictures 
and effects for $2,000, he sailed for Paris. Liv- 
ing with his young wife, he escaped the usual 
Bohemian contacts. Nothing better showed his 
ever stoical perception of what concerned him- 
self than his disregard of the new Impressionism 
and his avoidance of the big popular ateliers in 
favor of the small private class of that austere 
disciple of Ingres, Jacquesson de la Chevreuse. 
From him Tryon learned a sound but unasser- 
tive construction, methods always thoughtful, 
restrained and highly selective, much depend- 
ence on delicately modulated edges — precision 
and refinement in all things. Among French 
landscapists he knew Daubigny well, and Har- 
pignies slightly, while he deeply valued the ad- 
vice of J. B. A. Guillemet. There were summers 
in Brittany and Normandy, excursions to Hol- 
land and Venice, all productive of pictures in his 
new mature manner — notable among these "The 
River Maas," at Smith College and three pic- 
tures he showed at the Salon of 1881. The $2,- 
000 ran out in five years ; so at thirty-two, in 
1881, he returned to America, took a studio in 
New York, and after a couple of years settled 
for good on the harbor of South Dartmouth, of- 
ten called Padanaram, near New Bedford. He 
was soon successful as a teacher in New York, 
and in 1885 he was appointed visiting professor 
of art at Smith College. This position he held 
for thirty-eight years. Honors followed him. 
In 1882 he was elected to the Society of Ameri- 
can Artists ; in 1890 made an associate of the 
National Academy and next year a member. In 
America and Europe he received no less than 
eighteen medals or awards. 

Secure financially through his teaching, he 
painted rather few pictures, took infinite pains 
with them, always sold them well, and through 
saving and prudent investment gradually built 
up a handsome fortune. In 1889 Charles Lang 
Freer [g.r.], the collector, bought from Tryon 
that exquisite and eventually much medaled pic- 
ture, "The Rising Moon." It was the harbinger 
of some fort}' Tryons that are preserved in the 
Freer Gallery at Washington. The relation be- 
tween artist and patron soon ripened into friend- 
ship. Tryon did four big landscape decorations, 
"The Seasons," for Freer's house at Detroit, and 
in a modest way he followed Freer's example as a 
fastidious and enthusiastic collector. The pre- 
ciousness that characterized Tryon's taste and 
art was reflected neither in his manner of life 
nor yet in his personal appearance. The months 
from April to November he spent at Padanaram, 
fishing and sailing on the lumpy waters of Buz- 
zards Bay, in admirable little boats of his own 



Try 



on 



design. The remaining six months, at New 
York, were passed in teaching and a carefully 
restricted output of painting. Never quite a re- 
cluse, he was always most at ease in rustic com- 
pany, avoiding general social relations, and dis- 
regarding freely the conventions of speech and 
dress. His aspect was that of a Yankee sailor — 
bronzed and wrinkled by the sun and wind, 
with steady blue eyes shading to brown, and an 
undersized but stocky and powerful frame that 
tipped the scales at 140 pounds. 

His art is on the whole crepuscular. He loved 
the moments at dusk when infinitesimal differ- 
ences of tone retain and assert pensively the al- 
most lost definition of objects about to disappear. 
The foreground is generally deep, the interest 
lies in a few well chosen and placed forms — trees 
or farm houses in far middle distance — with 
skies thinly veiled and saturated with faint light. 
His exquisiteness carries with it a certain thin- 
ness and monotony, yet one cannot comprise 
with such words a performance that won the 
admiration of Homer D. Martin and Whistler. 
In technique Tryon was highly experimental 
and ingenious. For greater durability he pre- 
ferred to canvas a carefully made ply board ; in 
his latter years he painted on a white ground ; 
his underpainting was generally bold and high- 
ly colorful. After scraping down and over-paint- 
ing, something of the underlying richness 
qualified the apparent monochrome. He made 
curious and successful ventures in heavily load- 
ed and permanently fixed pastels. Practising an 
art rather of taste and reflection than of vigor- 
ous imagination, his place is not with our great- 
er landscapists. Among those of second order 
he is surely one of the most accomplished. 

His powerful frame broke rather suddenly. 
He had tramped the woods, sailed a canoe from 
New York to New Bedford, shipped on fishing 
smacks. In his early seventies he still took the 
Skat, the little catboat that he had designed him- 
self, single-handed about Buzzards Bay. At 
seventy-five cancer of the stomach developed, 
and the next year he died. Two years earlier he 
had provided for the art museum at Smith Col- 
lege. It was completed only after his death, and 
after that of his wife, four years later, it re- 
ceived a handsome endowment. 

[C. H. Caffin, The Art of Dwight W. Tryon. An 
Appreciation, privately printed (1909), with excellent 
illustrations ; H. C. White, The Life and Art of Dwight 
William Tryon (1930) ; F. F. Sherman. Am. Painters 
of Yesterday and Today (1919); Smith Alumnae 
Quart., Nov. 1925 ; Who's Who in America, 1924-25 ; 
N. Y. Times, July 2, 12, 19, 22, 1925.] F. J.M. Jr. 

TRYON, GEORGE WASHINGTON (May 
20, 1838-Feb. 5, 1888), conchologist, was born 



24 



Try 



on 



Try 



in Philadelphia, the eldest son of Edward K. and 
Adeline (Savidt) Tryon. He was named for his 
grandfather, a gunsmith. After passing through 
several private schools, he entered the Friends' 
Central School in 1850, completing a three years' 
course in June 1853. Soon afterward he studied 
French, German, and music with private tutors, 
thus completing his formal education. Edward 
K. Tryon had carried on successfully the well- 
established business of manufacturing and sell- 
ing firearms and sportsman's accoutrements 
which he had inherited from his father, and in 
due course his son succeeded him. The younger 
George Washington Tryon, however, retired 
from business about 1868 with a modest sum, 
sufficient in his estimation to justify unrestrained 
pursuit of science and letters. 

Tryon began when he was seven years old to 
collect natural history specimens, especially 
shells of mollusks, which were favorites from the 
start. Orderliness was one of the child's notable 
mental qualities and even before his undeveloped 
mind could grasp the meaning of taxonomy he 
arranged his specimens according to an original 
system. In 1859, at the age of twenty-one, he 
was elected a member of the Academy of Natural 
Sciences of Philadelphia, and from that time 
until his death in 1888 he was active in promot- 
ing its welfare. Largely through his efforts a 
new building was erected. In 1866 the concho- 
logical section of the Academy was formed and 
under its auspices large collections were gath- 
ered, including Tryon 's own private collection 
which numbered more than 10,000 species. At 
the time of his death, the section had one of the 
largest and most complete collections of Mollusca 
in the world. Tryon was a curator of the Acad- 
emy from 1869 to 1876 and conservator of the 
conchological section from 1875 until his death. 

His first paper on conchology, "On the Mol- 
lusca of Harper's Ferry, Virginia," was pre- 
sented in 1 86 1 (Proceedings of the Academy of 
Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, 2 ser. V, 
1862), and subsequently more than seventy pa- 
pers on land, freshwater, and marine mollusks 
came from his pen. Among his contributions 
were A Monograph of the Terrestrial Mollusca 
Inhabiting the United States (1866) ; A Mono- 
graph of the Freshwater Univalve Mollusca of 
the United States (In Continuation of Prof. S. 
S. Haldeman's Work . . .), with a preface dated 
1870; Part IV, "Strepomatidae" (1873), of W. 
G. Binney's Land and Fresh Water Shells of 
North America (4 vols., 1865-73) ; and Struc- 
tural and Systematic Conchology (3 vols., 1882- 
84). He also edited and published the American 
Journal of Conchology from 1865 to 1872. His 



on 

chief work, however, was his Manual of Con- 
chology, Structural and Systematic, with Illus- 
trations of the Species, in which it was designed 
to describe and figure all of the living species of 
the Mollusca known to science. The first volume 
appeared in 1879. Of the first series on the 
marine shells, nine volumes had been completed 
and of the second series, the land shells, three 
volumes had been issued at the time of his death. 
Fortunately for the science of malacology, the 
work was continued under Dr. Henry A. Pilsbry. 
Tyron was very fond of music and made an 
effort to spread a love of music among the peo- 
ple and to elevate popular taste. To this end he 
arranged a series of songs for amateur singers. 
He also edited and published librettos of more 
than fifty standard operas and himself wrote an 
unsuccessful comic opera, Amy Cassonet or the 
Elopement, published in 1875. Interested likewise 
in art, he occasionally painted for his own pleas- 
ure. He twice visited Europe, in 1874 and 1877, 
publishing an account of the earlier trip in The 
Amateur Abroad (1875). Tryon was a bachelor, 
of a quiet, frank, and unpretentious disposition. 
He was a member of the Society of Friends for 
a number of years and later attended the serv- 
ices of the Unitarian Church of Philadelphia. 

[Conchohyists' Exchange, Mar.-Apr. 1888, reprint- 
ing article from Public Ledger (Phila.), Feb. 7, 1888; 
Am. Naturalist, Mar. 1888; W. S. W. Ruschenberger, 
"A Biog. Notice of George W. Tryon, Jr.," in Proc. 
Acad. Nat. Sci. of Phila., 3 ser. XVIII (1889), and 
separately reprinted.] p q ■q 

TRYON, WILLIAM (1729-Jan. 27, 1788), 
colonial governor, was born at "Norbury Park," 
Surrey, England, the son of Charles Tryon of 
"Bulwick," Northamptonshire, and Lady Mary 
Tryon, the daughter of Robert Shirley, the first 
Earl Ferrers. He was commissioned lieutenant 
in the 1st Regiment of Foot Guards in 1751 and 
promoted to be captain with army rank of lieu- 
tenant-colonel seven years later. Marriage with 
Margaret Wake of London in 1757 brought him 
control of an estate of £30,000 and, in 1764, 
probably through her connection with Lord 
Hillsborough, appointment as lieutenant-gover- 
nor of North Carolina. Upon the death of the 
governor, Arthur Dobbs, in March 1765, Tryon 
took command of the province and a few months 
later was commissioned governor. In his long 
service in America he was faced with one diffi- 
culty after another which his military back- 
ground hardly prepared him to handle in a pa- 
cific spirit. During the Stamp Act controversy 
he actively supported the customs and naval of- 
ficers in their refusal to permit the entrance and 
clearance of vessels whose papers lacked the re- 



2 5 



Tryon 



Try 



quired stamps. Commerce in the Cape Fear 
region came to a standstill. When the inhabit- 
ants intimidated the officers into abandoning 
their policy, he was helpless and hinted at the 
need of British troops. 

Disturbances of a different origin soon gave 
him an opportunity for more forceful action. 
The movement known as the Regulation de- 
veloped in the frontier counties largely because 
of inadequate currency, inequitable taxation, and 
the greed of officials. The governor was not 
altogether deaf to the grievances of the Regu- 
lators and urged a few reforms. But some of the 
accused officials, especially Edmund Fanning 
[</.?'.], the register of Orange County, were his 
personal friends, and he answered the riotous 
demonstrations of the Hillsboro mob in 1768 by 
leading a force of militia into the disaffected 
region to restore order. Conditions grew no 
better, and in September 1770 the Regulators 
broke up the superior court at Hillsboro and 
severely mishandled several officials and lawyers. 
Under a drastic riot act the ringleaders were in- 
dicted and outlawed, and in the following March 
the governor again organized an armed force. 
His column, consisting of about 1,100 militia, 
met some 2,000 Regulators at the Alamance on 
May 16, 1771, and inflicted a crushing defeat 
upon them. While still on this campaign, he re- 
ceived word of his transfer to New York to 
replace Lord Dunmore, who was going to Vir- 
ginia. Tryon, who had long sought the change, 
left his troops still engaged in the work of pac- 
ification and sailed to New York in July. Al- 
though marred by the violence of its close, his 
administration had been on the whole successful. 
He was responsible for establishing the provin- 
cial capital at New Bern and the erection there of 
an executive residence, "Tryon's Palace," one 
of the finest buildings in colonial America. His 
negotiations with the Cherokee had led to the 
establishment of a satisfactory boundary. Per- 
sonally he was popular in the eastern counties, 
and his departure was witnessed with regret. 

In New York he was again beset with frontier 
disturbances, the result of conflicting grants by 
New York and New Hampshire, within the 
present state of Vermont. The violent actions 
of Ethan Allen and his followers led the gover- 
nor to seek the use of British regulars, but his 
request was denied by General Haldimand. Dif- 
ficulties also arose over the purchase of large 
tracts of lands from the Indians in the Mohawk 
Valley, an operation in which the governor was 
personally interested to the extent of 40,000 
acres. To consult on these problems, he was 
finally summoned to England. Leaving New 



on 

York in April 1774 he did not return until four- 
teen months later, after the commencement »f 
the Revolution. In October 1775, fearing for his 
personal safety, he took refuge on board ship in 
New York harbor, where he remained until the 
landing of Lord Howe's troops in August 1776. 
Wartime conditions prevented the restoration of 
his civil functions, although he busied himself 
in administering the oath of allegiance to all 
available Loyalists. Yet he was essentially a 
military man and longed for a more active part 
in the war. He had been advanced to the rank 
of colonel in 1772 and in 1777 obtained permis- 
sion to command a force of Loyalists. He was 
promoted to the rank of major-general in Amer- 
ica in 1778 and made colonel of the 70th Foot. 
His chief military activities consisted in a series 
of raids upon Connecticut, which succeeded well 
in their purpose of destroying supplies and di- 
verting some of Connecticut's energies from sup- 
port of Washington's army to home defense. 
As the war continued, Tryon's vindictive spirit 
mounted. He frankly expressed a wish to "burn 
every Committee Man's house within my reach" 
(O'Callaghan, post, VIII, 736), and Sir Henry 
Clinton was said to have privately disapproved 
the extremes to which he carried his acts of 
retaliation (Dartmouth MSS., post, Eleventh Re- 
port, p. 423). In 1780 illness, which had fre- 
quently incapacitated him throughout his Amer- 
ican career, compelled his return to England. 
Although promoted lieutenant-general in 1782 
and made colonel of the 29th Foot the next year, 
his active career was over. He died at his Lon- 
don home and was buried in the family tomb at 
Twickenham. 

Against Tryon's proneness to settle disputes 
with force must be set the fact that he achieved 
a very real popularity with most of those with 
whom he came in personal contact. He was a 
stanch supporter of the established church and 
gave active encouragement to education. His 
inquiring mind led him to make extensive tours 
through both his provinces. He was intensely 
loyal to the crown but always expected rewards 
for his faithful services — the suppression of the 
Regulators was, he thought, worth at least a 
baronetcy. The conflicting qualities of his na- 
ture were well summed up by an unfriendly 
Loyalist in New York who wrote of him as "the 
pink of politeness, and the quintessence of vani- 
ty. . . . The man is generous, perfectly good- 
natured, and no doubt brave, but weak and vain 
to an extreme degree. You should keep such 
people at home ; they are excellent for a Court 
parade" (Colonial Records of North Carolina, 
post, vol. VIII, p. xxxix). 



26 



Tscherinoff- — Tubman 

[The Colonial Records of N. C, vols. VII, VIII 
(i^go) ; Documents Relative to the Colonial Hist, of 
Ike State of New-York, VMI (1857), ed. by E. B. 
O'Callaghan ; "The MSS. of the Earl of Dartmouth," 
Great Britain. Hist. MSS. Commission Eleventh Re- 
port, app. pt. S (1887), Fourteenth Report, app. pt. 10 
(1895); Gentleman's Mag., Dec. 1757. P- 577, Feb. 
1788, p. 179; Army Lists, 1755-1783; R- D- W. Con- 
nor, Hist, of N. C, vol. I (1919) ; J. S. Bassett, "The 
Regulators of North Carolina," Amer. Hist. Assn. Re- 
port . . . 1894 (1895) ; M. D. Haywood, Gov. William 
Tryon and his Administration of the Province of N. C. 
(1903) ; Lorenzo Sabine, Biog. Sketches of Loyalists 
of the Amer. Rev., new ed. (1864), vol. II. The date 
for birth given in this sketch is taken from copy of 
epitaph in Haywood, ante, and for death Ibid., and from 
Gentleman's Mag., ante, although the D. N. B. gives 
birth-date as 1725 and death-date as Dec. 27, 1788.] 

L. W. L. 

TSCHERINOFF, MARIE VAN ZANDT 

[See Van Zandt, Marie, 1858-1919]. 

TUBMAN, HARRIET (c. 1821-Mar. 10, 
1913), fugitive slave, abolitionist, was born in 
Dorchester County on the Eastern Shore of 
Maryland, the daughter of Benjamin Ross and 
Harriet Greene, both slaves. She was first named 
Araminta, but early assumed the name Harriet. 
In childhood she received a head injury to which 
have been attributed spells of somnolence which 
overtook her without warning at intervals dur- 
ing the rest of her life. From her early teens 
she worked as a field hand — plowing, loading 
and unloading wood — an activity which de- 
veloped in her great strength and remarkable 
powers of endurance. In 1844, her master forced 
her to marry a man named John Tubman who 
was unfaithful to her. Much later she married 
a man named Nelson Davis. About 1849 she 
made her escape from slavery, guided in her 
flight only by the north star. It was not long 
afterwards that she became one of the most con- 
spicuous figures in the work of the "Underground 
Railroad," winning the appellation "Moses" by 
leading, in all, more than three hundred slaves 
from bondage to freedom in the North and 
Canada. 

From the time of her escape until the begin- 
ning of the Civil War she was busy making 
journeys into the South to lead out slaves. An 
important "station" on one of her routes was the 
home of the Quaker Thomas Garrett [q.v.~\ of 
Wilmington, Del., who gave her all the help 
within his power. Between her journeys she 
worked as a cook in order to raise the money she 
needed to aid the fugitives. In 1857 she rescued 
her own parents, who were very old, and settled 
them in Auburn, N. Y., on a little tract of land 
purchased from William H. Seward. Although 
she could neither read nor write, her shrewdness 
in planning hazardous enterprises and skill in 
avoiding arrest were phenomenal. When rescu- 



Tuck 

ing a group of slaves, she enforced a rule which 
she herself had laid down, threatening with death 
any passenger who thought of surrender or at- 
tempted to return. She seemed absolutely fear- 
less and was willing to endure any hardship. To 
a remarkable degree she was guided in her work 
by visions and sustained by her faith in God. 
John Brown, who met her in Canada and sub- 
sequently referred to her as "General" Tubman, 
confided in her and relied on her for assistance 
in his campaign against slavery in Virginia. 
She was well known in the office of the Na- 
tional Anti-Slavery Standard in New York and 
in abolition circles in Boston and from time to 
time was presented as a speaker at anti-slavery 
meetings. After the outbreak of the Civil War 
she was sent to Gen. David Hunter in South 
Carolina with a letter from Governor Andrew 
of Massachusetts and attached herself to the 
Union army, working as cook, laundress, and 
nurse ; frequently acting as guide in scouting 
parties and raids ; and rendering noteworthy 
service as a spy within the Confederate lines. 

After the war Harriet continued to labor for 
her people. For a time she was concerned with 
an attempt to establish schools for freedmen in 
North Carolina. She was able to finish paying 
for her home in Auburn with the proceeds of a 
little book, Scenes in the Life of Harriet Tub- 
man (1869), written for her benefit by Mrs. 
Sarah Hopkins Bradford and published through 
the generosity of Gerrit Smith, Wendell Phil- 
lips [qq.v.~\, and certain Auburn neighbors. Here 
in her own home she supported several children 
and penniless old people, being further aided by 
the proceeds of a revised edition of Mrs. Brad- 
ford's book, Harriet the Moses of Her People 
(1886). The Harriet Tubman Home for in- 
digent aged negroes continued to exist for a 
number of years after her death, and the citi- 
zens of Auburn erected a shaft in her memory. 

[S. H. Bradford, Harriet the Moses of Her People, 
which was reprinted in 1901, contains reminiscences 
and testimonials from all the prominent Abolitionists 
mentioned above, a number of the Union officers under 
whom Harriet served, and others. See also P. E. Hop- 
kins, "Harriet Tubman (Moses)," Colored American 
Mag., Jan.-Feb. 1902; Frcedmcn's Record, Mar. 1865 ; 
Lillie 6. C. Wyman, "Harriet Tubman," New England 
Mag., Mar. 1896; American Mag., Aug. 1912; W. H. 
Siebert, The Underground Railroad (1898) ; H. H. 
Swift, The Railroad to Freedom (1932) ; Albany Eve- 
ning Jour., Mar. 11, 1913 ; N. V. Times, Mar. 14, 1913.] 

D. B.P. 

TUCK, AMOS (Aug. 2, 1810-Dec. 11, 1879), 
congressman, was born at Parsonsfield, Me., 
fourth of six children of John and Betsey 
(Towle) Tuck, and a descendant of Robert Tuck 
who settled on the New Hampshire coast in 
1638. His parents were people of strong char- 



27 



Tuck 



Tucker 



acter, intelligent, industrious, ambitious for their 
children, but handicapped by the grinding strug- 
gle for a livelihood on a New England farm. 
The boy farmed at home until he was seventeen, 
then, with intermittent attendance at various 
schools, worked as a common laborer, taught 
district school, and in time accumulated re- 
sources financial and scholastic for admission to 
Dartmouth College. 

After his graduation in 1835 he taught school, 
studying law in the meantime, and upon his ad- 
mission to the bar in 1838 began practice in 
Exeter where within a few months he was ad- 
mitted to partnership with James Bell, his former 
preceptor. In 1842, as a Democrat, he served a 
term in the New Hampshire legislature, but in 
1844 definitely broke with the Democratic party 
on the Texas question and three years later, af- 
ter an exciting and embittered contest, was elect- 
ed to the Thirtieth Congress by a fusion of inde- 
pendent Democrats and Whigs. The contest 
conducted in New Hampshire by Amos Tuck 
and John P. Hale [g.t'.], who was elected to the 
Senate as a result of the same campaign, was in 
many respects a forerunner of the great party 
upheavals of the next decade and attracted na- 
tional attention. Tuck served three terms in 
Congress (1847-53). His independent position 
in the House, where with Joshua R. Giddings 
[<7.7'.] of Ohio and John G. Palfrey [q.v.'] of 
Massachusetts he constituted a nucleus of anti- 
slavery sentiment, was prominent rather than 
influential. His views, however, well expressed 
in his speech of Jan. 19, 1848, against the Mexi- 
can War and extension of slavery, were eventu- 
ally to become predominant in the Northern 
states. 

Defeated for a fourth term because of a tem- 
porary waning of anti-slavery fervor in his 
state together with an effective gerrymander by 
the legislature, he continued active in the move- 
ment against slavery, but his essential sanity and 
political acumen kept him out of its more ex- 
travagant manifestations and his activity was 
therefore vastly more effective — so effective, in- 
deed, that his admirers have often claimed that 
the Republican party was really a New Hamp- 
shire creation. At all events, he was instru- 
mental in 1853 and 1854 in bringing about a 
merger of the dissatisfied into a new party align- 
ment. At the Republican convention of 1856 he 
was a vice-president and in i860 he was a mem- 
ber of the platform committee; in 1861 he at- 
tended the unsuccessful conference at Washing- 
ton which endeavored to avert the final break 
between North and South. He was a loyal ad- 
herent of President Lincoln, with whom he had 



formed a personal friendship in Congress and 
from whom in 1861 he,accepted the post of naval 
officer for the district of Boston and Charles- 
town. He served in this capacity until removed 
by President Johnson in 1865. 

From the professional standpoint the most suc- 
cessful period of Tuck's career followed the 
Civil War. Although he retained his residence at 
Exeter, his clients were now of national im- 
portance and their affairs took him into court- 
rooms and business offices in the financial cen- 
ters of the country. He was interested in the 
Western railroad development and his shrewd 
sense of investment values enabled him to ac- 
cumulate a large estate. He was a trustee of 
Phillips Exeter Academy from 1853 to 1879, and 
from 1857 to 1866 of Dartmouth College, where 
in 1900 his son Edward Tuck established the 
Amos Tuck School of Administration and 
Finance. Tuck's fine appearance, personal charm, 
and public spirit gave him a prominent place in 
that group of lawyers and party leaders which 
made Exeter one of the influential centers of 
New England life of the nineteenth century. He 
was twice married, first to Sarah Ann Nudd, 
who bore him eight children, and after her death 
early in 1847, on Oct. 10 of the same year to 
Mrs. Catharine (Townsend) Shepard, daughter 
of John Townsend of Salisbury. Three of his 
children survived him. 

[Autobiog. Memoir of A. Tuck (privately printed, 
1902) ; C. R. Corning, Amos Tuck (1902) ; J. W. Dear- 
born, Sketch of the Life and Character of Hon. Amos 
Tuck (n.d., 1889); Joseph Dow, Tuck Geneal.: Rob- 
ert Tuck of Hampton, N. H. and His Descendants 
(1877) ; C. H. Bell, The Bench and Bar of N.H. (1894) 
and Hist, of the Town of Exeter, N. H. (1888) ; L. M. 
Crosbie, The Phillips Exeter Acad. (1923) ; J. K. Lord, 
A Hist, of Dartmouth Coll. (1913) ; Biog. Dir. Am. 
Cong. (1928) ; J. O. Lyford, Life of Edward H. Rollins 
(copr. 1906) ; Concord Daily Monitor, Dec. 12, 1879; 
MSS. in Dartmouth Coll. archives.] WAR 

TUCKER, GEORGE (Aug. 20, 1775-Apr. 10, 
1861), political economist, author, was born in 
Bermuda, the son of Daniel Tucker, mayor of 
Hamilton, and his first wife, Elizabeth (Tucker) 
Tucker, a distant relative. George was sent to 
Virginia at the age of twelve, and placed in the 
charge of his distant kinsman, St. George Tuck- 
er [q.7'.~\, also a native of Bermuda, who had 
succeeded George Wythe as professor of law in 
the College of William and Mary. Here George 
graduated in 1797 ; he afterwards practised law 
in Richmond, then in Pittsylvania Court House 
(now Chatham), and Lynchburg. After serving 
in the Virginia legislature he was elected to 
Congress for three successive terms, obtaining 
there (1819-25) a reputation as debater and 
constitutional lawyer. Having attracted the at- 
tention of James Madison, whom he came to 



18 



Tucker 



Tucker 



know intimately — as he also knew Jefferson, he 
was appointed professor of moral philosophy in 
the University of Virginia when it opened in 
1825, and as the oldest member of the staff was 
elected the first chairman of the faculty. He had 
already published Essays on Subjects of Taste, 
Morals, and National Policy, by a Citizen of Vir- 
ginia (1822), The Valley of Shenandoah (2 
vols., 1824), and other works. He now issued, 
under the name "Joseph Atterley," A Voyage to 
the Moon (1827), a satirical romance, not very 
diverting or pointed, with occasional unimportant 
references to political economy and a good deal 
of bastard astronomy and botany. He worked 
hard for six months in 1829 as contributing ed- 
itor of an ill-starred weekly inaugurated at the 
University, The Virginia Literary Museum. His 
humor was not appreciated in the academically 
self-conscious atmosphere of the new institution. 

He must have labored for a long period on The 
Life of Thomas Jefferson (2 vols., 1837), in 
which he supplemented extensive research, often 
in out-of-the-way journals, by many conferences 
with Madison. He tried honestly to hold even 
justice between Republicans and Federalists, and 
on the whole succeeded. The advantages which 
he enjoyed of personal association with the chief 
Republican actors had, of course, their corre- 
sponding embarrassments. Tucker's sins are 
sometimes of commission, but oftener of omis- 
sion. It must be remembered, however, that his 
own sympathies were on the side of Jefferson's 
opinions. He frequently does not understand, or 
does not admit, the degree to which Jefferson 
controlled the actions of such men as Madison 
and Giles. However, Tucker's exposition of the 
national problems that arose, and of the conflict 
over them, is a genuine contribution to history, 
for he often was able to see what was involved 
better than did many of the actors themselves. 
This same year he published The Laws of Wages, 
Profits, and Rent Investigated (1837), and in 
1839 The Theory of Money and Banks Investi- 
gated. Apart from his own wisdom, Tucker had 
sufficient reason, in the recent panic and current 
depression, for upholding the policy of a national 
bank, or rather of several national banks, in or- 
der to prevent the excesses of local banks of 
issue. His Progress of the United States in Pop- 
ulation and Wealth in Fifty Years (1843, ap- 
pendix 1855), while noticing the tendency of the 
rate of population growth to decrease, calcu- 
lated that the population three generations from 
the time he wrote would be just twice what it 
actually turned out to be. 

In 1845, a t the age of seventy, he retired from 
the University of Virginia, and thereafter lived 



in Philadelphia. When seventy-five, he com- 
menced The History of the United States (4 
vols., 1856-57), much of which embraced an ac- 
count of his own times. When eighty-four he 
was his own publisher of Political Economy for 
the People ( 1859), and the next year issued Es- 
says, Moral and Metaphysical. His mental ac- 
tivity was matched by surprising bodily stamina ; 
in i860 he traveled throughout Virginia and to 
Chicago, and the next year visited Southern cities 
as far down as Mobile. At the last place, in dis- 
embarking from a steamboat, he was struck by a 
bale of cotton and rendered unconscious for days. 
He survived long enough to be brought back to 
the home of his son-in-law, "Sherwood," in Albe- 
marle County, Va. Tucker married, in 1801, 
Maria Ball Carter, grand-daughter of Elizabeth 
Lewis, Washington's sister; before her death in 
1823, she bore him four daughters and a son, of 
whom two daughters and possibly the son sur- 
vived him. His second marriage to Mary (Byrd) 
Farley, daughter of Mary Byrd of "Westover," 
was childless. His third wife, Louisa (Bow- 
doin) Thompson of the Eastern Shore of Vir- 
ginia, died in 1859 without issue. 

Tucker's principal formal works on economic 
theory belong to periods separated by twenty 
years. The two first, The Laws of Wages, Profits, 
and Rent Investigated (1837) and The Theory 
of Money and Banks Investigated (1839), pub- 
lished while he was teaching these subjects in 
the University of Virginia, are detailed and 
vivid, with frequent spirited criticism of other 
writers. The last, Political Economy for the Peo- 
ple (1859), was prepared a decade and a half 
after his retirement ; much detail has dropped 
out, there is little or no controversial matter, and 
the whole subject is treated as a summary of his 
wisdom and experience. His essential views, 
however, did not change. Tucker was always 
the political economist in the proper meaning of 
that term, that is, he cultivated the science be- 
cause it could "exert a great influence on the 
public prosperity, in teaching governments how 
best they may improve the sources of national 
wealth, whether by regulation or forbearance, 
may least injuriously raise the public revenue, 
and most beneficially expend it" ( Wages, Profits, 
and Rent, p. v). He followed his investigations 
of theory, therefore, with positive recommenda- 
tions as to public policy. In general he was an 
adherent of the English and French classical 
school ; his American environment, exhibiting in 
his lifetime prodigious economic progress, never 
dissuaded him, as it did Henry Charles Carey 
and Mathew Carey, Daniel Raymond, John Rae, 
and Georg Friedrich List [qq.v.], from the ap- 



29 



Tuck 



er 



prehensions and pessimism born of older civili- 
zations. He sometimes approached the more 
optimistic position, but these inklings never 
formed themselves into anything like a system 
which should overset the old preoccupation with 
diminishing returns. This was in spite of the 
fact that he knew H. C. Carey's work from an 
early period, and certainly must have been 
thrown with him in Philadelphia, especially as 
they were both members of the American Philo- 
sophical Society. Tucker's mentor was Adam 
Smith, and his chief theoretical differences were 
with David Ricardo. This in itself indicates the 
narrow dimension of his contribution. He de- 
clared that Ricardo, though "entitled to all his 
reputation for a thorough knowledge of the sub- 
jects of money and finance, is mistaken in his 
elementary principles of the science ; that the 
origin and progress of rents admits of a more 
simple and natural explanation than he has given ; 
that his theory of wages is inconsistent with 
itself, and that of profits [is] contradicted by the 
whole history of capital in the civilized world" 
(Wages, Profits, and Rent, p. iv). Yet his criti- 
cism of Ricardo is mainly textual; it is in part 
based upon misapprehension, due perhaps to 
Ricardo's .elliptical style; in fact, he virtually 
argues himself around to Ricardo's position of 
ascribing prime importance in the origin of rent 
to the differences in qualities of soils (Ibid., p. 
113). Tucker, while introducing judicious re- 
finements of the doctrine, was permanently im- 
pressed with Malthus' principle of population, 
and applied it consistently throughout his think- 
ing; it had much to do, doubtless, with leading 
him to his elaborate studies of the census, and 
bore immediately upon his insistence that Amer- 
ican negro slavery would extinguish itself (about 
the year 1925 he thought) by becoming unprofit- 
able to the masters. This would be in consequence 
of the progressive lessening of the value of labor, 
to the point where the earnings of a slave would 
not repay the cost of rearing him. "This," he 
said, "may be called the euthanasia of the insti- 
tution, as it will be abolished with the consent of 
the master no less than the wishes of the slave" 
(Progress of the United States, p. no). Tucker 
gave an early indication of the propriety of sepa- 
rating, in economic analysis, the functions of 
capitalist and enterpriser (Wages, Profits, and 
Rent, p. 91 and note). He condemned usury laws 
in unmeasured terms, not only as violating his 
general principle of governmental non-interfer- 
ence in commercial transactions, but as positive- 
ly injurious to debtors by circumventions of the 
laws. 

Of all the great economic and social questions 



Tucker 

of Tucker's time — tariff protection, internal im- 
provements, banking regulation, and slavery — ■ 
the last was the most portentous for the welfare 
of the country and especially of the South. As a 
resident on Virginia plantations, as a member of 
Congress at the time of the Missouri Compro- 
mise, as a teacher of the social sciences within 
the South, and as a witness of the preliminaries 
of the Civil War, he saw the political and eco- 
nomic situation of his section become increas- 
ingly critical. Though his opposition to slavery 
was unmistakable, and he steadily looked for- 
ward to the attenuation of the institution — earlier 
through deportation and manumission, and later 
as a consequence of the increase of population — 
his utterances were discreetly academic. Though, 
except upon specific minor points, he was never 
seduced into becoming its advocate, refusing to 
indulge in the imbecilities of his colleague Al- 
bert Taylor Bledsoe [g.t\], he was far removed 
from the fiery and effective opposition of such a 
man as Hinton Rowan Helper [q.?>.]. The Let- 
ters from Virginia (1816), giving every appear- 
ance of Tucker's authorship, though also attrib- 
uted to William Maxwell and James Kirke 
Paulding [qq.v.~\, condemned slavery in unmeas- 
ured terms, and ridiculed the planters, all under 
the cover of anonymity ; the Speech of Mr. Tuck- 
er, of Virginia, on the Restriction of Slavery in 
Missouri . . . February 25, 1820 (1820) discov- 
ered insuperable constitutional objections to pre- 
venting the extension of slavery ; and the criti- 
cism of slavery, sufficiently explicit in his books 
of the 'thirties and 'forties, was reduced to a 
pallid mention in his Political Economy for the 
People published almost on the eve of the Civil 
War. 

[Robley Dunglison, "Obituary Notice of Professor 
George Tucker," in Proc. Am. Philosophical Soc, IX 
(1865), 64-70; T. A. Emmet, An Account of the 
Tucker Family of Bermuda ( 1898) ; Albert Welles, The 
Pedigree and Hist, of the Washington Family (1879) ; 
P. A. Bruce, Hist, of the Univ. of Va., 1819-1919, II 
(1920), III (1921) ; J. S. Patton, Jefferson, Cabell and 
the Univ. of Va. (1906), pp. 101—02; Daily Richmond 
Enquirer, Apr. 13, 1861.] B. M. 

TUCKER, GILBERT MILLIGAN (Aug. 
26, 1847-Jan. 13, 1932), editor, author, publicist, 
was the son of Luther Tucker \_q.vJ] and his 
third wife, Margaret Lucinda (Smith) Burr 
Tucker. He was born at Albany, N. Y., where 
his father was conspicuous in the field of agri- 
cultural journalism. After preparation at the Al- 
bany Academy, he entered Williams College in 
1864 and completed the four-year course in three 
years, earning the degree of A.B. with honors 
in 1867. He at once became associated with his 
father and elder brother in the publication of the 
Cultivator and Country Gentleman. In 1897 



3° 



Tucker 



Tucker 



when the first part of the title was dropped, he 
became editor-in-chief, so continuing until the 
Country Gentleman was sold to the Curtis Pub- 
lishing Company in 1911, when he retired from 
active business. 

Tucker's editorial policy was vigorous and 
forthright. He had strong opinions and limitless 
courage in their support, yet was open-minded 
and tolerant withal. He opposed strongly, and 
believed detrimental to agricultural interests, 
such policies as the expansion of the state canal 
system and the development of western farm 
lands — particularly by irrigation — at public ex- 
pense, foreseeing the danger of over-production 
and consequently injury to agriculture. He also 
disapproved of the Eighteenth Amendment to the 
Constitution, calling it "an absurd and danger- 
ous anomaly." He spoke and wrote frequently 
on these and kindred subjects. During his con- 
nection with the Country Gentleman, he served 
on various federal and state commissions dealing 
with agricultural affairs. He was deeply inter- 
ested in, and at one time president of, the old 
New York State Agricultural Society. He was 
a trustee of Cornell University, 1905-06 ; a mem- 
ber, elder, and trustee of the Reformed Church ; 
a Mason ; a member of the Order of Founders 
and Patriots ; and in politics a Republican, al- 
though in later life he came to disbelieve in the 
policy of tariff protection. 

Deeply interested in philological subjects, he 
was a student of New Testament Greek and a 
frequent writer on the English language, with 
special reference to the differences in its usage 
in England and America. He maintained that 
the purity of English has been better preserved 
on the West side of the Atlantic, and held that 
most of the so-called "Americanisms" origi- 
nated many years ago in the mother country. 
He was the author of Our Common Speech 
( 1895) '> American English ( 1921 ) ; A Layman's 
Apology (1913), a volume of essays on religious 
subjects ; American Agricultural Periodicals Can 
historical sketch, privately printed, 1909) ; and 
contributions to the daily press, North Ameri- 
can Review, Nnv Englandcr, Presbyterian Re- 
view, and other journals. 

On June 7, 1877, Tucker married Sara Ed- 
wards Miller, daughter of the Rev. William Au- 
gustus Miller of Albany. She died in 1930. They 
had one son, who survived his father, and one 
daughter who died unmarried in 1926. Tucker 
died at Albany in his eighty-fifth year. 

[Ephraim Tucker, Geneal. of the Tucker Family 
( 1895) ! Who's Who in America, 1930-31 ; N. Y. Times, 
Jan. 14, 1932; Knickerbocker Press (Albany), Jan. 14, 
1932; family material; personal acquaintance.] 

J.I.W. 



TUCKER, HENRY HOLCOMBE (May 10, 

1819-Sept. 9, 1889) , Baptist clergyman, was born 
near Camak, Warren County, Ga., the son of 
Germain Tucker and Frances Henrietta, daugh- 
ter of Henry Holcombe [q.z'.]. Both his parents 
were of Virginia ancestry ; his paternal grand- 
father, Isaiah Tucker, was a wealthy planter. 
After the death of his father at the age of twen- 
ty-seven, Henry's mother married again and the 
family removed to Philadelphia. The boy was 
prepared for college in the academic department 
of the University of Pennsylvania, and in 1834 
he entered the freshman class of the University. 
In his senior year he transferred to Columbian 
College (now George Washington University), 
Washington, D. C, where he was graduated with 
the degree of A.B. in 1838. 

Returning to the South, he entered business 
in Charleston, S. C. In 1842 he decided to study 
law and repaired to Forsyth, Ga., where he was 
admitted to the bar in 1846. Two years later he 
married Mary Catherine West, who lived but a 
few months after their marriage. Her death 
seems to have turned his mind toward the min- 
istry, for he soon gave up the practice of law, 
sold his library, was licensed to preach, and re- 
moved to Penfield in order to take private in- 
struction in theology under John L. Dagg [q.v.~\, 
then president of Mercer University. Although 
he preferred to enter the pastorate, he was per- 
suaded to undertake educational work and accept- 
ed a position with the Southern Female College 
at Lagrange, Ga., where he was ordained to the 
Baptist ministry in 185 1. For a short time sub- 
sequently he was professor in the Richmond Fe- 
male Institute, Richmond, Va. In 1853 he was 
offered the presidency of Wake Forest College, 
Wake Forest, N. C, but since he had just ac- 
cepted the pastorate of a church at Alexandria, 
Va., he declined. While in Alexandria, he mar- 
ried Sarah O. Stevens. In 1856 he became pro- 
fessor of belles-lettres and metaphysics in Mer- 
cer University, a position which he held until 
the institution was closed by the Civil War in 
1862. 

He was opposed to secession and used his ut- 
most influence against it, but when Georgia se- 
ceded he remained loyal to the South. Foresee- 
ing a salt famine, he organized a company for 
the manufacture of salt, which was. extremely 
helpful in the dark days of the war. He also or- 
ganized the Georgia Relief and Hospital Asso- 
ciation, a voluntary organization for the care of 
sick and wounded soldiers. After the war he was 
elected editor of the Christian Index, Jan. I, 
1866, but resigned in July to accept the presi- 
dency of Mercer University, in which office he 



3 1 



Tucker 



Tucker 



served until 1871. The period was one of ex- 
treme difficulty for all educational institutions of 
the South, but Mercer made progress. In 1870 
the institution was moved from Penfield to Ma- 
con. This removal, which was favored by Tuck- 
er, caused much resentment and friction, which 
probably was in part the cause of his resignation 
in 1871. The following fourteen months he spent 
in Europe, chiefly at Rome and Paris. In Rome 
he assisted in establishing a Baptist Church and 
himself baptized in the Tiber the first candidate 
for membership. In Paris he preached for the 
American Church most of the winter. On return- 
ing to America he became chancellor of the Uni- 
versity of Georgia, at Athens, and served as such 
from 1874 to 1878. In the latter year he became 
proprietor and editor of the Christian Index, 
which he conducted until his death in 1889. Un- 
der his control the paper attained a position of 
wide and commanding influence not only in Geor- 
gia but far beyond its borders. 

Tucker was not a great scholar, but he was a 
logical and consistent thinker and an excellent 
teacher. As a speaker and writer he was master 
of a clear style characterized by conciseness and 
finish. In his preaching he was ardent and earn- 
est, and his discourses were enlivened by flashes 
of wit and humor. Though he held but one pas- 
torate, he did much preaching throughout his 
life. He published a volume of sermons in 1884 
under the title The Old Theology Re-stated in 
Sermons, and in 1869, a small volume entitled 
The Gospel in Enoch, which occasioned much 
favorable comment. After his death, Select Writ- 
ings by the Late Henry Holcombe Tucker Ccopr. 
1902), edited by B. J. W. Graham, was issued. 
He died at Atlanta, Ga., survived by his wife and 
two children. 

[William Cathcart, The Baptist Encyc. (1881) ; ffijf. 
of the Baptist Denomination in Ga. (1881) ; R. L. Rob- 
inson, Hist, of the Ga. Baptist Asso. (1928) ; B. D. 
Ragsdale, Story of Ga. Baptists (copr. 1932) ; T. H. 
Martin, Atlanta and Its Builders (1902), vol. II; W. 
J. Northen, Men of Mark in Ga., vol. Ill (191 1) ; At- 
lanta Constitution, Sept. 10, 1889.] W T M 

TUCKER, HENRY ST. GEORGE (Dec. 29, 
1780-Aug. 28, 1848), jurist, was born at "Ma- 
toax," in Chesterfield County, Va., the son of St. 
George Tucker [q.v.] and Frances (Bland) 
Randolph Tucker. John Randolph of Roanoke, 
I 773 -I 833, [17.7'.] was his half-brother and Na- 
thaniel Beverley Tucker, 1784-1851 [q.v.'] was 
his brother. In 1799 he graduated from the Col- 
lege of William and Mary, where he studied law 
under his father. Shortly after he attained his 
majority he went to Winchester, Va., where he 
began the general practice of law. In spite of 
his youth, his outstanding talents were swiftly 



recognized, and his practice grew rapidly in vol- 
ume and in importance. He appears to have 
gained no little reputation by his handling of liti- 
gation involving the estates of Lord Fairfax. On 
Sept. 23, 1806, he married Anne Evelina Hunter. 
John Randolph Tucker, 1823-1897 and Nathaniel 
Beverley Tucker, 1820-1890, were their sons and 
Henry St. George Tucker, 1853-1932 [qq.v.] 
their grandson. He served for the session of 
1807-08 in the Virginia House of Delegates. 
Upon the outbreak of the War of 1812 he enlisted 
as a volunteer. From 1815 to 1819 he sat in the 
federal House of Representatives. Though the 
House then included among its members such 
men as Clay, Calhoun, and Webster, he took a 
prominent part in its activities. In 1816 he op- 
posed the act to increase the salaries of members 
of Congress and refused to accept the increase 
in his own salary. From 1819 to 1823 he served 
in the state Senate. 

His judicial career, which absorbed seventeen 
years of his life and in which he added no little 
to his renown, began in 1824, when he was elect- 
ed judge of the superior courts of chancery for 
the Winchester and Clarksburg districts. An in- 
defatigable worker, he gave unstintedly of his 
time and labor to his judicial duties. Yet he or- 
ganized and taught with signal success during 
the seven years of his chancellorship a private 
law school at Winchester. In this period he wrote 
his Commentaries on the Laws of Virginia (2 
vols., 1836-37). This work, with such other pub- 
lications as A Few Lectures on Natural Law 
(1844) and Lectures on Constitutional Law 
(1843) firmly established his reputation in the 
field of legal authorship. In 1831 he was elected 
president of the supreme court of appeals of Vir- 
ginia. For a decade he presided with dignity and 
distinction over that high court, winning the ac- 
claim of his colleagues on the bench, the members 
of the Virginia bar, and the people of the State. 
So highly did he consider his office that he de- 
clined an appointment as federal attorney-gen- 
eral at the hands of President Jackson. In 1841 
he resigned from the court to accept the profes- 
sorship of law in the University of Virginia. 
Though handicapped by lack of health, he yet 
taught with such vigor and enthusiasm as to win 
the warm plaudits of his students. In 1842, when 
he was chairman of the faculty, upon his motion, 
the "Honor System" was adopted at the Uni- 
versity of Virginia, which has operated there for 
more than ninety years as a spiritual asset of the 
institution. His failing health compelled him, 
in 1845, to retire, and he returned to Winchester, 
where he died. 

Glowing tributes were paid to him after his 



3 2 



Tucker 



Tucker 



death. His varied activities had brought him into 
contact with most of the distinguished Vir- 
ginians of his day. Though his restless energy 
had been scattered over many fields, he literally 
touched nothing that he did not adorn. It is 
quite remarkable how closely his career paralleled 
that of his father. Each was a lawyer, a legisla- 
tor, a judge, a teacher of law, and a judicial 
writer. Each was a soldier in his country's serv- 
ice, and each ventured into the field of light 
poetry. Yet Henry St. George Tucker need 
shine in no reflected glory. 

[S. N. Hurst and R. M. Brown, A Complete Alpha- 
betical, Chronological Annotated Digest of All the Re- 
ported Decisions"of . . . Va., vol. I (1897), p. 35 ; J. R. 
Tucker, "The Judges Tucker of the Court of Appeals 
of Va.," Va. Law Register, Mar. 1896; S. S. P. Pat- 
teson, "The Supreme Court of Appeals of Va.," Green 
Bag, July 1893 ; S. E. M. Hardy, "Some Va. Lawyers," 
Ibid., Jan. 1898; P. A. Bruce, Hist, of the Univ. of 
Va., vols. I-IV (1920-21) ; faculty minutes of the 
Univ. of Va.] A. M. D. 

TUCKER, HENRY ST. GEORGE (Apr. 5, 

1853-July 23, 1932), congressman from Vir- 
ginia and lawyer, was born at Winchester, Va., 
the great-grandson of the emigrant, St. George 
Tucker, the grandson of Henry St. George Tuck- 
er, 1 780-1848, and the son of John Randolph 
Tucker, 1823-1897 [qq.v.~\. His mother was 
Laura (Powell) Tucker. After attending pri- 
vate schools in Loudoun County and at Rich- 
mond, he entered Washington and Lee Univer- 
sity, where he received the degrees of master of 
arts in 1875 and bachelor of laws in 1876. On Oct. 
25, 1877, he was married to Henrietta Preston 
Johnston, the daughter of William Preston 
Johnston \_q.v.~\. She died in 1900 leaving six 
children. He practised law at Staunton, Va., 
from 1876 to 1889, when he succeeded his father 
as Democratic representative in Congress. He 
served there until 1897. His advocacy of the 
popular election of federal senators and his at- 
titude toward silver stand out in his congres- 
sional career of this period. Denouncing the con- 
trol of legislative bodies by corporate wealth, he 
declared that "an aptness for percentages and the 
successful manipulation of railroads and stock 
boards are often regarded as the most essential 
of Senatorial equipments" (Cong. Record, 52 
Cong., 1 Sess., p. 6063). A bi-metallist, he voted 
for the repeal of the Sherman Silver Act and, 
thereafter, consistently opposed the remonetiza- 
tion of silver except at the ratio of 20 to 1. At the 
Democratic State convention at Staunton, Va., 
in June 1896 he alone defended Cleveland. "I 
am not going," he said, "to stand before a crowd 
of Virginia Democrats and blackguard a man 
that you elected" (Rockbridge County News, 
June 11, 1896). His refusal to indorse the plat- 



form of 16 to 1 in that campaign, although he 
supported Bryan, cost him the political support 
of his district. 

From 1897 to 1902 he was associated with 
Washington and Lee University as professor of 
law, as dean of the law school, and, after the 
death of William L. Wilson [q.v.], as acting 
president, 1900-01. On Jan. 13, 1903, he was 
married to Martha Sharpe of Wilkes Barre, Pa., 
who died in 1928. He was dean of the department 
of law and jurisprudence at Columbian Univer- 
sity (George Washington University) from 1903 
to 1905, president of the American Bar Associa- 
tion, 1904-05, and president of the Jamestown 
Tercentennial Exposition, 1905-07. An anti- 
machine Democrat, he was an unsuccessful can- 
didate for the governorship of Virginia in 1909 
and in 1921. He was the author of Limitations 
on the Treaty-Making Power Under the Con- 
stitution of the United States (1915) and 
Woman's Suffrage by Constitutional Amend- 
ment (1916), and he edited The Constitution of 
the United States by John Randolph Tucker, 
1823-1897 [q.r.~\, in two volumes (1899). 

Reelected to Congress in March 1922, he 
served continuously until his death. In that post- 
war era he was regarded as one of the most 
ardent exponents of state rights and as one of the 
zealous defenders of the laissez-faire interpre- 
tation of the Constitution in Congress ; and he 
was opposed generally to the social and economic 
legislation of that period, the proposed child 
labor amendment, woman's suffrage, the Eigh- 
teenth Amendment, and similar legislative pro- 
posals. "When the powers of the Government 
can be used to settle the question of competition 
in commercial life, the act becomes tryanny," is 
an apposite expression of his political philosophy 
(Cong. Record, 67 Cong., 2 Sess., p. 7596). He 
attracted nation-wide attention in 1925 by refus- 
ing to accept an increase in salary for that ses- 
sion, citing as a precedent for his action his 
grandfather's refusal in Congress in 1816 in simi- 
lar circumstances. He died in Lexington, sur- 
vived by his third wife, Mary Jane (Williams) 
Tucker, to whom he had been married on June 
26, 1929. 

[Letters in possession of the family ; L. G. Tyler, 
Men of Mark in Va., V (1909); Memorial Services 
Held in the House of Representatives (1933) ; Allan 
Nevins, Crovcr Cleveland ( 1932) ; Who's Who in Amer- 
ica, 1930-31 ; Colonial Families of the U. S., V (1915), 
ed. by G. N. Mackenzie ; Rockbridge County News (Lex- 
ington), July 28, 1932; A\ V. Times, July 24, 1932; 
dates for degrees from contemporary catalogs of the 
university and Lexington Gazette and Citizen (Lex- 
ington), June 25, 1875, and June 23, 1876.] W. G. B. 

TUCKER, JOHN RANDOLPH (Jan. 31, 
1812-June 12, 1883), naval officer, the son of 



33 



Tucker 

Susan (Douglas) and John Tucker, lately of 
Bermuda, was born at Alexandria, Va., then 
within the limits of the District of Columbia. He 
received his early education in local schools, and 
on June i, 1826, he was appointed to the United 
States Navy as a midshipman. He became passed 
midshipman on June 10, 1833. He was commis- 
sioned lieutenant from Dec. 20, 1837. On June 
7, 1838, he was married at Norfolk, to Virginia 
Webb. They had three children. Tall, with im- 
posing presence, he was known to the sailors as 
"Handsome Jack." He had the reputation of being 
a resolute fighter, a strict disciplinarian, and a 
splendid seaman. Alternating with duty at the 
Norfolk yard, he served in the Home Squadron, 
in the East Indies, during the Mexican War on 
the Stromboli, first as executive officer, then as 
commander, in the Home Squadron, and in the 
Mediterranean Squadron. He was promoted to 
be commander from Sept. 14, 1855. He com- 
manded the receiving ship at Norfolk for three 
years, was on "waiting orders" for nearly two 
years, broken by a short tour on a board of in- 
spection, and was rounding out a year as ord- 
nance officer at the Norfolk yard when Virginia 
seceded. He resigned on Apr. 18, 1861, but un- 
der the policy of the Lincoln administration his 
separation from the service was recorded as a 
dismissal. 

He was immediately appointed in the short- 
lived Virginia state navy and in the Confederate 
States Navy on June 8, 1861, to rank as com- 
mander from Mar. 26, 1861. He was placed in 
charge of the naval defenses of the James River 
and was ordered to command the steamer York- 
town, which under his superintendency was con- 
verted into the protected cruiser Patrick Henry. 
His vessel was stationed at Mulberry Island to 
protect the right flank of the Confederate Army 
of the Peninsula. He participated in the battle 
of Hampton Roads on Mar. 8-9, 1862, in the 
demonstration against the enemy's fleet below 
Fort Monroe in April 1862, and after the evacu- 
ation of Norfolk commanded the fleet in its re- 
tirement up the James River to Drewry's Bluff, 
where the pursuing ships were severely repulsed 
on May 15, 1862. He left the Patrick Henry in Au- 
gust 1862 for Charleston, S. C, where he assumed 
command of the ironclad ram Chicora. He took 
part in the night attack upon the blockading 
squadron off Charleston on Jan. 31, 1863, and 
was shortly afterward given command of the 
Charleston Squadron. He was promoted to cap- 
tain of the Provisional Navy of the Confederate 
States from May 13, 1863. When Charleston was 
evacuated in February 1865, he destroyed his 
vessels and formed his crews into a naval brigade, 



Tucker 

which was assigned to duty at Drewry's Bluff, 
where he commanded ashore and Rear Admiral 
Raphael Semmes afloat. Upon the evacuation of 
Richmond, his command was assigned to the rear 
guard of Lee's army and distinguished itself at 
the battle of Sailor's Creek on Apr. 6, only to be 
surrendered by the corps commander in conse- 
quence of losses elsewhere on the field. He was 
imprisoned at Fort Warren, from where he was 
released on July 24, 1865, upon taking the oath 
of allegiance to the United States. 

After much difficulty he obtained employment 
as agent of the Southern Express Company at 
Raleigh, N. C, where he remained until he 
received a commission as rear admiral in the 
Peruvian navy. He commanded the combined 
fleets of Peru and Chile in the war with Spain, 
but the war was concluded in 1869 without an 
opportunity to engage the Spanish fleet. He was 
then appointed president of an hydrographical 
commission to survey the upper waters of the 
Amazon, which he accomplished in the face of 
hostile Indians. He was sent to New York to 
prepare the charts for publication but the finan- 
cial difficulties of Peru caused the termination of 
the commission in 1877. He retired to Peters- 
burg, Va., where he died from heart failure. 

[War of the Rebellion: Official Records (Navy) and 
(Army) indexed as John R. Tucker and not to be con- 
fused with John Randolph Tucker, the attorney-gen- 
eral of Va. ; records of the Naval Lib. and of the Navy 
Dept. ; J. H. Rochelle, Life of Rear Admiral John Ran- 
dolph Tucker (1903) ; L. G. Tyler, Encyc. of Va. Biog. 
(1915), vol. Ill; W. H. Parker, Recollections of a 
Naval Officer (1883), pp. 253-322; J. T. Scharf, Hist, 
of the Confederate States Navy (1887); Richmond 
Dispatch, June 14, 1883.] W.M.R.,Jr. 

TUCKER, JOHN RANDOLPH (Dec. 24, 
1823-Feb. 13, 1897), lawyer, teacher, and con- 
gressman from Virginia, was born at Winches- 
ter, Va., the son of Anne Evelina (Hunter) and 
Henry St. George Tucker, 1780-1848 [q.v.~\, the 
nephew of Nathaniel Beverley Tucker, 1784- 
185 1, and the grandson of St. George Tucker 
[qq.z>.~\. His brother was Nathaniel Beverley 
Tucker, 1820-1890 [q.z>.~\. He attended private 
schools at Winchester and Richmond, and in 
1839 he entered the University of Virginia, where 
he studied moral and political philosophy under 
his kinsman, George Tucker [^.r.], and also 
mathematics and physical science, the teaching 
of which he was urged by his preceptors to fol- 
low. However, he studied law under his father 
at the university and received the law degree 
there in 1843. On Oct. 5, 1848, he married Laura 
Holmes Powell of Loudoun County, Va. Henry 
St. George Tucker, 1853-1932 [<?.?'.], was their 
son. From 1845 until 1857 he practised law at 
Winchester. An ardent believer in state-rights 



34 



Tucker 

principles he took an active part in politics, serv- 
ing as Democratic elector in 1852 and 1856, par- 
ticipating in the gubernatorial campaign in 1855 
against the Know-Nothing party, and support- 
ing Breckinridge in i860. As attorney-general 
of Virginia from 1857 to 1865, he represented 
the state in important civil and criminal cases 
before the state courts. From 1865 to his death, 
though he was during most of this time either 
teaching law at Washington and Lee Univer- 
sity (1870-74; 1889-97) or serving in Congress 
(1875-87), he still engaged in the practice of 
law. It is said he appeared before the federal 
Supreme Court oftener, with one exception, than 
any other Virginian during this period. He rep- 
resented the Chicago anarchists before this body, 
and, when surprise was expressed by some 
friends, he replied, "I do not defend anarchy; I 
defend the Constitution" (Hamilton, post, pp. 
152, 153). Other notable cases with which he 
was associated were the trial of Jefferson Davis 
and the Florida case before the electoral com- 
mission. 

Upon entering Congress in 1875, he immedi- 
ately became a leader on the Democratic side of 
the House and showed himself to be "an old- 
fashioned, strict-constructionist, state-rights logi- 
cian" (Smith, post, I, 589), resisting every tend- 
ency toward centralization and applying the yard 
stick of constitutionality to every measure be- 
fore Congress. "It is unfashionable, I know," he 
once remarked, "to stickle for the Constitution" 
(Cong. Record, 49 Cong., 1 Sess., App. p. 59). 
He championed tariff reform, characterizing the 
perversion of the taxing power "from the pur- 
pose of revenue to the grant of a bounty or spe- 
cial privilege . . . if . . . directly ... a robbery ; 
if indirectly ... a fraud" ( Cong. Record, 47 
Cong., 1 Sess., App. p. 275). He advocated the 
repeal of the internal revenue system — "nests of 
Federal patronage which have infested the States 
for twenty years, and have been the source of 
more petty tyranny and of more interference 
with the freedom of elections . . . than has ever 
been known before in the history of the country" 
(Ibid., p. 475) ; favored the Chinese exclusion 
bill in order to protect "the young Hercules of 
the Pacific" (Ibid., App. p. 56) ; aided in the de- 
feat of the Blair education bill ; supported a 
sound money policy; and in 1880 introduced a 
quorum-counting rule that was subsequently 
adopted by the House under the speakership of 
Thomas B. Reed. 

After his retirement from Congress, he re- 
turned to Washington and Lee University as 
professor of constitutional and international law 
and in 1893 was made dean of the law school. 



Tucker 

In 1892-93 he was president of the American 
Bar Association. He was the author of The Con- 
stitution of the United States (2 vols., 1899, 
published posthumously). Among his published 
public addresses were The Southern Church 
Justified in its Support of the South (1863), 
Paper Read Before Social Science Association 
. . . at Saratoga Springs, N. Y '., on the Relations 
of the United States to Each Other as Modified 
by the War and the Constitutional Amendments 
(1877), and The History of the Federal Con- 
vention of 1787 (1887) read before the graduat- 
ing class of the Yale Law School. His speeches 
were polished, and he was known for his witti- 
cism, oratory, and ability as .a story teller. 

[Alexander Hamilton, Memorial of John Randolph 
Tucker (1897) and in Report of . . . Va. State Bar 
Asso. . . . 1897 (1897) ; Report of . . . the Am. Bar 
Asso. 1897 (1897); R. T. Barton, "John Randolph 
Tucker," Va. Lazv Register, May 1897 ; T. C. Smith, 
The Life and Letters of James Abram Garfield (2 vols., 
1925) ; O. F. Morton, A Hist, of Rockbridge County, 
Va. (1920) ; Philip Slaughter, A Hist, of Bristol Par- 
ish, Va. (2nd ed., 1897) ; Rockbridge County News 
(Lexington), Feb. 18, 1897.] W. G. B. 

TUCKER, LUTHER (May 7, 1802- Jan. 26, 
1873), agricultural journalist, was born in 
Brandon, Vt, the youngest of six children of 
Stephen and Olive (Green) Tucker and a de- 
scendant of Robert Tucker who settled in Wey- 
mouth, Mass., about 1635. His mother died soon 
after his birth, and the family scattered, leaving 
Luther in the care of a neighbor. His formal 
schooling was meager, but through his own ef- 
forts he acquired a good education and became 
adept as a writer. At the age of fourteen he was 
apprenticed to a printer of Middlebury, Vt., and 
in 1817 moved with his master to Palmyra, N. 
Y. During his journeyman years he worked in 
New York, Philadelphia, Baltimore, and Wash- 
ington. In the spring of 1825 he entered into a 
partnership with Henry C. Sleight of Jamaica, 
Long Island, printer of standard works for New 
York houses ; some of these bear the imprint of 
Sleight & Tucker. 

A little more than a year later, under the firm 
name of Luther Tucker & Company, Sleight and 
Tucker established the Rochester Daily Adver- 
tiser in Rochester, N. Y., where Tucker took up 
his residence. With Henry O'Reilly [q.v.] as 
its editor, the Advertiser began publication in 
October 1826 ; two years later Tucker bought his 
partner's interest. The success of the Adver- 
tiser, together with his interest in agriculture, led 
him to establish the Genesee Farmer, Jan. 1, 
1831, which despite strong prejudice against 
"newspaper farming," soon gained a large fol- 
lowing. The Genesee Farmer was published 
weekly, but from January 1836 to December 1839 



35 



Tucker 



Tucker 



Tucker published also the Monthly Genesee 
Farmer and Horticulturist, made up of selections 
from the weekly. 

In 1839 he sold the Advertiser to devote his 
full time to farming and his agricultural jour- 
nal. In October of that year, however, the death 
of Jesse Buel [q.v.] left the Albany Cultivator 
without a head, and at the solicitation of his 
friends and Buel's family Tucker purchased it, 
merging with it his Genesee Fanner, and early 
in 1840 moved to Albany to carry on the Culti- 
vator at that place. Here he became an out- 
standing member of the New York State Agri- 
cultural Society and held various offices. At the 
annual meeting in 1841 a new constitution which 
he had prepared was adopted by the Society. 
This document provided for the holding of state 
fairs, and thus to Tucker much credit is due for 
the long series of New York fairs, held annually 
without a break since 1841, which have con- 
tributed largely to the progress of New York 
agriculture. 

In July 1846 Tucker established the Horti- 
culturist, under the editorship of his friend An- 
drew J. Downing \_q.v.']. It at once assumed a 
position of influence and is still considered Amer- 
ica's most notable contribution to the periodical 
literature of horticulture. Tucker sold it in 1852, 
however, the year of Downing's death, and in 
1853 began to issue a weekly edition of the Cul- 
tivator which he called the Country Gentleman. 
Since this gradually took the place of the month- 
ly in the interest and preference of the public, he 
consolidated the two papers in January 1866 un- 
der the title of Cultivator and Country Gentle- 
man. At the time Tucker established the Coun- 
try Gentleman his eldest son, Luther H. Tucker, 
became associated with him as business mana- 
ger, the firm name being changed to Luther 
Tucker & Son. Another son, Gilbert Milligan 
Tucker \_q.v.~\, entered the firm in 1867. The 
senior Tucker continued as editor until his death, 
when his sons took over the conduct of the paper. 

In disposition Tucker was unassuming, kind- 
ly, and generous. He exerted for many years an 
important influence on agricultural matters, and 
did perhaps more than any other American of 
his time to promote the literature of agriculture. 
He was regarded by his contemporaries as the 
leader and model of agricultural journalists of 
the country and no fewer than ten other agri- 
cultural editors received their training under 
him. He was remarkably successful in enlisting 
large numbers of the best farmers of the coun- 
try as contributors to his publications. With 
Willis Gaylord [q.v.~\ he compiled in 1840 a work 
in two volumes entitled American Husbandry, 



being a series of essays on agriculture first pub- 
lished principally in the Cultivator or the Gene- 
see Farmer. 

Tucker was married three times : first, Nov. 
19, 1827, to Naomi Sparhawk, who died Aug. 4, 
1832, at Rochester, a victim of the cholera; sec- 
ond, Oct. 4, 1833, to her sister, Mary Sparhawk, 
who died Mar. 8, 1844, of consumption ; and 
third, June 1, 1846, to Mrs. Margaret Lucinda 
(Smith) Burr, who survived him. A son and a 
daughter were born of the first marriage, a son 
and three daughters of the second, and two sons 
of the third. Tucker died in Albany after a few 
weeks' illness and was buried in the Albany 
Rural Cemetery. 

[Cultivator and Country Gentleman, Jan. 30, Feb. 6, 
13, 20, Mar. 6, 13, Apr. 10, 1873 ; Country Gentleman, 
Jan. 4, 1906; Ephraim Tucker, Geneal. of the Tucker 
Family (1895); W. E. Ogilvie, Pioneer Agricultural 
Journalists ( 1927) ; JV. Y. Tribune, Jan. 28, 1873 ; Hor- 
ticulturist, Mar. 1873 ; Moore's Rural New Yorker, 
Feb. 8, 1873 I Gardener's Monthly, Mar. 1873 ; Roches- 
ter Hist. Soc. Pub. Fund Ser., VI (1927), 263-64, 270- 
7}, 279-90.] C. R. B. 

TUCKER, NATHANIEL BEVERLEY 

(Sept. 6, 1784-Aug. 26, 1851), author, professor 
of law, was born at "Matoax," Chesterfield 
County, Va. He was usually referred to as Bev- 
erley Tucker. He was the son of St. George 
Tucker \_q.v.~\ and Frances (Bland) Randolph 
Tucker. Along with his brother, Henry St. 
George Tucker, 1780-1848, and his half-brother, 
John Randolph, 1773-1833 [qq.v.~\, he was pri- 
vately tutored, and he graduated from the Col- 
lege of William and Mary in 1801. He began 
the practice of law in Charlotte County, Va., but 
with little success. There he married Mary Coal- 
ter and devoted his ample leisure to the study of 
history and politics. In 1809 he removed to 
"Roanoke," where he struggled with the law and 
lived largely on the bounty of John Randolph, 
who exercised an important influence over his 
political views. In the War of 1812 he served as 
a lieutenant and later was promoted to a staff 
appointment. In 181 5, although his practice was 
improving, he removed with his family to Mis- 
souri. There his wife died, and he married Eliza 
Taylor. After her death he was married a third 
time, on Apr. 13, 1830, to Lucy Anne Smith. He 
was instrumental in the organization of Jeffer- 
son County and served as a judge in the circuit 
courts of the territory and later of the state. He 
resisted unsuccessfully the admission of "Yan- 
keys" to the new state and was a violent oppo- 
nent of the Missouri Compromise. 

In the winter of 1833-34 he returned to Vir- 
ginia and shortly afterward was appointed pro- 
fessor of law at William and Mary, a post he 
held until his death. From his academic retreat 



36 



Tucker 



Tucker 



he poured forth letters, books, and speeches in 
defense of the rights of the South. As a lecturer 
and letter writer he had his greatest influence. 
During his fifteen years as professor he gave his 
political views wide currency among his students. 
He published books on political economy that 
are permeated with his doctrine of state sover- 
eignty and reflect the theories of his colleague, 
Thomas R. Dew. Probably his greatest political 
influence was effected by his extensive letter 
writing. Among his correspondents were Cal- 
houn, Tyler, Jefferson Davis, Hammond, Wise, 
and William G. Simms. His ideas were impor- 
tant in the development of President Tyler's 
"exchequer plan" (Tyler, post, II, 29-30). His 
last public appearance was as a delegate from Vir- 
ginia to the Nashville Convention of 1850, and 
he died in the following year at Winchester, Va. 
His principal works include three novels : 
George Balcombe (1836), published anonymous- 
ly; The Partisan Leader (2 vols., 1836); and 
Gertrude, published as a serial in the Southern 
Literary Messenger, September 1844 to Decem- 
ber 1845 as we ^ as numerous writings on politi- 
cal economy and law, of which A Discourse on 
the Importance of the Study of Political Science 
as a Branch of Academic Education in the United 
States (1840) and The Principles of Pleading 
(1846) are the most significant. George Bal- 
combe, the most thoroughly literary in purpose, 
received high praise at the time. Edgar Allan 
Poe wrote, "George Balcombe, we are induced 
to regard, upon the whole, as the best American 
novel ... its interest is intense from beginning 
to end ... its most distinguishing features are 
invention, vigor, almost audacity, of thought" 
("Marginalia," ccxxv). Tucker's books were 
nearly all devoted to an exposition of extreme 
state rights. As early as 1820 he expressed him- 
self boldly in favor of secession and for thirty 
years maintained this view with inflexible con- 
sistency. His philosophy was firmly rooted in 
eighteenth-century agrarianism ; he believed in 
aristocratic government and had no patience with 
Jacksonian Democracy — especially as it began 
to invade his own beloved state. The Nullifica- 
tion Proclamation and the Force Bill outraged 
his doctrine of state sovereignty and led to the 
writing of his best known novel, The Partisan 
Leader. At the request of friends in South Caro- 
lina, the book was secretly printed before its 
completion in the hope of swaying the election 
of 1836 — though Tucker believed Van Buren's 
triumph assured. The title page bore the fictitious 
date of 1856, and the situation described is al- 
most prophetic in its exactness. The modern 
reader marvels at the clearness with which he 



foresaw the approach of civil war, and that as 
early as 1835 some in the South felt that seces- 
sion was inevitable. The novel was suppressed 
but was reprinted as propaganda by both sides 
in the later struggle. Today it cannot claim a 
high place in literature ; the language seems stilt- 
ed, the seriousness unrelieved by humor, and the 
outlook limited. His position in literary history 
rests on the fact that he was one of the earliest 
American disciples of Scott, though his execution, 
praised in 1836, is now (1936) outmoded and 
unnatural. Tucker represented the survival of 
eighteenth century thought in pre-war Virginia. 
Hatred of centralization in government, "shirt- 
sleeve democracy," and "Yankee industrialism," 
along with his intense love for Virginia, agrari- 
anism, and the idealized slave characterize his 
thought. He was among the last of Virginia's 
political thinkers and is perhaps excluded from 
the fame of his predecessors because his philos- 
ophy belonged to a time that was past and was 
based upon a dying economy. 

[Letters in possession of his grandson, George P. 
Coleman, Williamsburg, Va. ; M. H. Woodfin, "Na- 
thaniel Beverley Tucker," Richmond College Hist. Pa- 
pers, vol. II, no. 1 (1917) ; W. C. Bruce, John Randolph 
of Roanoke (2 vols., 1922) ; Hist. Mag., June 1859 ; L. 
G. Tyler, Letters and Times of the Tylers (2 vols., 
1884-85) ; Carl Bridenbaugh, "Introduction," Partisan 
Leader (1933) ; V. L. Parrington, The Romantic Rev. 
in America ( 1927) ; a more favorable view by Poe, ante, 
and lxv as well as Carl Van Doren in Cambridge Hist. 
Am. Lit. (1917), vol. I, and H. Findlay in Lib. of South- 
ern Literature, vol. XII (1907) ; a biog. with letters in 
preparation by P. W. Torrentine, Cambridge, Mass. ; 
International Mag., Oct. 1851.] q~q h. 

TUCKER, NATHANIEL BEVERLEY 

(June 8, 1820-July 4, 1890), Confederate agent, 
was born in Winchester, Va., the grandson of 
St. George Tucker [q.v.~\, an emigrant from 
Bermuda, the nephew of Nathaniel Beverley 
Tucker, 1784-1851, and the son of Henry St. 
George Tucker, 1780-1848 [qq.z>.]. His mother 
was Anne Evelina (Hunter) Tucker, and John 
Randolph Tucker, 1823-1897 \_q.v.~\, was his 
brother. In 1831 the family removed to Rich- 
mond. The boy was prepared for college at the 
Richmond Academy and in 1837 went to the Uni- 
versity of Virginia. For a year he worked under 
Charles Ellet [q.v.] on the building of the James 
River & Kanawha Canal and then undertook the 
management of one of the family plantations. On 
Jan. 21, 1841, he was married to Jane Shelton 
Ellis and shortly afterward established himself 
at "Hazelfield" in Jefferson County. They had 
eight children. Leaving "Hazelfield" after a few 
years, he occupied himself with various under- 
takings, lost his capital and acquired debts in a 
business in Richmond, manufactured munitions 
for a time during the Mexican War, built up a 



37 



Tucker 

practice in representing claims before Congress 
and before the federal departments, and was ac- 
tive in politics. From 1853 to 1856 he edited the 
Washington Sentinel. In 1857 he succeeded Na- 
thaniel Hawthorne as consul at Liverpool. He 
enjoyed his personal and family connections in 
Europe, the friends and family of his late cousin, 
Henry St. George Tucker, who had been direc- 
tor and treasurer of the East India Company, as 
well as such Americans as George M. Dallas and 
John Y. Mason [qq.z'.~\, the ministers to Great 
Britain and France and both friends and rela- 
tives by marriage. More than six feet tall and 
fine-featured, he possessed a manner and per- 
sonality that made him many friends. In 1861 in 
a notice seeking his recognition and arrest, Sew- 
ard described him as "a large man, upwards 
of fifty, florid complexion" with "plausible and 
boisterous manners" (Official Records, post, 2 
ser., vol. II, p. 176). 

Upon the secession of Virginia he returned 
home and joined the Confederate army. Soon he 
entered into a contract to provide supplies for 
the army, and in 1862 he was in New Orleans 
seeking passage abroad. He reached Paris and 
for a time entertained high hopes, but, thwarted 
on every hand, he returned home unsuccessful. 
In 1864 he was sent to Canada on a delicate mis- 
sion to arrange for an exchange of cotton for 
bacon and, apparently, to make some kind of 
secret diplomatic representations to Northern 
men of influence. He was successful in making 
a contract for the exchange of the two commodi- 
ties, pound for pound, but in the confusion at the 
end of the war the terms were never carried out. 

After the war he was harassed by the un- 
founded suspicions and animosities of the period. 
Accused of complicity in the plot to murder Lin- 
coln, a reward of $25,000 was offered for him 
until November 1865, when the offer was re- 
voked. In spite of the entire lack of evidence 
against him and in spite of his own knowledge 
of the partisan reasons for such persecution, 
this charge continued to be a source of distress 
to him (see his Address . . . to the People of the 
United States, 1865, and Rowland, post). He 
spent a series of unprofitable years in England, 
Mexico, and Canada and in 1872 returned to the 
United States. He lived the remaining years of 
his life at Washington and, in the summer, at 
Berkeley Springs, W. Va., advocating the claims 
of various interests to Congress, to the federal 
departments, and to the public, writing for news- 
papers, and valiantly struggling with the diffi- 
culties of poverty and illness. Such stanch Re- 
publicans as James G. Blaine and Hamilton Fish 
professed to be his friends, and at his death the 



iucker 

ll'ashington Post (post) said of him that "he 
was perhaps as well known personally to leading 
politicians throughout the country as any man 
of his time." 

[J. E. Tucker, Beverley Tucker. A Memoir by his 
Wife (n.d.), in possession of Beverley Tucker of Rich- 
mond, Va. ; War of the Rebellion : Official Records 
(Army), 1 ser., XLVI, pt. 3, XLIX, pt. 2, LII, pt. 2, 
LIII, 2 ser., II, VIII, 4 ser., II, III; J. B. Jones, A 
Rebel War Clerk's Diary (1935), ed. by Howard Swig- 
gett, vol. II, p. 319; Jefferson Davis (1923), ed. by 
Dunbar Rowland, vols. II, VII ; Richmond Dispatch 
and Washington Post, July 5, 1890.] K E C 

TUCKER, ST. GEORGE (June 29, 1752 o.s.- 
Nov. 10, 1827), jurist, was born at Port Royal, 
Bermuda, the son of Henry and Anne (Butter- 
field) Tucker. He was distantly related to George 
Tucker [q.z\~\. In his late teens he emigrated to 
Virginia. He enrolled as a student in the Col- 
lege of William and Mary and graduated in 1772. 
He was admitted to the bar and began the prac- 
tice of his chosen profession in Williamsburg. 
His career as a lawyer was interrupted by the 
outbreak of the Revolutionary War, into which 
he threw himself on behalf of the struggling colo- 
nies. At the battle of Guilford Court House he 
distinguished himself by his bravery and mili- 
tary skill as a colonel of the Chesterfield County 
militia. Later he became lieutenant-colonel of a 
troop of horse and took part in the siege of York- 
town, where he was wounded. On Sept. 23, 1778, 
he married Frances (Bland) Randolph, the 
widow of John Randolph of "Matoax," Chester- 
field County, and mother of John Randolph of 
Roanoke, 1773-1833 \_q.v.~\. Nathaniel Bever- 
ley Tucker, 1784-1851, and Henry St. George 
Tucker, 1780-1848, were their sons, John Ran- 
dolph Tucker, 1823-1897 and Nathaniel Bever- 
ley Tucker, 1820-1890, grandsons, and Henry 
St. George Tucker, 1853-1932 [qqs\~\, a great- 
grandson. She died in 1788. His letters to her 
while he was in the Revolutionary Army bear 
testimony of his devotion as a husband. They 
are, at the same time, historical documents of no 
mean importance ("Southern Campaign, 1781," 
in Magazine of American History, July, Sept. 
1881). On Oct. 8, 1791, he married Lelia (Skip- 
with) Carter, the daughter of Sir Peyton Skip- 
with. 

In public office he spent virtually the whole 
remainder of his life. In 1786 he became one of 
the commissioners at the Annapolis convention. 
His judicial career, in which he was to attain 
distinguished eminence, began when he became 
judge of the general court of Virginia in 1788. 
In 1800 he became professor of law in the Col- 
lege of William and Mary. In 1803 he was elect- 
ed to the supreme court of appeals of Virginia 
as the successor of Edmund Pendleton [qs\~\. 



38 



Tucker 



Tucker 



He sat for eight years, adding no little to his 
own growing fame and enhancing the reputation 
of the court. He resigned from this court in 
1811, but in 1813 he was appointed by President 
Madison judge of the district court for the dis- 
trict of Virginia. For nearly fifteen years he 
continued as a federal judge before failure in 
health prompted his resignation. He then retired 
to the home of Joseph C. Cabell [q.v.~\ in Nelson 
County, Va., where he died. His grandson, John 
Randolph Tucker, 1823-1897 lq.v.~\, many years 
later cited his opinion in Kamper vs. Hawkins 
(1 Va. Reports, 20), in the general court, that 
the state constitution of 1776 was a sovereign act 
of the people of Virginia and therefore the su- 
preme law, and that any act of the legislature or 
the government in conflict with it was null and 
void. Among his other important opinions are 
his dissenting opinion in Woodson vs. Randolph, 
also in the general court, holding that it was 
a violation of the federal Constitution for Con- 
gress to undertake to change the rules of evi- 
dence with reference to a state contract sued 
upon in a state court (1 Brockenbroiigh and 
Holmes Reports, 128) and his opinion, in the 
supreme court of appeals of Virginia, in Turpin 
vs. Locket (6 Call Reports, 113) sustaining the 
constitutionality of the act of 1802 by which the 
glebes of the Episcopal Church were to be ap- 
plied to the relief of poor of each parish (for 
discussion see Call, post, and Hardy, post, p. 58). 
His reputation rests in no small part on his 
juridical writings. His pamphlet Dissertation 
on Slavery: with a Proposal for its Gradual Abo- 
lition in Virginia (1796 and reprinted in Phila- 
delphia 1861), advocating the emancipation of 
children born to slave mothers, was widely read 
and acclaimed. His annotated edition of Black- 
stone's Commentaries (5 vols., 1803) was one of 
the most important law books of its day. In an 
appendix he discussed the principles of govern- 
ment as related to the nature and interpretation 
of the federal Constitution. He also wrote minor 
poetry of some charm, as Liberty, a Poem on the 
Independence of America (1788) and The Pro- 
bationary Odes of Jonathan Pindar (2 pts. 1796), 
originally published in the National Gazette and 
often erroneously attributed to Philip M. Fre- 
neau. 

[Daniel Call, "Memoir," 4 Call Report (Va.), p. xxvi ; 
J. R. Tucker, "The Judges Tucker of the Court of Ap- 
peals of Va.," Va. Law Register, Mar. 1896; S. S. P. 
Patteson, "The Supreme Court of Appeals of Va.," 
Green Bag, July 1893 ; S. E. M. Hardy, "Some Va. Law- 
yers," Ibid., Jan. 1898 ; H. St. George Tucker, "Patrick 
Henry and St. George Tucker," Univ. of Pa. Law Rev., 
Jan. 1919 ; W. C. Bruce, Life of John Randolph of 
Roanoke (2 vols., 1922) ; S. N. Hurst and R. M. Brown, 
A Complete Alphabetical, Chronological Annotated Di- 
gest of All the Reported Decisions of . . . Va., vol. I 



(1897) ; Colonial Families of the U. S., vol. V (1915), 
ed. by G. N. Mackenzie ; T. A. Emmett, An Account of 
the Tucker Family of Bermuda (1898); Gentleman's 
Mag., Nov. 1828.] a. M. D. 

TUCKER, SAMUEL (Nov. 1, 1747-Mar. 10, 
!833), naval officer, was born in Marblehead, 
Mass., third of the eight children of Andrew and 
Mary (Belcher) Tucker. His father was a pros- 
perous ship captain, said to have come from 
Dundee, Scotland, and his mother was of Eng- 
lish extraction. At the age of eleven the boy ran 
away from home and went to sea, enlisting on 
board the Royal George bound for Louisbourg. 
At seventeen he was a second mate. Rising to 
first mate, he later became a master and on the 
eve of the Revolution was in command of the 
Young Phoenix, trading with Spain and Eng- 
land and importing salt. In the meantime, on 
Dec. 21, 1768, he had married Mary Gatchell of 
Marblehead, who bore him several children. 

It is said that Tucker saw his first Revolution- 
ary service in 1775 as lieutenant of a company 
of soldiers. On Jan. 20, 1776, Washington com- 
missioned him captain of the Franklin, an army 
warship, and directed him to cruise against Brit- 
ish vessels. A few months later he was trans- 
ferred to the Hancock, a superior command. 
During 1776, alone or in company with another 
ship of the army, he captured several valuable 
prizes, including two transports carrying Scot- 
tish troops and two ships laden with beef, pork, 
and other supplies. Congress on Mar. 15, 1777, 
recognized his services by appointing him a cap- 
tain in the navy, but several months elapsed be- 
fore he received a command, the frigate Boston. 
On Feb. 17, 1778, he weighed anchor at Marble- 
head and sailed for France, carrying as passen- 
gers John Adams, recently appointed commission- 
er to France, and his son John Quincy Adams. 
The elder Adams, who characterized Tucker as an 
able seaman, and a brave, vigilant officer, though 
of no great erudition, has left a description of this 
eventful voyage (The Works of John Adams, 
vol. Ill, 185 1, esp. p. 97). Noteworthy were the 
rough weather that shattered the mainmast, the 
escape of the Boston from the watchful enemy, 
the chasing of prospective prizes, the capture of 
the valuable privateer Martha, whose captain had 
served twenty years in the Royal Navy, and the 
anxieties of all as the ship neared her destination. 
On Aug. 22, after a successful cruise in French 
waters in which he captured four small prizes, 
Tucker sailed for America, accompanied by the 
Providence, Commodore Abraham Whipple 
[q.v.~\, and the Ranger, Capt. John Paul Jones 
\_q.v.~\. The little fleet captured three prizes be- 
fore arriving at its destination, Portsmouth, N. H. 

In the spring of 1779 Tucker sailed southward 



39 



Tucker 



Tucker 



to Chesapeake Bay and on July 29, accompanied 
by the Dcane, Commodore Samuel Nicholson 
[g.c'.j, two ships of the Virginia navy, and a 
convoy of merchantmen, sailed out of the bay. 
The two frigates made a successful cruise of 
about five weeks, capturing eight prizes, includ- 
ing four New York privateers, and the packet 
Sandzuich and the sloop of war Thorn, each of 
sixteen guns. On Sept. 6 they arrived at Boston, 
with 250 prisoners, among whom were several 
officers. In November the Boston with several 
other naval ships sailed on important service. 
After a brief cruise, during which a privateer of 
twelve guns was captured, the fleet arrived at 
Charleston, S. C, where Tucker participated in 
the siege of Charleston, with the Boston an- 
chored in the Cooper River. On the surrender 
of the city he and his vessel fell into the hands 
of the enemy. He was almost immediately pa- 
roled and his vessel was taken into the Royal 
Navy and renamed the Charleston. Exchanged 
for the captain of the Thorn, Tucker obtained 
leave of absence from the navy and in 1781 made 
several cruises in that vessel, now a privateer, 
and captured among other ships the packet Lord 
Hyde. About Aug. 1 near the mouth of the St. 
Lawrence the Thorn was captured by the frigate 
Hind and Tucker and his officers were landed on 
the island of St. John's (now Prince Edward 
Island). Furnished with an open boat to carry 
them to Halifax, they laid a course for Boston, 
where in due time they arrived. This ended Tuck- 
er's active service in the navy. 

In comfortable circumstances by reason of 
prize money, Tucker lived for several years in a 
house on Fleet Street, Boston. Returning to the 
merchant service, in 1783-85 he commanded sev- 
eral vessels trading with West India and Euro- 
pean ports. In 1786 the Cato, a ship in which he 
had a large pecuniary interest, sank in the harbor 
of Lisbon. Giving up the sea, he moved to Mar- 
blehead and purchased there an interest in two 
grist mills and a granary. Failing in this enter- 
prise, in 1792 he purchased a farm in Bristol, 
Me., on which he spent the rest of his life. From 
1814 to 1818 he was a member of the Massachu- 
setts house and later he was twice elected to the 
Maine house. In 1820 he carried to Washington 
the electoral vote of Maine, making the journey 
of 600 miles in less than five days. A statement 
made at this time (Daily National Intelligencer, 
Washington, Dec. 16, 1820) that he had taken 
sixty-two prizes, more than 600 cannon, and 3,- 
000 prisoners probably exaggerated his Revo- 
lutionary services. In 182 1 a private act of Con- 
gress pensioned him at the rate of twenty 
dollars a month and ten years later a general act 



increased his pension to $600 a year. His wife 
died Dec. 30, 1831, and Tucker some fifteen 
months later, at Bremen, Me. 

[J. H. Sheppard, The Life of Samuel Tucker (1868), 
is not free from legendary materials. See also Shep- 
pard's briefer sketch in New-Eng. Hist, and Geneal. 
Reg., Apr. 1872; G. W. Allen, A Naval Hist, of the 
Am. Rev. (2 vols., 1913) ; C. O. Paullin, Out-Letters 
of Continental Marine Committee and Board of Ad- 
miralty (1014) ; Ephraim Tucker, Geneal. of the Tucker 
Family (1895) ; Samuel Roads, Hist, and Traditions of 
Marblchcad (1880); Niles' Weekly Register, Apr. 6, 
27, 1833. W. P. Chipman, In Ship and Prison (copr. 
1908) is a fictional account of Tucker.] COP 

TUCKER, STEPHEN DAVIS (Jan. 28, 
1818-Oct. 9, 1902), inventor and manufacturer, 
was born at Bloomfield, N. J. His parents were 
Benjamin and Jane (Davis) Tucker; his first 
American ancestor, grandfather of Benjamin, 
was Timothy Tucker, who came to America 
prior to 1732. On June 3, 1834, young Tucker 
was apprenticed to a member of the firm x»f R. 
Hoe & Company of New York, manufacturers of 
printing presses, to learn "the art, trade and 
mystery of finisher or whitesmith," and with the 
same firm he remained for fifty-nine years, until 
his retirement as senior partner. In 1842 he was 
set to work in the experiment room which had 
just been established. At first his work there 
consisted merely in the fabrication and testing 
of models, but his inventive genius soon mani- 
fested itself. He proved to be "one of the most 
brilliant mechanics that this country ever pro- 
duced" (Scientific American, June 5, 1915), and 
in the course of his long service with the com- 
pany took out nearly one hundred patents for 
improvements in printing, some in his own name 
alone and some in conjunction with Richard M. 
Hoe [q.v.~\. Among his most important inven- 
tions were those which made (or helped to make) 
practicable the printing of both sides of a paper 
at once, the printing of a continuous web of pa- 
per instead of individual sheets, and the folding 
of newspapers by machinery as they come off the 
press. In 1846 he became foreman of his depart- 
ment, and in 1848 was sent to Paris to set up new 
Hoe presses for La Patrie and start their opera- 
tion. Further business of the firm kept him in 
France for two years. He was admitted as a 
partner May 28, i860, and finally retired on Aug. 
31, 1893, transferring his share to Robert Hoe, 
1839-1909 iq.v.j. 

Tucker continued to live in New York, but 
traveled abroad extensively. He devoted much 
of his leisure to the study of sundials and as- 
sembled a collection of more than sixty speci- 
mens in ivory, bone, silver, and wood, illustrating 
both artistic and scientific aspects; this he left to 
the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York. 



40 



Tucker 



Tucker 



He also wrote a "History of R. Hoe & Com- 
pany," which is of great value for the study of 
the printing art in the nineteenth century. It was 
not intended for publication and was never print- 
ed, but there are copies in the Library of Con- 
gress, the Newberry Library (Chicago), and the 
Stephen Spaulding Collection at the University 
of Michigan, besides three or four in private pos- 
session. He died in London. He was twice mar- 
ried: first, about 1852, to Aimee Desiree, daugh- 
ter of Jean Cherouvrier of Le Mans, who died 
Sept. 12, i860 ; and second, Nov. 4, 1862, to 
Sarah Ann, daughter of William Conquest of 
London, who survived him. 

[This account is based mainly on information sup- 
plied by Tucker's daughters ; only scattered references 
to him or to his work are to be found in print. Some- 
thing can be gleaned from his own "History of R. Hoe 
& Company," but it is quite impersonal and deals most- 
ly in "we," not in "I."] T. M. S. 

TUCKER, WILLIAM JEWETT (July 13, 
1839-Sept. 29, 1926), clergyman, educator, was 
born at Griswold, Conn., the son of Henry and 
Sarah White (Lester) Tucker, and a descendant 
of Robert Tucker, who settled in Weymouth, 
Mass., in 1635. His mother died when he was a 
child and he spent the greater part of his youth 
in the home of his maternal uncle, the Rev. Wil- 
liam R. Jewett, at Plymouth, N. H. He was edu- 
cated at Plymouth, at Kimball Union Academy, 
and at Dartmouth College, where he graduated 
in 1861. After teaching for a period at Colum- 
bus, Ohio, he entered the Andover Theological 
Seminary and was graduated from that insti- 
tution in 1866. During his course in the Semi- 
nary he served for a time as agent of the United 
States Christian Commission with the Army of 
the Cumberland in the campaign before Atlanta. 
After a period spent as representative of the 
American Home Missionary Society in Kansas 
and Missouri, he was ordained, Jan. 24, 1867, 
and assumed the pastorate of the Franklin Street 
(Congregational) Church in Manchester, N. H., 
transferring his activities to the Madison Square 
(Presbyterian) Church in New York in 1875. 
In 1880 he became professor of sacred rhetoric 
in the Andover Theological Seminary. 

At Andover, in addition to the usual duties of 
his professorship, Tucker was specially concerned 
with the social responsibilities of the church. In 
connection with his lectureship in pastoral theol- 
ogy he developed courses in sociology, then a 
novelty in divinity schools. In 1891 he founded 
a social settlement in Boston called Andover 
House (afterwards South End House) modeled 
after Toynbee Hall in London, which, under the 
immediate supervision of Robert A. Woods, soon 
achieved a distinguished success. His Andover 



period was far from peaceful, however. In 1884 
five professors in the Seminary, including Tuck- 
er, founded a periodical called the Andover Re- 
view. The articles in this journal, some of them 
republished in book form under the title Progres- 
sive Orthodoxy (1886), soon attracted the un- 
favorable attention of the conservative wing of 
Congregationalism. While numerous utterances 
of the editors were considered to be heterodox, 
particular objection was raised to their refusal 
to admit that infants and members of races which 
had never enjoyed the advantage of Christian 
teaching are necessarily doomed to eternal per- 
dition. This doctrine of a "second probation" 
was especially objectionable to the missionary 
organizations of the church. Charges were filed 
against the five professors in 1886, at the end of 
that year they were tried before the board of vis- 
itors of the seminary, and Prof. Egbert C. Smyth 
[g.?;.] was found guilty, while the other four 
(against whom the evidence was practically the 
same as against Professor Smyth) were acquitted 
by a tie vote. Upon appeal, the supreme court of 
Massachusetts in 1890 pronounced the proceed- 
ings faulty, and in 1892, at a second trial, Smyth 
was acquitted. The "Andover controversy" thus 
ended in a complete victory for the faculty. 

In 1893 Tucker became president of Dartmouth 
College. Serious problems confronted him upon 
his accession. The institution had long been a 
stronghold of conservatism — dominated by a re- 
actionary theology, averse to educational experi- 
mentation, and working in large part with the 
material facilities of the eighteenth century. To 
the solution of these problems Tucker brought 
educational vision and insight of a rare order, 
acumen and resource in business management, 
adroitness in matters of finance, and powers of 
leadership which ensured harmonious coopera- 
tion of all the branches of the college. As a re- 
sult of his efforts student attendance rose from 
three hundred to eleven hundred, the teaching 
body was increased in like proportion, material 
facilities were modernized, finance reorganized 
and placed upon a sounder basis. The spirit of 
contention which had marked much of the previ- 
ous history of the institution disappeared, theo- 
logical dictation vanished, and, most of all, the 
spirit of the college became such as to enable it 
more intelligently to meet the educational de- 
mands of the age. 

Tucker's moral leadership was also impres- 
sive. Exerted under the advantage of direct per- 
sonal contact at Andover, it was no less effective 
at Dartmouth where his opportunities, for the 
most part, were limited to chapel services and 
other public exercises. His personality awak- 



41 



Tuckerman 



Tuckerman 



ened veneration, respect, and sincere affection, 
and through the strength of his appeal he be- 
came an influence for good in generations of col- 
lege graduates. He retired from the presidency 
of Dartmouth in 1909. The remainder of his 
life, so far as his health permitted, was devoted 
to literary activity. In addition to numerous ar- 
ticles in the magazines and to his contributions 
to books issued by the Andover faculty, he had 
already published The Making and the Unmak- 
ing of the Preacher (1898). In 1910 appeared 
two volumes, Personal Power and Public Mind- 
cdness; in 191 1, The Function of the Church in 
Modern Society; in 1916, The New Reservation 
of Time, and in 1919 an autobiography, My Gen- 
eration. 

Tucker was twice married: on June 22, 1870, 
to Charlotte Henry Rogers of Plymouth, N. H., 
who died in 1882, and in June 1887 to Charlotte 
Barrell Cheever of Worcester, Mass. Two daugh- 
ters were born of the first marriage and one of 
the second ; all three survived their father. 

[In addition to Tucker's autobiography, see J. K. 
Lord, A Hist, of Dartmouth Coll. (1913) ; L. B. Rich- 
ardson, Hist, of Dartmouth Coll., vol. II (1932) ; J. W. 
Buckham. Progressive Religious Thought in America 
(1919) ; Granite Monthly, June 1903; E. M. Hopkins, 
William Jewett Tucker, a Tribute (1926) ; Who's Who 
in America, 1926—27 ; Ephraim Tucker, Gene at. of the 
Tucker Family (1895) ; Manchester Union (Manches- 
ter, N. H.), Sept. 30, 1926.] l. B. R. 

TUCKERMAN, BAYARD (July 2, 1855- 
Oct. 20, 1923), author, the son of Lucius and 
Elizabeth Wolcott (Gibbs) Tuckerman, was born 
in New York City. Through his father, an iron 
manufacturer, son of the Rev. Joseph Tucker- 
man [g.z\], he was descended from John Tuck- 
erman who came to Massachusetts Bay about 
1649; his mother, daughter of the elder George 
Gibbs [q.v.~\ and sister of the younger George and 
of Oliver Wolcott Gibbs [qq.v.~], was a grand- 
daughter of Oliver Wolcott \_q.v.~], signer of the 
Declaration of Independence. Having studied 
with private tutors, Bayard Tuckerman spent 
two years at the Pension Roulet at Neuchatel, 
Switzerland, before entering Harvard College, 
where he graduated with the class of 1878. Re- 
turning to Paris the year of his graduation, he 
soon undertook a serious study of English lit- 
erature, producing after four years A History of 
English Prose Fiction from Sir Thomas Malory 
to George Eliot, published in New York in 1882. 
While this volume has long since been super- 
seded, it was much esteemed by the author's con- 
temporaries. In September 1882, at Ipswich, 
Mass., Tuckerman married Annie Osgood Smith, 
daughter of the Rev. John Cotton Smith [q.v.~\, 
and settled down to a life of domestic felicity and 



the joys of authorship; a son and three daugh- 
ters were born to them. 

His Life of General Lafayette (2 vols., 1889), 
a thorough, careful, and interesting biography, 
written in a clear and unpretentious style, was 
the first account of Lafayette based upon an ade- 
quate, modern critical apparatus. The same year 
was marked by his publication of The Diary of 
Philip Hone, 1828-1851 in two volumes ; this was 
a satisfactory collection of excerpts from Hone's 
voluminous diary, but otherwise the editing was 
slight, for Tuckerman's edition contains almost 
no notes. In 1893 he published, in the Makers of 
America Series, a biography, Peter Stuyvesant, 
which was useful and well-written, but hardly 
an important contribution to American histori- 
ography. His William Jay and the Constitutional 
Movement for the Abolition of Slavery (1894) 
was a significant addition to the literature of the 
anti-slavery movement, for it was based upon 
voluminous manuscript materials that have never 
been utilized by any other historian. His Life of 
General Philip Schuyler, 1733-1804 (1903), al- 
though still standard in its field, is not marked 
by any great biographical skill, but it was based 
upon valuable manuscript materials which have 
since been scattered and probably lost. Although 
Tuckerman later compiled two small genealogies 
— Notes on the Tuckerman Family of Massachu- 
setts (privately printed, 1914) and A Sketch of 
the Cotton Smith Family of Sharon, Connecticut 
(privately printed, 1915) — his book on Schuyler 
was his last important literary production. In- 
creasing ill health prevented the completion of a 
history of chivalry, upon which he had spent sev- 
eral years of research. 

From 1898 to 1907 Tuckerman lectured on 
English literature at Princeton University, but 
while he enjoyed academic life his first choice 
was for the quiet and severe life of the country, 
and a private income made him independent and 
permitted him to indulge his inclinations. He 
never became a great scholar, but he fully de- 
served the old-fashioned title of "scholar and 
gentleman" which his intimate friends bestowed 
upon him. 

[Sources include Harvard College, Class of 1878, Fif- 
tieth Anniversary Report, 1878-1928 (n.d.) ; Harvard 
Graduates' Magazine, Dec. 1923 ; Who's Who in Amer- 
ica, 1922-23 ; Tuckerman's genealogical books, men- 
tioned above ; George Gibbs, The Gibbs Family of Rhode 
Island and Some Related Families (1933) ; death notice 
in Boston Transcript, Oct. 22. 1923 ; information from 
a daughter, Mrs. Wm. M. Elkins. Tuckerman's MSS. 
are in the possession of Mrs. Bayard Tuckerman, Ips- 
wich, Mass., and Bayard Tuckerman, Jr., Hamilton, 
Mass.] F. M. 

TUCKERMAN, EDWARD (Dec. 7, 1817- 
Mar. 15, 1886), botanist, distinguished authority 



42 



Tuckerman 



Tuckerman 



upon lichens, was born in Boston, Mass., the eld- 
est son of a merchant of the same name and Sophia 
(May) Tuckerman. He was a brother of Fred- 
erick Goddard Tuckerman and a nephew of the 
Rev. Joseph Tuckerman [qq.z'.]. Prepared for 
college at Boston Latin School, he graduated 
(B.A.) from Union College in 1837 and from 
Harvard Law School in 1839. Two years later 
he visited Europe, to pursue special studies in 
philosophy, history, and botany, an important 
influence in his later work being his studies at 
Upsala, Sweden, under the famous lichenologist 
Elias Fries. Returning in 1842, he reentered 
Union College and received the degree of M.A. 
the next year. Desiring then to obtain an aca- 
demic degree from Harvard, he matriculated as 
a senior in 1846, graduating (B.A.) in 1847. 
Subsequently he entered Harvard Divinity 
School, and completed the courses of study in 
1852. He married Sarah Eliza Sigourney Cush- 
ing, in Boston, May 17, 1854, and shortly there- 
after removed to Amherst, Mass., to lecture in 
history at Amherst College. He was appointed 
professor of botany in 1858, and held this posi- 
tion the rest of his life, which was passed at Am- 
herst. During his later years he became almost 
totally deaf ; he died from complications of 
Bright's disease, without issue. 

Tuckerman was a man of uncommonly broad 
scholarly culture, whose life was devoted unre- 
servedly to study. He was early attracted to 
lichens, and his botanical publications up to 1841 
dealt with New England plants of this group, 
largely of his own collecting in the White Moun- 
tains. By that time, however, he had also con- 
tributed to the New York Churchman no less 
than fifty-four articles upon biographical, his- 
torical, and theological topics. In 1842 he de- 
scribed Oakcsia, a new genus of flowering plants 
from New England. While a student at Union 
he was appointed curator of the college museum, 
and here also he issued privately, Enumeratio 
Mcthodica Caricum Quarundam (1843), an eru- 
dite revision of the sedges (Carex), which Asa 
Gray (post, p. 541) mentions as early displaying 
Tuckerman's genius as a systematizer. This was 
followed by three other papers on New England 
flowering plants, including (1849) an elabora- 
tion of the American pondweeds ( Potamogcton ) . 
But otherwise, aside from his Catalogue of Plants 
Growing without Cultivation within Thirty 
Miles of Amherst College (1875), summarizing 
twenty years' study, his published botanical work 
is chiefly upon lichens. 

In the field of American lichenology Tucker- 
man is outstanding. Lichens had been studied 
scarcely at all by American students, and he him- 



self was the first to explore for them in the moun- 
tains of New England. This he did with notable 
success and thoroughness, in the most difficult 
regions. In 1845 there appeared his Enumeration 
of North American Lichcnes ; then his "Synopsis 
of the Lichenes of New England, the other 
Northern States, and British America" {Pro- 
ceedings of the American Academy of Arts and 
Sciences, vol. I, 1848, pp. 195-285). The latter 
was the first attempt to describe and classify all 
the lichens known from temperate North Amer- 
ica, and it proved a great stimulus to the study 
of this group. From 1848 to 1872 Tuckerman 
published numerous other papers, of which the 
more important are a supplement to his Enumera- 
tion describing many new species from Cali- 
fornia and the southern United States {American 
Journal of Science, 1858, 1859) ; four parts of a 
continued series of critical notes in Proceedings 
of the American Academy (vols. IV-VII, i860- 
68, vol. XII, 1877), relating largely to the Cuban 
lichens collected by Charles Wright ; an illus- 
trated brochure (1862) upon the lichens of 
the United States Exploring Expedition under 
Wilkes ; Lichens of California, Oregon, and the 
Rocky Mountains (1866); besides accounts of 
species from many foreign regions, as well as of 
material collected on several governmental sur- 
veys. These studies were definitely contributory 
to Genera Lichenum : An Arrangement of North 
American Lichens (1872), regarded as Tucker- 
man's greatest work. He planned also a com- 
prehensive treatise containing descriptions of all 
the lichens known from the United States, and 
the first volume appeared in 1882 as A Synopsis 
of the North American Lichens: Part I ; the sec- 
ond, completed by Henry Willey, was published 
two years after Tuckerman's death. 

Though never robust, Tuckerman was in early 
life an intrepid explorer ; Tuckerman Ravine on 
Mount Washington was named in his honor. He 
is commemorated also by a genus of Composite, 
Tnckcrmania. He was elected a member of the 
National Academy of Sciences in 1868. Of gen- 
tle, sensitive disposition and retiring tempera- 
ment, he was noted for his amiability, helpful- 
ness, and exquisite taste, and equally for his keen 
independent criticism, his fondness for anti- 
quarian and genealogical research, and his studi- 
ous attention to philosophy, divinity, and law. 
In the words of his friend Asa Gray {post, p. 
544), he was "much more than an excellent spe- 
cialist." 

[Asa Gray, "Edward Tuckerman," Proc. Am. Acad. 
Arts and Sci., XXI (1886), 539-47, with bibliog., repr. 
in Am. Jour. Sci., July 1886 (3 ser., XXXII, 1-7) ; H. 
H. Goodell, "Edward Tuckerman : Biog. Sketch," and 
Henry Willey, "Bibliog. Sketch," Bot. Gas., Apr. 1886 



43 



Tuckerman 

(XI, 73-74 and 74-78) ; W. G. Farlow, "Memoir of 
Edward Tuckerman," with bibliog., Nat. Acad. Sci. 
Biog. Memoirs, vol. Ill (1895), preprint, 1887; Bruce 
Fink, in Proc. Iowa Acad. Sci., XI (1904), 25-29, 
portr. ; Am. Naturalist, June 1886 (XX, 578-79) ; Bay- 
ard Tuckerman, Notes on the Tuckerman Family (priv. 
printed, 1914)-] W.R. M. 

TUCKERMAN, FREDERICK (May 7. 
1857-Nov. 8, 1929), comparative anatomist and 
naturalist, was born in Greenfield, Mass., the son 
of Frederick Goddard Tuckerman [q.v.~\ and 
Hannah Lucinda (Jones), and a nephew of the 
botanist Edward Tuckerman [q.v.~\. He received 
the degree of B.S. from both the Massachusetts 
Agricultural College and Boston University in 
1878 and that of M.D. from the Harvard Medical 
School in 1882. After a period of study in London 
and Berlin, 1882-83, he lectured on anatomy and 
physiology at the Massachusetts Agricultural 
College until 1886. Subsequently he was a fel- 
low of Clark University, 1889-90, and again went 
abroad to study in London, Berlin, and Heidel- 
berg ; from the University of Heidelberg he re- 
ceived the degrees of A.M. and Ph.D. in 1894. 
After his return to America, he made his home 
at Amherst, Mass. Having adequate means, he 
sought no university position, but gave his time 
to independent research in comparative anatomy 
and natural history and to genealogical studies. 
He also took an active interest in local church 
and town affairs. 

Tuckerman's best genealogical work concerned 
his wife's family, the Coopers of Boston. He 
published "Thomas Cooper of Boston and His 
Descendants" and "Notes from the Rev. Samuel 
Cooper's Interleaved Almanacs of 1764 and 1769" 
in the New-England Historical and Genealogical 
Register (January 1890, April 1901) and "Diary 
of Samuel Cooper, 1775-1776" and "Letters of 
Samuel Cooper to Thomas Pownall, 1769-77," 
in the American Historical Review (January 
1901, January 1903). An excellent biography of 
Charles Anthony Goessmann [g.z\], professor 
of chemistry in the Massachusetts Agricultural 
College, was written by him in 191 1 (United 
States Catholic Historical Society, Historical 
Records and Studies, vol. VI, pt. 1, 1911 ) and, 
in 1929, his Amherst Academy: A New England 
School of the Past was published posthumously. 
He was also a contributor to the Dictionary of 
American Biography. He supported the Appa- 
lachian Mountain Club, contributing to their pub- 
lication Appalachia in 1918, 1921, and 1926, and 
was considered an authority on the history of 
the White Mountains. His researches in com- 
parative anatomy, especially on the gustatory 
and taste organs, were sound {Journal of Anat- 
omy and Physiology, vols. XXIII, XXIV, XXV, 
1889-91, and Journal of Morphology, vols. II, 



Tuckerman 

IV, VII, 1889-92). He held membership in the 
American Society of Naturalists, the Boston So- 
ciety of Natural History, Anatomische Gesell- 
schaft (Jena), and the American Association of 
Anatomists. On Sept. 6, 1881, he married Alice 
Girdler Cooper, daughter of James Sullivan 
Cooper ; she and two daughters survived him. 

[Bayard Tuckerman, Notes on the Tuckerman Family 
(privately printed, 19 14) ; Who's Who in America, 
1928-29; Boston Transcript, Nov. 8, 1929; Amherst 
Record, Nov. 13, 1929; reports from Tuckerman's fam- 
"y] H.R.V. 

TUCKERMAN, FREDERICK GODDARD 
(Feb. 4, 1821-May 9, 1873), Poet, son of Ed- 
ward and Sophia (May) Tuckerman, was born 
in Boston, Mass. He came from a distinguished 
family; his elder brother, Edward Tuckerman 
[q.v.~\, became professor of botany at Amherst 
College; his cousin, Henry Theodore Tucker- 
man [q.v. r \, was a critic and essayist of some 
repute; his uncle, Joseph Tuckerman [q.v.], was 
a noted philanthropist and Unitarian clergyman. 
Tuckerman entered Harvard College with the 
class of 1841, but left at the end of his first year 
on account of serious eye trouble. After a year 
of rest, however, he persisted in his education 
and was graduated from the Harvard Law School 
in 1842. He was admitted to the bar in 1844, but 
practised only a few years, since private means 
enabled him to devote himself to his chief inter- 
ests — literature, botany, and astronomy. Retir- 
ing to Greenfield, Mass., in 1847, he lived there, 
except for two holidays in Europe, until his death 
in 1873. He published some of his observations 
on eclipses and won a reputation as an authority 
on the local flora, but for the most part his life 
was passed in seclusion from the world. He 
married Hannah Lucinda Jones, June 17, 1847; 
she died at the birth of her third child, Frederick 
[q.v.'], in 1857. 

A number of Tuckerman's poems — several of 
which had first appeared in the Living Age, Put- 
nam's, or the Atlantic Monthly — were collected 
and privately printed at Boston under the title 
Poems in i860, and published in England in 1863 
and in Boston in 1864 and 1869. Some of them 
won favorable comment from Emerson and Long 
fellow, but Tuckerman was overlooked by Sted- 
man in compiling his American Anthology and 
as a poet had virtually slipped from memory 
when he was rediscovered by Walter Prichard 
Eaton in 1909 ("A Forgotten American Poet," 
Forum, January 1909). In 1931, Witter Bynner 
edited and published, with a critical introduction, 
The Sonnets of Frederick Goddard Tuckerman, 
containing in addition to some which had ap- 
peared in the Poems, three previously unpub- 
lished sequences. Although Tuckerman's son- 



44 



Tuckerman 



Tuckerman 



nets were unnoticed by his contemporaries — 
even by Emerson and Longfellow — Bynner ranks 
them "with the noblest in the language" (Intro- 
duction, post, p. 36), finding in them "not only 
. . . the fine thoughts of a devout stoic," but "the 
subtly fine craft of a devout poet." Not bound 
by conventional sonnet forms, Tuckerman "shuf- 
fled the rhyme-scheme to suit the rise and fall of 
his meaning" and revealed "an anachronistic 
fondness for the juxtaposition of fine and homely 
phrases and images," together with "an . . . emo- 
tional use of words that Edgar Allan Poe might 
have envied" (Ibid., pp. 18-19). He died at 
Greenfield, in his fifty-third year. 

[Bayard Tuckerman, Notes on the Tuckerman Fam- 
ily (privately printed, 1914) ; Witter Bynner, Introduc- 
tion, in Sonnets of Frederick Goddard Tuckerman 
(1931), portr. ; Bookman, Apr. 1931; death notice in 
Boston Daily Globe, May 12, 1873.] H. R. V. 

TUCKERMAN, HENRY THEODORE 

(Apr. 20, 1813-Dec. 17, 1871), critic, essayist, 
and poet, was born in Boston, Mass., a nephew 
of Joseph Tuckerman [q.v.~\ and the son of Henry 
Harris and Ruth (Keating) Tuckerman. His 
sister Ruth became the mother of Henry Cuyler 
Bunner [q.v.']. The elder Tuckerman, a- pros- 
perous merchant, sent his son to the Latin School 
and thence to Harvard, where, however, the 
young man remained for only two years. Ill 
health caused him to seek relaxation in foreign 
travel, and he spent the years 1833-34 mostly in 
Italy, where he began his lifelong, romantic de- 
votion to literature and art. Upon his return he 
published The Italian Sketch Book (1835). The 
years 1836-38, passed again in Italy and Sicily, 
resulted in a travel romance, Isabel, or Sicily, a 
Pilgrimage (1839). Tuckerman now determined 
upon a literary career, and with his return to 
Boston started contributing poems and essays to 
periodicals. For a time in 1843 he edited the Bos- 
ton Miscellany of Literature and Fashion, but 
in 1845 he removed to New York City, where 
he settled down to a quiet literary and social life. 
A brief visit to England in 1852-53 was the basis 
of a small volume, A Month in England (1853), 
which embodied reflections on English life and art. 
A man of independent financial means, Tuck- 
erman had ample opportunity to indulge his love 
of meditation and study. In his essay "New Eng- 
land Philosophy" (The Optimist), he decries 
the national spirit of commercialism, which car- 
ries with it "want of serenity" and of poetic feel- 
ing. His works of travel, in their emphasis on 
the picturesque and on the historic and literary 
associations of European life, as well as in their 
quiet, leisurely style, show the influence of Irving 
and sometimes of Sterne. As a literary critic, 
Tuckerman is best understood in the light of his 



essay on Hazlitt (Characteristics of Literature, 
second series), where he finds the function of the 
critic that of feeler and sympathizer, as well as 
that of analyst. Following more or less Hazlitt's 
critical manner are his Tlioughts on the Poets 
(1846) and the two series of Characteristics of 
Literature (1849, 1851). Always fascinated by 
pictorial art and sculpture, Tuckerman produced 
in 1847 Artist-Life, or Sketches of American 
Painters, which twenty years later he expanded 
into a significant volume, Book of the Artists: 
American Artist Life (1867). His interest in 
biography found expression in The Life of Silas 
Talbot (1850), Mental Portraits (1853), Es- 
says, Biographical and Critical (1857), and The 
Life of John Pendleton Kennedy (1871). Char- 
acteristic familiar essays are collected in The 
Optimist (1850) and The Criterion (1866), and 
a series of Irvingesque sketches in Leaves from 
the Diary of a Dreamer (1853). A volume of 
Poems (1851) shows many of the traits discern- 
ible in his prose — love of retirement, interest 
in art, fascination with the historic and literary 
associations of Italy, and indulgence in sentiment 
that sometimes passed into sentimentality. Per- 
haps his work of greatest lasting importance is 
America and Her Commentators: with a Critical 
Sketch of Travel in the United States (1864). 
Although of a quiet, retiring nature, Tucker- 
man entered freely into the social life of New 
York, having as friends such men as Washing- 
ton Irving, Dr. John W. Francis, and Fitz- 
Greene Halleck [qq.v.~\. His love of the city of 
his adoption is evinced in his edition (1865) of 
Dr. Francis' Old Nezv York. Representing with 
Rufus W. Griswold and Evert A. Duyckinck 
[qq.v.~\ the easy, romantic scholarship of the for- 
ties and fifties in America, he readily passed in 
his day for a man of genius, having even a small 
English audience. Harvard in 1850 gave him 
the honorary degree of M.A. ; and the king of 
Italy conferred upon him an order "in recog- 
nition of his labors on behalf of Italian exiles in 
the United States." Tuckerman never married. 
He died in New York City and was buried in 
Mount Auburn Cemetery, Cambridge, Mass. 

[See Bayard Tuckerman, Notes on the Tuckerman 
Family of Mass. (priv. printed, 1914) ; N. Y. Tribune, 
Dec. 18, 1871 ; Evening Post (N. Y.), Dec. 18, 20, 
1 87 1 ; R. W. Griswold, Poets and Poetry of America 
(1842), and The Prose Writers of America (1847) ; E. 
A. and G. L. Duyckinck, Cyc. of Am. Lit. (1875), vnl. 
II ; E. A. Duyckinck, A Memorial of Henry T. Tucker- 
man (1872) ; N. F. Adkins, Fits-Greene Halleck (1930), 
passim ; F. L. Mott, A Hist, of Am. Mags. (1930). For 
a full list of Tuckerman's works, as well as for many 
critical articles, see S. A. Allibone, A Critical Diet, of 
Eng. Lit., vol. Ill (1871). Some information has been 
furnished by Miss Sydney R. McLean, who is prepar- 
ing a biography of Tuckerman.] N.F. A. 



45 



Tuckerman 

TUCKERMAN, JOSEPH (Jan. 18, 1778- 
Apr. 20, 1840), Unitarian clergyman, the son of 
Edward and Elizabeth (Harris) Tuckerman and 
a descendant of John Tuckerman who came from 
England to Massachusetts Bay about 1649, was 
born in Boston, Mass. He was educated at the 
Boston Latin School and Harvard College, grad- 
uating in 1798. William Ellery Channing and 
Joseph Story were his classmates, the latter his 
roommate. Tuckerman studied for the Unitarian 
ministry with Rev. Thomas Thacher and must 
have been an outstanding pupil, for he was in- 
vited by the Boston Mechanic Association to 
preach for them on Feb. 22, 1800, and was gen- 
erously thanked for his "pathetic Elegant and 
Judicious Oration, commemorative of the Sub- 
lime virtues and preeminent services of the late 
General Washington," which was then printed, 
under the title, A Funeral Oration: Occasioned 
by the Death of General George Washington. 
In 1801, on Nov. 4, he was ordained to his first 
and only pastorate, in Chelsea, to receive the 
munificent sum of five hundred dollars a year. 
He was now settled, with a salary, and on July 
5, 1803, he married Abigail Parkman of Boston. 
She died July 28, 1807, leaving him with three 
young children, and on Nov. 3, 1808, he married 
Sarah Cary, of a family prominent socially in 
Chelsea, who bore him seven children. Bayard 
Tuckerman [q.v.~] was his grandson. 

In 1805, Tuckerman became one of the original 
members of the Anthology Society, publishers 
of the Monthly Anthology and Boston Review. 

During his ministry in Chelsea, he started 
(1812) the Boston Society for the Religious 
and Moral Improvement of Seamen ("Report," 
Christian Disciple, July 1813), said to have been 
the first of its kind in the United States. He 
wrote a number of tracts for the benefit of this 
movement. His interest in seamen was dupli- 
cated by his interest in those he called "the ne- 
glected poor in our cities," and when he removed 
from Chelsea to Boston in 1826, on account of 
ill health, he began a "ministry-at-large," which 
was in effect a city mission for the poor. His 
work in this field was described in his book, The 
Principles and Results of the Ministry at Large, 
in Boston (1838). Many of his sermons and 
tracts dealing with charitable subjects were also 
printed. The idea of the ministry-at-large took 
him to England in 1833-34 ; he established mis- 
sions in London and Liverpool and stimulated 
those already established in other places, and his 
influence extended into France. He continued 
his work in Boston on his return, but his health 
broke down in 1836. Seeking its restoration, he 



Tuckey 

went to Santa Cruz and in 1838 to Cuba; he 
died in Havana. 

Tuckerman had "a thin, aquiline face, and 
hair combed back from the brow" (Sprague, 
post, p. 350), and both dress and manner pro- 
claimed his profession. He cared little for doc- 
trines, and criticized Channing as well as those 
not of his communion. Devoted to his calling, 
he labored throughout his life for the good of 
others. The power of his personality is indi- 
cated by the fact that a society of ladies calling 
themselves the "Tuckerman Sewing Circle" 
were still sewing and selling what they made for 
the "Poor's Purse" as late as 1888 ; while in A 
Memorial of Joseph Tuckerman printed that 
year the statement is made that "the impetus 
which he gave to intelligent philanthropy has not 
yet passed away either in this country or in Eng- 
land." 

fW. B. Sprague, Annals Am. Pulpit, vol. VIII 
(1865); A Memorial of Joseph Tuckerman (Worces- 
ter, 1888) ; Proc. Mass. Hist. Soc, i ser. II (1880) ; 
Mellen Chamberlain, A Doc. Hist, of Chelsea, Mass. 
(1908), vol. II; Vital Records of Chelsea, Mass. 
(1916) ; Seventy-fifth Anniv. of the Founding of the 
Ministry-at-Large in Boston, 1826-1901 (1901) ; W. E. 
Channing, A Discourse on the Life and Character of 
the Ret'. Joseph Tuckerman (1841); Bayard Tucker- 
man, Notes on the Tuckerman Family (privately printed, 
1914) ; Boston Transcript, May 8, 1840.] 

E. S. B— n. 

TUCKEY, WILLIAM (c. 1708-Sept. 14, 
1781 ) , organist, choirmaster, composer, was born 
in Somersetshire, England. The date of his birth 
is established only through the statement on his 
tombstone that he died in his seventy-third year. 
From an advertisement in the New-York Mer- 
cury (Mar. 11, 1754) it is known that he was 
for a time vicar choral and parish clerk of the 
Bristol Cathedral. 

On Jan. 31, 1753, he was appointed parish 
clerk of Trinity Church, New York, at a salary 
of twenty-five pounds per annum (Dix, post, p. 
262). That he had a wife and several children 
is disclosed by the fact that the vestry made 
provision for their transportation to America 
(Ibid.). He was also given charge of the music 
at the church, and he soon convinced the vestry 
of the necessity of teaching vocal music to the 
pupils of the Charity School. Through such 
teaching he developed the Trinity Church choir, 
which became noted both in and outside the city. 
In 1756 he was summarily dismissed from the 
office of parish clerk because of his "refusal to 
officiate in time of Divine Service" (Ibid., p. 
300), but he evidently continued to act as musi- 
cal director of the church. It is certain that he 
continued his career as chorus master, for in 
1762 he advertised for volunteers for a chorus 



46 



Tuckey 

to sing the Te Dcinn (New York Weekly Post 
Boy, Sept. 4), and four years later he announced 
a "Rehearsal of Church-Musick," and a forth- 
coming concert (New-York Mercury, Oct. 6, 
1766). On Oct. 30, 1766, he was paid fifteen 
pounds for playing the organ at the dedication 
of the "new Episcopal chapel . . . called St. 
Paul's," assisted by a "suitable Band of Music, 
vocal and instrumental" (Ibid., Nov. 3, 1766). 
On Jan. 16, 1770, he conducted a performance of 
the overture and sixteen numbers from Handel's 
Messiah, the first American rendering from this 
oratorio. The performance was held in "Mr. 
Burns's Room," New York. 

During these years Tuckey had also been of- 
fering concerts of secular music. The earliest of 
these was announced in the Post Boy (Dec. 15, 
1755) as a "Concert of Vocal and Instrumental 
musick," "for the benefit of Messrs. Cobham and 
Tuckey." At a benefit concert, "followed by a 
ball" (Apr. 21, 1769), Tuckey announced that 
".by particular desire" the concert would end with 
"God Save the King." It is possible that this 
was the first appearance of the British national 
hymn on an American concert program (Son- 
neck, post, p. 179). 

After the Messiah performance in 1770 Tuc- 
key's name does not appear in connection with 
concerts in New York. In 1771 he advertised 
for subscriptions to the publication of a number 
of his compositions — "an Hymn . . . together 
with a Psalm Tune ; . . . a performance adapted 
for a FUNERAL, consisting of three Dirges 
. . . together with an anthem . . ." (Nczv-York 
Mercury, Mar. 11), and he was probably the 
anonymous author of a collection of church music 
proposed in an advertisement in the New-York 
Journal, July 1, 1773. He died in Philadelphia, 
and was buried in the burial grounds of Christ 
Church. As a choir master, Tuckey takes rank 
with William Selby of Boston and Andrew Ad- 
gate \qq.v.~\ of Philadelphia. He labored hard to 
establish regular choral singing, but the time was 
not ripe for his efforts, though he achieved some 
remarkable results. As a composer he contributed 
to the literature of early American choral music, 
even though solicitations for subscriptions to his 
works were apparently not successful enough to 
warrant their publication. There is record of a 
"Thanksgiving Anthem," performed in Trinity 
Church, Boston, "before his excellency, General 
Amherst" (Boston Evening Post, Dec. 15, . 
1760) ; and an "Ode on Masonry," performed at 
the Cobham-Tuckey concert, was no doubt of 
Tuckey's composition. The only work by him 
now extant is an "Anthem Taken Out of the 97th 
Psalm," subsequently called "Liverpool," and as 



Tud 



or 



such included in James Lyon's collection, Urania 
(c. 1761). 

[O. G. Sonneck, Early Concert-Life in America 
(1907); H. E. Krehbiel, "Music in Trinity Church," 
N. Y. Tribune, July 26, 1903 ; Morgan Dix, A Hist, of 
the Parish of Trinity Church in the City of N. Y '., vol. 
I (1898) ; A. H. Messiter, A Hist, of the Choir and 
Music of Trinity Church, N. Y. (1906) ; Grove's Diet, 
of Music and Musicians, Am. Supplement (1931) ; J. 
T. Howard, Our Am. Music (1931); E. L. Clark, A 
Record of the Inscriptions on the Tablets and Grave- 
Stones in the Burial-Grounds of Christ Church, Plata. 
(1864).] J.T.H. 

TUDOR, FREDERIC (Sept. 4, 1783-Feb. 6, 
1864), known as the "Ice King" from his suc- 
cess in building up the business of shipping ice 
from Boston to cities in tropical latitudes, was 
born in Boston, Mass. Son of a family that was 
prominent in Boston in the years following the 
Revolution (his father was William Tudor, who 
married Delia Jarvis), he did not, like his broth- 
ers, attend Harvard College, but went into busi- 
ness at the age of thirteen. When he was twenty- 
one he and his brother William [g.w.] conceived 
the idea of sending a cargo of ice to Martinique, 
and, in spite of the ridicule of their friends, with 
the aid of their cousin, James Savage [<7.7'.], 
they put their plan into effect, the vessel arriving 
at Saint-Pierre in March 1806. For the next 
fifteen years, alone, in debt and sometimes in jail 
for it, Tudor persisted in his scheme. By 1821 
he had established himself in Havana and 
Charleston, and had undertaken a venture in 
New Orleans. His assistant, Nathaniel J. Wyeth 
[q.z'.], had mastered the technique of ice-cutting 
on the ponds around Boston; Tudor himself, 
through much experiment, had learned how to 
ship his ice with the least possible loss, had de- 
vised a structure that would keep his commodity 
in warm climates, and had succeeded in making 
the use of ice an accepted thing in cities there. 
In the next ten or a dozen years he had to meet 
a good deal of competition ; but his vigorous, not 
to say ruthless methods, his fanatical belief in 
his business, and his determination to become 
rich and enjoy the "delicious essence" of flattery 
overcame all obstacles. In May 1833 he sent his 
first cargo to Calcutta, and the success of this 
long-dreamed-of project made possible a world- 
wide expansion of his business. The number of 
tons of ice shipped from Boston, beginning with 
130 in 1806, rose to 1,200 in 1816; to 4,000 in 
1826; to 12,000 in 1836; to 65,000 in 1846; to 
146,000 in 1856 (Boston Board of Trade, Third 
Annual Report, 1857, p. 80). In this last year 
363 cargoes were sent to fifty-three different 
places in the United States, the West Indies, the 
East Indies, China, the Philippines, and Aus- 
tralia (Ibid., pp. 79-82, and Justin Winsor, The 



47 



Tud 



or 



Tudor 



Memorial History of Boston, vol. IV, 1883, p. 
221). To Boston the trade was invaluable. "Mr. 
Tudor and his ice came just in time to preserve 
Boston's East-India commerce from ruin. Our 
carrying trade between Calcutta and Europe had 
declined almost to extinction. . . . For a genera- 
tion after the Civil War, until cheap artificial 
ice was invented, this export trade increased and 
prospered. Not Boston alone, but every New 
England village with a pond near tidewater was 
able to turn this Yankee liability into an asset, 
through the genius of Frederic Tudor" (S. E. 
Morison, The Maritime History of Massachu- 
setts, 1 92 1, pp. 282-83). Notwithstanding the 
growth of his enterprise, Tudor's embarrass- 
ments continued : the loss of over $200,000 in an 
unlucky coffee speculation kept him dependent 
on his creditors ; for years he carried on a fierce 
fight with his agent in Havana for the control of 
the business there. It was not until he had reached 
the age of sixty-five that, with his debts extin- 
guished and his lawsuit won, he was a free man. 
Characteristic of him was the sentence he print- 
ed on the cover of his "Ice House Diary" — "He 
who gives back at the first repulse and without 
striking the second blow despairs of success, has 
never been, is not, and never will be a hero in 
war, love, or business . . ." 

Masterful in all his dealings and not without 
a power of fascination which compelled men to 
obey him ( "I have so willed it" ) , Frederic Tudor 
was an extreme example of militant, despotic, 
and punitive individualism. With his quick and 
originating mind, he initiated many undertak- 
ings : he brought to Boston the first steam loco- 
motive, a toy affair of one horse-power, which 
ran on the sidewalk ; he designed a new type of 
hull for sailing vessels ; he developed a graphite 
mine in Sturbridge, Mass. ; he created the Mao- 
lis Gardens at Nahant, probably the first amuse- 
ment park in the United States. Living at the 
age of eighty, he was in his last years a marked 
man in the life of Boston, already, as "Ice King," 
the hero of a legend in the "romance" of Ameri- 
can business — a legend that only grows with the 
passage of time. On Jan. 2, 1834, at the age of 
fifty, he married Euphemia Fenno, aged nine- 
teen, of Mount Upton, N. Y. ; by her he had six 
children. He died in Boston. 

[See Deacon Tudor's Diary (1896), ed. by William 
Tudor ; memoir to be published in Proc Mass. Hist. 
Soc, vol. LXV (in preparation) ; Tudor's letter on the 
ice trade, Proc. Mass. Hist. Soc, 1855-58, vol. Ill 
(1859); Bull, of the Business Hist. Soc, Sept. 1932, 
which contains three of Tudor's business letters taken 
from the Tudor papers in the lib. of the Grad. School 
of Business Administration, Harvard Univ. ; F. A. Wil- 
son, Some Annals of Nahant, Mass. (1928) ; and obitu- 
ary in Boston Transcript, Feb. 8, 1864. The bulk of his 



papers, including the "Ice House Diary," is in the pos- 
session of Frederic Tudor of Sandwich, Mass.] 

H. G. P. 
TUDOR, WILLIAM (Jan. 28, 1779-Mar. 9, 
1830), author, the son of Col. William and Delia 
(Jarvis) Tudor, was born in Boston, Mass. His 
father was a prominent merchant and scholar, 
the son of Deacon John Tudor who was taken 
from England to Boston about 1714 at the age of 
six. After graduation from Harvard in 1796, 
young Tudor entered John Codman's counting- 
room and was sent to Paris on business. A year 
later he sailed for Leghorn on another mission. 
Both ventures were disappointing, but Tudor 
made many friendships and strengthened his love 
of letters. He next went to the West Indies at 
the request of his brother Frederjc \_q.v.~\ to de- 
velop a trade in ice. On his return he was elect- 
ed to the Massachusetts legislature, where he 
served a number of times, and in 1809 he de- 
livered the annual Fourth of July oration in Bos- 
ton, which went through two editions. At this 
period he was employed by Stephen Higginson 
[<?.£\] in a none-too-successful attempt to force 
quantities of English manufactures into Europe 
against the hostile decrees of Bonaparte. He 
also aided a group of Americans in a futile at- 
tempt to establish at Birmingham the manufac- 
ture of cut nails. 

Turning at last to other activities, he became 
the founder and first editor (181 5-17) of the 
North American Review, and was the largest 
contributor to the first four volumes. An orig- 
inal member of the Anthology Society (1805), 
he frequently contributed to the pages of its 
magazine, the Monthly Anthology and Boston 
Review. He helped to found the Boston Athe- 
naeum, a library and art museum ; suggested a 
plan for the purchase of land on Bunker Hill 
in Charlestown on which the American redoubt 
had been raised and where Warren fell ; and was 
active in the affairs of the Massachusetts His- 
torical Society, to which he had been elected in 
1816. Tudor was a keen critic of contemporary 
manners, and his Letters on the Eastern States 
(1820), now forgotten, contains much that is of 
permanent value. In this book he fell foul of 
Mathew Carey \_q.vJ], an excitable Irishman then 
living in Philadelphia, whose The Olive Branch 
(1814) had been intended to soften political as- 
perities caused by the war with England. He 
received little epistolary comfort from Tudor, 
and his pamphlet on the encounter (1821) ran 
to almost seventy pages. In 1821 Tudor gathered 
into a small book under the title Miscellanies 
various essays, some from the Anthology, oth- 
ers from the North American Review. They 



48 



Tufts 



Tufts 



have a human touch and interest that make them 
readable today. They range from "Secret Causes 
of the American and French Revolutions" to 
essays on cranberry sauce, purring cats, and the 
miseries of human life. Two years later Tudor 
published The Life of James Otis, of Massachu- 
setts, which is said to be his best effort. The same 
year he was appointed United States consul at 
Lima and for the ports of Peru (appointment 
confirmed, Dec. 9, 1823), and was of service 
during the feud between Peru and Colombia. In 
1827 he was advanced to be charge d'affaires at 
Rio de Janeiro (appointment confirmed, Dec. 
27). While in Brazil he wrote an allegory on 
current international politics which was pub- 
lished anonymously under the title Gebel Teir 
(1829). His health was affected by the climate 
at Rio de Janeiro, and he died there of fever. 
He was buried at Rio. He never married. 

[See Deacon Tudor's Diary (1896), ed. by William 
Tudor ; C. C. Smith, in Proc. Mass. Hist. Soc, vol. I 
(1879), P- 4 2 9 » Josiah Quincy, The Hist, of the Boston 
Athenaeum (1851) ; J. S. Loring, The Hundred Boston 
Orators (1853) ; Jour, of the Proc. of the Soc. Which 
Conducts the Monthly Anthology (1910), with intro. by 
M. A. De Wolfe Howe ; death notice in Boston Daily 
Advertiser, May 3, and letter, May 8, 1830. Stuart's 
portrait of Tudor is reproduced in Lawrence Park, Gil- 
bert Stuart, an Illustrated Descriptive List of His 
Works (4 vols., 1926).] C.K.B. 

TUFTS, CHARLES (July 17, 1781-Dec. 24, 
1876), a founder of Tufts College, son of Daniel 
and Abigail (Tufts) Tufts, was born in a part 
of Medford later incorporated in Somerville, 
Mass. He was a lineal descendant of an early 
English colonist, Peter Tufts, who settled in 
Charlestown, Mass., about 1638. It is believed 
that he was long associated with his father in 
farming and brickmaking, pursuits which he fol- 
lowed in later years. On Apr. 8, 1821, he mar- 
ried Hannah, daughter of Jacob and Hannah 
Robinson, of Lexington, Mass., an earnest and 
liberal-minded young woman fourteen years his 
junior, who exerted a strong guiding influence 
upon her husband. 

Tufts received very little formal education but 
contrived, nevertheless, to acquire a considerable 
fund of knowledge. A strongly religious man in 
adult life, he became deeply interested in the 
work of the Universal ist Church, first in Charles- 
town and later in Somerville, and it was to a 
considerable extent his proselyting interest in 
Universalist doctrines that impelled him to set 
aside a portion of his extensive farm properties 
for educational purposes. When in 1840 the Mas- 
sachusetts Convention of Universalists proposed 
the establishment of a theological seminary, 
Tufts offered a building site. Before the plan 
could materialize, however, it became identified 
with attempts to bolster up the Clinton Liberal 



Institute (1845) anf ' resulted finally in a project 
for a Universalist college (May 1847). ^ s the 
movement progressed, Tufts offered approxi- 
mately twenty acres of land on the Medford- 
Somerville line. Although some of the conditions 
attached to the grant caused hesitation, the site, 
known as Walnut Tree Hill, was formally ap- 
proved by the trustees of the nascent institution 
on Jan. 8, 1852, and a charter of incorporation 
was presently obtained for Tufts College. In 1856 
and 1864 Tufts deeded other properties to the 
college under various conditions, one of which 
was that its name should never be changed. He 
also served as a trustee of the college from 1856 
until his death. His gifts, amounting altogether 
to more than one hundred acres of land, together 
with lesser adjacent tracts from other sources, 
established the college in a physical sense and 
placed it in a unique position within the Boston 
metropolitan area. 

Tufts was a man of medium stature, with 
small, mild features and a gentle manner which 
gave little hint of his decided opinions and in- 
flexible will. He was shrewd in his calculations, 
but "without a particle of deceit." Both natural 
inclination and extreme deafness caused him to 
live somewhat as a recluse, and it was only 
through his benefactions that he came into pub- 
lic notice. 

[Records of the Trustees of Tufts Coll., 1852-78, 
vol. I; Trustees of Tufts Coll., Fund File: original 
Tufts papers ; C. D. Elliot, in Tufts Coll. Grad., Jan. 
1910 ; H. S. Ballou, Hosca Ballon, 2d, D.D., First Presi- 
dent of Tufts Coll. ( 1896) ; Charles Brooks, Hist, of the 
Town of Medford, 1630-1855 (1886), revised by J. M. 
Usher; L. T. Tufts and E. C. Booth, "Tufts Geneal.: 
Descendants of Peter" (1925) New-Eng. Hist. Geneal. 
Soc; Universalist Reg., 1842, 1844; Hist, of Tufts 
Coll., 18 54-1896 (1896), ed. by A. B. Start ; Universal- 
ist, Jan. 6, 1877; Christian Leader, Apr. 28, 1928; 
obituary in Boston Transcript, Dec. zy, 1876.] 

H. L.H. 

TUFTS, COTTON (May 30, 1732-Dec. 8, 

1815), physician, was born in Medford, Mass., 
the fourth child of Simon and Abigail (Smith) 
Tufts, and a nephew of John Tufts [q.z>.~\. His 
great-grandfather, Peter Tufts, emigrated from 
England to Charlestown about 1638. His father, 
who was a graduate of Harvard College, was the 
first physician to practise in Medford. Young 
Cotton, a serious student, entered Harvard at 
fourteen and, having received three scholarships, 
the last one of fifteen pounds, was graduated with 
the degree of A.M. in 1749. After a short peri- 
od of teaching school, he studied medicine with 
his elder brother Simon, a graduate of Harvard 
College, who had followed in his father's foot- 
steps in Medford, and began practice in Wey- 
mouth, April 1752. It appears, however, that he 
spent part of the preceding year in Weymouth, 



49 



Tufts 



Tufts 



for during an epidemic of diphtheria lie took 
an active part in assisting the older physicians ; 
as a result he settled there and spent the rest of 
his life in that community. 

Tufts not only became the leading practitioner 
of Weymouth but was also an important figure 
in medical, scientific, and political affairs of 
Massachusetts. In 1765 he planned a state medi- 
cal society, a project which fell through for lack 
of adequate support, and in 1781 it was he who 
was most forceful in organizing the Massachu- 
setts Medical Society. . He was elected president 
in 1787. It is said that he missed attending only 
two out of forty meetings in Boston during a 
period of thirteen years, although he lived twelve 
miles away and travel was often difficult in win- 
ter. In 1780 he became one of the charter mem- 
bers of the American Academy of Arts and Sci- 
ences. He represented the town of Weymouth 
in the meetings against the Stamp Act, and after 
the Revolution, although he had not entered the 
army, he voted affirmatively in the Massachu- 
setts convention to ratify the new United States 
Constitution in 1788. Locally, he was a deacon 
of his church, a trustee of Derby Academy in 
Hingham, and president of the society for the 
Reformation of Morals. Harvard College grant- 
ed him an honorary degree of M.D. in 1785. He 
was a friend of John Adams [g.r.], whose pri- 
vate affairs he administered while Adams was 
at his London post (The Works of John Adams, 
vol. IX, 1854, pp. 548-49). He was twice mar- 
ried, first (Dec. 2, 1755) to Lucy Quincy, daugh- 
ter of John Quincy of Braintree, by whom he 
had one son, Cotton, graduate of Harvard Col- 
lege in 1777; second (Oct. 22, 1789) to Mrs. 
Susanna Warner of Gloucester, who survived 
him. 

[The date of birth is from Vital Records of Med- 
ford, Mass. (1907) ; the marriage dates from Vital Rec- 
ords of Weymouth (1910), vol. II. The principal biog. 
source is Jacob Norton, Sermon Delivered . . . at the 
Interment of the Hon. Cotton Tufts (1816), a some- 
what rare pamphlet. See also New-Eng. Hist, and 
Gcncal. Reg., Apr. 1847, Apr. 1855, Jan. 1857; Proc. 
Mass. Hist. Soc, 3 ser., vol. II (1909), which contains 
Tuft's diaries for 1772 and 1784; W. L. Burrage, A 
Hist, of the Mass. Medic. Soc. (1923) ; Pubs. Colonial 
Soc. of Mass., vol. XVI (1925) ; James Thacher, Am. 
Medic. Biog. (1828); obituary in New-England Pal- 
ladium and Commercial Advertiser, Dec. 15, 1815 ; let- 
ters and memorabilia in the Boston Medic. Lib.] 

H.R.V. 

TUFTS, JOHN (May 5, 1689-Aug. 17, 1752), 
pioneer compiler of church music, Congrega- 
tional minister, was born in Medford, Mass., the 
third of twelve children of Capt. Peter Tufts and 
his second wife, Mercy (Cotton) Tufts. His fa- 
ther was a son of Peter Tufts who emigrated 
from England to America about 1638 ; his moth- 
er was a daughter of the Rev. Seaborn Cotton 



and Dorothy, daughter of Gov. Simon Bradstreet 
[g.z'.j. He was graduated from Harvard College 
in 1708 and was ordained as minister of the Sec- 
ond Church of Christ in West Newbury, June 
30, 1 714. A few references to Tuft's ministerial 
activities may be noted in town histories of Es- 
sex County, but his career as a country minister 
was notable mainly by reason of the influence 
exerted upon American music by the publica- 
tion, probably in 1714 or 1715, of his A Very 
Plain and Easy Introduction to the Art of Sing- 
ing Psalm Tunes: with the Cant us or Trebles of 
Twenty-eight Psalm Tunes, Contrived in Such 
a Manner, As That the Learner May Attain the 
Skill of Singing Them, with the Greatest Ease 
and Speed Imaginable (Hood, post, p. 65). No 
copy of the first edition is known. This book, in 
which letters were used on the staff instead of 
notes, was considered "a daring and unjustifiable 
innovation," and Tufts's carefully chosen selec- 
tion of tunes met with caustic criticism. One 
writer said : "Truly, I have a great jealousy that 
if we once begin to sing by rule the next thing 
will be to pray by rule and preach by rule, and 
then comes popery" (quoted in Coffin, post, p. 
186). Another critic objected to the book as 
"Quakerish and Popish, and introductive of in- 
strumental musick ; the names given to the notes 
are blasphemous ; it is a needless way since the 
good Fathers are gone to heaven without it ; its 
admirers are a company of young upstarts ; they 
spend too much time about learning, and tarry 
out a-nights disorderly" (quoted in Fisher, post, 
pp. 6-7). Despite such objections Tufts's book 
achieved wide popularity. The music was simple, 
but for its purpose very effective. Under vary- 
ing titles the book went through at least eleven 
editions, some of them prepared to be bound up 
in the Bay Psalm Book, the last one printed in 
1774. In its defense the Rev. Thomas Symmes 
wrote his tract on the Reasonableness of Regular 
Singing (1720), Tufts's name appearing in it 
as one of "the subscribers willing to countenance 
and promote Regular Singing, or Singing by 
Note." Other publications of Tufts's were Anti- 
Ministerial Objections Considered ( 1725) and 
A Humble Call to Archippus, Or the Pastor Ex- 
horted, To Take Heed That He Fulfill His Min- 
istry (1729). 

Apart from his activity as an innovator in the 
field of church music Tufts appears to have led 
for many years the uneventful life of a rural 
minister. He married. Nov. 9, 1714, Sarah Brad- 
street, daughter of Dr. Humphrey Bradstreet, 
by whom he had four children. On Feb. 26, 
1738, a council of ten ministers and twenty dele- 
gates was called to consider " 'the distressed 



50 



Tulane 

state and condition of ye second church of Christ 
in Newbury by reason of their reverend pastor 
Mr. John Tufts being charged by a woman or 
women of his indecent carriage and also of 
his abusive and unchristian behavior towards 
them'" (Coffin, post, p. 207-08). Tufts vehe- 
mently opposed the investigation and demanded 
his dismission, which was granted Mar. 2, his 
church refusing to recommend him for employ- 
ment as a Christian minister. He thereupon re- 
tired to the adjoining town of Amesbury, where 
he died {Vital Records of Amesbury, Mass., 

1913)- 

[For a discussion of the bibliog. problems, see Joseph 
Sabin, A Diet, of Books Relating to America, pt. CLI 
(ichs), continued by R. W. G. Vail. In addition to 
Charles Brooks, Hist, of the Town of Medford (1886), 
and T. B. Wyman, The Geneals. and Estates of Charles- 
town (1879), vol. II, see F. J. Metcalf, Am. Writers 
and Compilers of Sacred Music (copr. 1925) ; George 
Hood, A Hist, of Music in New England (1846) ; N. D. 
Gould, Church Music in America (1853) ; W. A. Fisher, 
Notes on Music in Old Boston (1918) ; New-Eng. Hist, 
and Geneal. Reg., Apr. 1847, Apr. 1855, Jan. 1856, July 
1875 ; E. H. Pierce, in Musical Quart., Apr. 1930 ; J. J. 
Currier, Hist, of Nezvb-ury, Mass. (1902) ; and Joshua 
Coffin, A Sketch of the Hist, of Newbury (1845).] 

F.W.C. 

TULANE, PAUL (May 10, 1801-Mar. 27, 
1887), merchant and philanthropist, was the son 
of French parents. His father, Louis Tulane, born 
in 1767 at Rille, near Tours, France, of a line of 
local judges, removed to Santo Domingo in young 
manhood, with his wife and a brother-in-law, 
to engage in commercial pursuits. In a slave in- 
surrection the brother-in-law's family perished, 
but Louis and his wife escaped to the United 
States and settled in 1792 near Princeton, N. J., 
and here Paul was born. He attended a private 
school and Somerville Academy and at fifteen, 
after the death of his mother, became a clerk for 
about a year in the store of Thomas White at 
Princeton. This experience was followed by a 
tour of the South and West with a cousin of 
means visiting from France. 

In 1822 Paul Tulane established himself in 
business in New Orleans with a strong faith in 
the future of the region. As head of the house of 
Paul Tulane & Company of New Orleans, and 
of Tulane, Baldwin & Company of New York, 
he built up a retail and wholesale trade in dry 
goods and clothing, with a large clientele in the 
Mississippi Valley, and by 1840 had acquired a 
fortune estimated at a quarter of a million dol- 
lars. About 1858 he busied himself chiefly with 
real-estate transactions and acquisitions, divid- 
ing his time and his investments between New 
Orleans and New Jersey in anticipation of a 
Southern backset from the slavery controversy. 
After a residence of fifty-one years in New Or- 
leans, he removed permanently to an elegant 



Tully 

stone mansion in Princeton, where he died. A 
bachelor, of reserved disposition, he survived all 
members of his immediate family. 

Tulane's was a rugged personality. Physical- 
ly, he was short and heavily built ; as a business 
man he was frugal, industrious, and tenacious, 
exacting to the last penny. He was liberal in his 
philanthropy, however, spending thousands of 
dollars on individuals and local organizations in 
the interest of religion, charity, and education. 
The First Presbyterian Church of Princeton was 
a special recipient of his donations, but his most 
significant gifts were those by which the Uni- 
versity of Louisiana, a state institution founded 
in 1834 at New Orleans, was converted in 1884 
into the independent Tulane University of Lou- 
isiana in the same city. Tulane's first donation 
was made in 1882, through his own initiative 
and without solicitation. It consisted of all his 
New Orleans real estate and was valued at $363,- 
000. Other gifts from him followed making a 
total estimated at more than a million dollars. 
He expressed the intention to make still further 
contributions, but his death without a will in- 
tervened and his property was divided among his 
nieces and nephews. At the time of his first do- 
nation he chose with care the first members of 
a board of administrators for his fund, headed 
by Randall L. Gibson [q.vJ], and gave them gen- 
eral instructions to provide for the higher edu- 
cation of the white youth of New Orleans. This 
group arranged with the state to absorb the exist- 
ing University of Louisiana, with "Tulane" 
prefixed to the name, instead of starting a rival 
university in the city. 

[W. P. Johnston, "Tulane University of Louisiana," 
in E. W. Fay, The Hist, of Educ. in La. ( Bur. of Educ, 
Circular of Information No. 1, 1898, ch. viii) ; Alcee 
Fortier, Louisiana (1909), vol. II: Princeton Press, 
Apr. 2, 1887; Times-Democrat (New Orleans), Mar. 
29, Apr. 2, 1887.] H.C.N. 

TULLY, WILLIAM (Nov. 18, 1785-Feb. 28, 
1859), physician, was born at Saybrook Point, 
Conn., the only child of Col. William Tully, an 
officer of the Revolution, who married Eunice 
(Tully), his cousin. He was a descendant of 
John Tully of Horley, Surrey County, England, 
whose widow came with her son and daughter 
to Saybrook about 1647. As a boy Tully attend- 
ed the district school and was later prepared for 
college by the Rev. Frederick W. Hotchkiss, of 
Saybrook. Entering Yale in 1802, he graduated 
in 1806, and then taught school for a short time 
in his native town. In the spring of 1807 he be- 
gan the study of medicine with Dr. Mason F. 
Cogswell of Hartford and in the fall of the fol- 
lowing year attended the medical school of Dart- 
mouth under Dr. Nathan Smith, 1762-1829 



51 



U. OF ILL LIB. 



Tully 



[q.v.]. Returning to Saybrook in 1810, he studied 
for a time with Dr. Samuel Carter. In March 
of this year he entered the office of Dr. Eli Ives 
[g.^.] of New Haven, professor of materia 
medica at Yale. In October 1810 Tully was 
licensed by the Connecticut Medical Society, 
and in May 181 1 he began to practise in Enfield, 
Conn. 

For the next few years he changed his loca- 
tion so rapidly that a biographer refers to him 
as "The Peregrinating Dr. William Tully" 
(Ferris, post). On Jan. 5, 1813, he married 
Mary, daughter of the Rev. Elam Potter, and 
in March of that year removed to Milford, Conn. 
Two years later he went to Cromwell, Conn., 
and in September 1818, to Middletown. In the 
latter place he became an intimate friend of Dr. 
Thomas Miner, a physician and scholar of con- 
siderable repute, who is said to have had a note- 
worthy influence on Tully's subsequent literary 
career. In 1807 Yale conferred the degree of 
A.M. on him and in 1819 the honorary degree 
of M.D. The following year he published an 
article, "On the Ergot of Rye," in the American 
Journal of Science (April 1820) and another, 
"Scutellaria Laterifolia," in the Middlesex Ga- 
zette (Nov. 30, 1820). An article by him entitled 
"Diversity of the Two Sorts of Datura Found 
in the United States" appeared in the former 
journal in 1823, and in this same year, with Dr. 
Thomas Miner, he published Essays on Fevers. 
In. June 1822 Tully removed to East Hartford 
and in July 1824 was appointed president and 
professor of theory and practice and medical 
jurisprudence in the Vermont Academy of Medi- 
cine, at Castleton. When this school was reor- 
ganized in 1830 he retired as president but con- 
tinued for eight years as professor of materia 
medica and therapeutics. 

In January 1826 he removed to Albany, N. Y., 
where he practised as a colleague of Dr. Alden 
March \_q.v.~], but continued his lectures at Cas- 
tleton. In 1828 he wrote "An Essay, Pharma- 
cological and Therapeutical, on Sanguinaria- 
Canadensis," which appeared in the American 
Medical Recorder (January, April 1828), and 
won him a prize. Appointed professor of materia 
medica and therapeutics at Yale in 1829, he re- 
moved to New Haven and taught there as well 
as at Castleton. In collaboration with Ives and 
M. C. Leavenworth, he published Catalogue of 
the Phenogamous Plants and the Ferns Growing 
without Cultivation, within Five Miles of Yale 
College (1831). Other papers, on sanguinaria, 
chlorite of potassa, congestion, narcotine and 
sulphate of morphine, were prepared by him dur- 
ing this period. He is said to have made the first 



Tupper 

half ounce of quinine sulphate from cinchona 
bark produced in the United States (Ferris, p. 
24). In August 1842, as a result of strained re- 
lations with his colleagues, he resigned his chair 
at Yale and in 185 1 removed to Springfield, 
Mass. Here was published his compendious 
work of more than 1,500 pages, Materia Medica, 
or, Pharmacology and Therapeutics (2 vols., 
1857—58). In this work appears his modification 
of the well-known Dover's powder which later 
became known as Tully's powder. 

Tully died in Springfield and was buried in 
the Grove Street Cemetery, New Haven. He 
had eleven children, but of these only a son and 
two daughters survived him. According to his 
successor at Yale, he was "doubtless the most 
learned and thoroughly scientific physician of 
New England" (Bronson, post, p. 5). "As a 
teacher he stimulated scientific zeal in his stu- 
dents, as a physician he studied his patients care- 
fully and was a good diagnostician" (Ferris, p. 
35). In appearance he was tall and square-shoul- 
dered, with large head and prominent eyes. As 
a lecturer "he spoke distinctly and without gestic- 
ulation, reading from his manuscript in a loud, 
almost stentorian voice, with an uniform and 
slightly nasal tone, and assured air" (Bronson, 
p. 5). His eminence in his day is attested by the 
large number of medical and scientific societies 
to which he belonged. 

[H. B. Ferris, in Yale Jour, of Biology and Medi- 
cine, Oct. 1932 ; Henry Bronson, in Proc. and Medic. 
Communications of the Conn. State Medic. Soc, 2 ser. 
vol. I (1863) ; Kate C. Mead, in Bull, of the Johns Hop- 
kins Hospital, Mar. 1016, and in H. L. Kelly and W. L. 
Burrage, Am. Medic. Biogs. (1920); S. H. Parsons, 
"The Tully Family of Saybrook, Conn.," New-England 
Hist, and Gencal. Reg., Apr. 1849; F. B. Dexter, Biog. 
Sketches, Grads. Yale Coll., vol. VI (1912) ; G. C. 
Gates, Saybrook at the Mouth of the Conn. (1935) ; 
Springfield Republican, Mar. 1, 1859; diary and letters 
in Yale Univ. Lib.] - pj t 

TUPPER, BENJAMIN (Mar. 11, 1738-June 
7, 1792), Revolutionary soldier, pioneer, was 
born in Stoughton, Mass., the son of Thomas 
and Remember (Perry) Tupper. Since his fa- 
ther died early, Benjamin had but a common- 
school education, and was apprenticed to a 
tanner in Dorchester until he was sixteen. Sub- 
sequently he worked as a farm hand until the 
outbreak of the French and Indian War, when 
he enlisted in the company of his uncle, Capt. 
Nathaniel Perry. At the close of the war he left 
the army with the rank of sergeant. After teach- 
ing school for a few years in Easton, he married, 
Nov. 18, 1762, Huldah White of Bridgewater, 
and migrated to Chesterfield, Hampshire County, 
in western Massachusetts. 
In 1774, Tupper joined the Revolutionary 



52 



Tupper 



cause, serving as militia lieutenant in purging 
western Massachusetts of Loyalist sentiment. 
In 1775 he took a heroic part in the siege of Bos- 
ton and in the destruction of the British light- 
house on Castle Island. From 1776 to the end of 
the war he served as lieutenant-colonel and then 
colonel of Massachusetts troops, participating in 
the battle of Long Island, the Saratoga cam- 
paign, and the battle of Monmouth, and con- 
structing defenses at West Point and on the 
Mohawk-Lake George Indian frontier. He re- 
tired from the army in 1783 with the brevet rank 
of brigadier-general and on his return to Ches- 
terfield was elected representative in the state 
legislature. In 1786 he returned to the field and 
took an active part in defending Springfield 
against the insurgent, Daniel Shays [q.v.~\. 

The last ten years of Tupper's life were iden- 
tified with the westward movement. He was one 
of the 288 Continental officers to sign the New- 
burgh Petition in 1783, seeking the creation of a 
new territory in the Northwest for occupation 
by soldiers. With the settlement of the Indian 
and land problems by ordinances and treaties be- 
tween 1783 and 1785, Tupper represented Mas- 
sachusetts on the corps of state surveyors sent 
west by Congress under Thomas Hutchins. He 
personally conducted in 1785 preliminary sur- 
veying in numbers three and four of the Seven 
Ranges. On his return to the East, he joined 
with Gen. Rufus Putnam \_q.v.~\ in inaugurating 
the movement that led to the formation of the 
Ohio Company. In an "Information" that ap- 
peared in Boston and Worcester papers early in 
1786, the Ohio country was described and Revo- 
lutionary officers and soldiers were invited to 
form a settlement association. Tupper was elect- 
ed delegate to represent Hampshire County at 
the appointed organization meeting in March in 
Boston. By this body the Ohio Company was 
formed and a petition was sent to Congress for 
a purchase which resulted in the grant and set- 
tlement of Marietta at the mouth of the Muskin- 
gum and in the creation of the Northwest Ter- 
ritory. 

Tupper took an active part in the affairs of 
the Company and of his adopted home. He ac- 
companied the original settlers to Marietta in 
1788, and served on committees for determining 
the place and value of sites for settlement, for 
receiving applications for mills, for devising do- 
nation methods to attract settlers, for the loca- 
tion of roads and the leasing of city lots. With 
Putnam he was made judge of common pleas and 
quarter sessions and held the first civil court in 
the Territory on Sept. 9, 1788. Subsequently, as 
Putnam was occupied with other duties,, Tupper 



Tupper 

was practically sole administrator of local jus- 
tice on the Muskingum until his death. 

Tupper had seven children. His daughter 
Rowena was the first wife of Winthrop Sargent, 
I 753~ I 820 [q.v.], secretary of the Northwest 
Territory. 

[A. B. Hulbert, The Records of the Original Proceed- 
ings of the Ohio Company (2 vols., 1917) and Ohio in 
the Time of the Confederation (1918) ; Life, Journals 
and Correspondence of Rev. Manasseh Cutler (1888), 
vol. I ; A. T. Nye, "Gen. Benjamin Tupper," in S. P. 
Hildreth, Biog. and Hist. Memoirs of the Early Pioneer 
Settlers of Ohio (1852) ; W. L. Chaffin, Hist, of the 
Town of Easton, Mass. (1886), F. B. Heitman, Hist. 
Reg. of Officers of the Continental Army (1914).] 

R. C. D. 

TUPPER, HENRY ALLEN (Feb. 29, 1828- 
Mar. 2~, 1902), Baptist clergyman, denomina- 
tional leader in foreign missionary enterprises, 
was born in Charleston, S. C, the son of Tris- 
tram — a native of Dresden, Me. — and Eliza 
(Yoer) Tupper. His first American ancestor 
was Thomas Tupper, a descendant of exiles from 
Hesse Cassel to England, who emigrated to New 
England in 1635, and in 1637 was one of the 
founders of Sandwich, Mass. Tristram settled 
in Charleston in 1810 and thereafter conducted 
a commission house. For more than fifty years 
the Tupper family was prominent in the busi- 
ness, social, and religious affairs of the city. 
Henry attended local schools and from 1844 to 
1846 was a student in the College of Charleston. 
He then enrolled at Madison University (now 
Colgate University), Hamilton, N. Y., where he 
was graduated with the degree of A.B. in 1849. 
The following year he spent at the theological 
seminary connected with the University, and was 
much influenced by the prevailing missionary 
zeal. On Nov. 1, 1849, he married Nancy John- 
stone Boyce, by whom he had twelve children, 
six of whom survived him. 

In 1850 he was ordained to the Baptist min- 
istry and became pastor of the church in Granite- 
ville, S. C. Three years later he accepted a call 
to the church at Washington, Ga., where he 
served until 1872. He was active in local tem- 
perance work, preached to the colored people 
twice a week, and gave the community a varied 
leadership. He traveled abroad and dreamed of 
active mission work in foreign fields, even going 
so far as to plan a self-sustaining colony in 
Japan. With the advent of the Civil War, how- 
ever, he took part in that struggle as chaplain 
of a Georgia regiment in the Confederate army. 

His real life work began when he accepted, in 
1872, the office of corresponding secretary of the 
Board of Foreign Missions of the Southern Bap- 
tist Convenion, with headquarters in Richmond. 
To the missionary enterprises of his denomina- 



53 



Turell 



Turnbull 



tion he now gave tirelessly of his strength, 
thought, and means. In 1883-84 he went to Mex- 
ico and consummated plans for establishing mis- 
sion schools for girls in Coahuila. His liberality 
was proverbial. In 1883 he recorded that he had 
received "from the Lord" since 1854 in income 
$279,500.98, and of that sum had donated $124,- 
541.39 for religious work. In his vacations he 
wrote several books for young people of a type 
considered suitable for Sunday school libraries. 
They included The Truth in Romance (1887), 
published under the pseudonym Tfoffer, the old 
German spelling of his family name; and The 
Carpenter's Son (1889), an interpretation of the 
life of Christ. His major works, however, were 
a lengthy history and survey of the mission en- 
terprise, under the title The Foreign Missions 
of the Southern Baptist Convention (1880) and 
A Decade of Foreign Missions, 1880-90 (1891). 
He retired from the secretaryship of the mission 
board in 1893. For a time he was president of 
the board of trustees of the Woman's College of 
Richmond, and he served, also, as a trustee of 
Hollins College and of Richmond College. In 
his closing years, 1896— 1902, he was instructor 
in Bible in Richmond College. 

[Tupper's surviving children have many of his let- 
ters and other papers, including a manuscript diary- 
kept over a long period of years ; the files of the For- 
eign Mission Board of the Southern Baptist Conven- 
tion, in Richmond, Va., contain much of his corre- 
spondence ; for printed sources, see Am. Ancestry, vol. 
V (1890) ; G. B. Taylor, Va. Baptist Ministers, Fifth 
Series; 1902-14 (191 5) ; H. A. Tupper, The First Cen- 
tury of the First Baptist Church of Richmond (1880) ; 
The Religious Herald, Apr. 3, 1902; Foreign Mission 
Jour., May 1902 ; Who's Who in America, 1901-02 ; 
Times (Richmond), Mar. 28, 1902.] M.H.W. 

TURELL, JANE (Feb. 25, 1708-Mar. 26, 
I 735)> P oet , daughter of the Rev. Benjamin Col- 
man [qs:~\ and his first wife, Jane Clark, was 
born in Boston, Mass., where her father was pas- 
tor of the Brattle Street Church. As the only 
girl in the family until her seventh year and as a 
child afflicted with a constitution "wonderful 
weak and tender," she received an uncommon 
share of attention from her father and respond- 
ed by developing a precocious memory for Scrip- 
ture texts, Biblical stories, and passages from the 
catechism. Gov. Joseph Dudley and other gen- 
tlemen who frequented Mr. Colman's house used 
to place little Jane on the table to hear her talk 
and "owned themselves diverted" by her recita- 
tions. At a very early age she learned to read 
and rapidly went through her father's library. 
A hymn written in her eleventh year was fol- 
lowed a few years later by verse-paraphrases of 
the Psalms, which Mr. Colman criticized' and re- 
turned to her with edifying poems of his own. 
He made it clear to her, however, that "a Poeti- 



cal Flight now and then" was not to be allowed 
to interrupt her daily hours of reading and de- 
votion. Jane Colman's marriage to the Rev. 
Ebenezer Turell, graduate of Harvard College 
in the class of 1721 and minister at Medford, 
took place on Aug. 11, 1726. Her husband culti- 
vated her literary gifts by reading aloud to her 
books of "Divinity, History, Physick, Contro- 
versy, as well as Poetry," as they sat together 
during the long winter evenings. Mrs. Turell 
continued her writing, both in verse and in 
prose. Besides keeping a religious diary, she 
composed a poetic eulogy on Sir Richard Black- 
more, whom she admired "not as the first of 
Poets, but as one of the best ; consecrating his 
Muse to the cause of Virtue and Religion" ; an 
appreciative tribute to Edmund Waller "for the 
Purity of his Style and delicacy of Language" ; 
and "An Invitation into the Country, in Imita- 
tion of Horace." She died, with all the pious ex- 
pressions that the occasion demanded, at Med- 
ford, aged twenty-seven. The only one of her 
four children who survived her died a year later. 
Immediately after her death Mrs. Turell was 
immortalized in a volume entitled Reliquiae 
Turcllae, et Lachrymae Paternae (Boston, 
x 735). published in London under the title of 
Memoirs of the Life and Death of the Pious and 
Ingenious Mrs. Jane Turell . . . Collected Chief- 
ly from Her Own Manuscripts (1741). This 
contains a poetic epistle by the Rev. John Ad- 
ams, two funeral sermons preached in her honor 
by her father, and a memoir by her husband. It 
is the only source of first-hand information about 
Mrs. Turell's life and character, and the only 
form in which her poems were published. It also 
contains selections from her religious medita- 
tions and specimens of her letters to her father 
and his replies. The image presented to the 
world by the joint efforts of husband and father 
was that of a devout woman according to the 
strict Puritan pattern. Piety was her grace, 
poetry merely a grace note. Her verse has no 
importance except as an indication of the lit- 
erary taste of Boston during the first quarter of 
the eighteenth century. 

[The date of birth is given in A Report of the Record 
Commissioners of the City of Boston . . . Births (1894) 
as Feb. 25, 1707 ; in Records of the Church in Brattle 
Square, Boston (1902), however, the date of baptism 
is given as Feb. 29, 1708. In addition to Reliquiae 
Turellae (1735), see Ebenezer Turell, The Life and 
Character of the Rev. Benjamin Colman, D.D. (1849) ; 
E. A. and G. L. Duyckinck, Cyc. of Am. Lit., vol. I 
(1855), for specimens of Mrs. Turell's verse; and Vital 
Records of Medford, Mass. (1907) for the date of her 
death.] G. F. W. 



TURNBULL, ANDREW (c. 1718-Mar. 13, 

1792), was a Scotch physician and colonizer, 



54 



Turnbull 

who, after visting Mediterranean lands and mar- 
rying Maria Gracia Dura Bin, a Grecian lady 
of Smyrna, undertook to cultivate sub-tropical 
products in the new British province of East 
Florida. In June 1766 he was granted by man- 
damus 20,000 acres of land therein, and five 
months later, with his wife and four children, he 
landed at St. Augustine. He located his land at 
Mosquito (now Ponce de Leon) Inlet, hired a 
manager, and ordered cattle. Returning alone to 
England in the spring of 1767, he allied himself 
with Sir William Duncan and Lord George Gren- 
ville — the latter represented by Sir Richard 
Temple — in a project for colonizing 500 inden- 
tured Greeks, who, after seven or eight years of 
service, were to receive fifty acres each and five 
for each child. His partners added 81,400 acres 
and promised £6,000 for expenses. The govern- 
ment provided a vessel and a bounty of forty 
shillings a head for the adult Greeks. 

In the summer of 1768 Turnbull brought back 
in eight vessels 200 Peloponnesian Greeks, no 
south Italians, and nearly 1,100 Minorcans, who 
found buildings and provisions awaiting them. 
In August, during his temporary absence, a siz- 
able band of Italians and Greeks mortally wound- 
ed his manager and carried stores on board the 
schooner Balmar for flight to Havana. Gov. 
James Grant dispatched two vessels with troops 
in time to halt the Balmar, although some thir- 
ty insurgents escaped in her boat. These were 
subsequently taken at the Florida Keys and two 
were hanged for piracy. During these first 
months about 300 colonists died of scurvy and 
gangrene. Malaria carried off hundreds more 
while they were clearing seven miles of low land 
along the Halifax and Hillsboro rivers, construct- 
ing walled canals, planting maize, making gar- 
dens, and producing indigo for export. The cost 
of the enterprise for the first year had been about 
£28,000 and provisions were nearly exhausted 
when the Lords of the Treasury granted £2,000 
for relief. 

Early appointed to the Provincial Council and 
secretaryship by Grant, Turnbull resigned the 
former office under Lieut. -Gov. John Moultrie 
[9.7'.] on account of differences of opinion. He 
also quickly antagonized Gov. Patrick Tonyn by 
participating in a scheme to lease lands from the 
Indians and by opposing, with Chief Justice Wil- 
liam Drayton [q.z>.~\ and others, Tonyn's meas- 
ures as the Revolution approached. When the 
governor denounced them as disloyal, they 
adopted a loyal address, which Drayton and 
Turnbull carried to England early in 1776. Tonyn 
then broke up the latter's colony of New Smyrna 
by drafting many recruits therefrom for his 



Turnbull 

militia and galleys and by welcoming the other 
colonists to St. Augustine. 

In August 1778 Turnbull removed thither with 
his family, and was soon sued for debt by his 
partners' heirs. Tonyn heard the case and had 
the debtor detained two years for want of the 
bond he imposed. Released in May 1781 by sur- 
rendering all but a fraction of New Smyrna, 
Turnbull and his family sailed for Charleston. 
There he practised medicine until his death. On 
his and his children's joint claims of over £15,- 
000 for their losses in Florida, they received £916 
13s d.4; on his individual claim of over £6,400 he 
got nothing. He had three daughters and four 
sons ; one of the sons being Robert J. Turnbull 
lq.v.~\. 

[Carita Doggett, Dr. Andrew Turnbull and the New 
Smyrna Colony of Florida (1919) ; W. H. Siebert, 
Loyalists in East Florida, 1774 to 1785 (2 vols., 1929) ; 
Acts of the Privy Council of England, Colonial Series 
IV (1911), 815, V (1912), 564-65, 59i; A. J. Mor- 
rison, Travels in the Confederation (1911), translated 
from the German of J. D. Schopf ; 5. C. and Am. Gen. 
Gazette, Oct. 31-Nov. 7, 1766, Jan. 30-Feb. 6, 1767; 
S. C. Gazette, Aug. 3-10, 1767, July 4, 11, 1768, Feb. 
28, Dec. 19, 1771, Oct. 11, 1773 ; Ga. Gazette, June 29, 
July 6, Oct. 19, 1768.] W. H. S. 

TURNBULL, ROBERT JAMES (Jan. 1775- 
June 15, 1833), publicist, was born in New 
Smyrna, Fla., the third son of Andrew [q.v.~\ 
and Maria Gracia (Dura Bin) Turnbull, the 
latter a native of Smyrna. His father was a 
Scotch physician who had obtained a British 
grant in 1766 and soon thereafter had led to 
Florida several thousand colonists from the re- 
gion of the Mediterranean. The project failed, 
Dr. Turnbull embraced the colonial cause in the 
Revolution, thereby forfeiting his grant, and he 
moved to South Carolina in 1782. The son was 
educated at an academy at Kensington (Lon- 
don), and studied law in Philadelphia, and under 
John Julius Pr ingle [q.v.] in Charleston. Ad- 
mitted to the bar in 1794, Turnbull began prac- 
tice in Charleston, but in 1810 he gave up his 
profession and retired to a large plantation, 
maintaining, however, a residence in Charleston. 
Though widely popular and distinctly politically- 
minded, he took no part in public affairs, except 
to serve on the special court in 1822 for the trial 
of the Denmark Vesey conspirators. His influ- 
ence was largely developed during the last decade 
of his life, and by his writings rather than by the 
spoken word, though he was no mean public 
speaker. 

He wrote A Visit to the Philadelphia Prison 
(1796), which was published in French in 1800 
and attracted considerable attention. He con- 
tributed a communication on plantation manage- 



55 



Turnbull 

ment and the treatment of slaves in South Caro- 
lina to the anonymous work of Edwin Clifford 
Holland [#.?'.], entitled Refutation of the Calum- 
nies Circulated Against the Southern and West- 
ern States, Respecting the Institution and Exist- 
ence of Slavery among Them (1822). There is 
no record of any other product of his pen for 
several years, but his later writings indicate that 
he was an interested observer of prevailing tend- 
encies in American life and government. An 
ardent Jeffersonian, he became haunted by the 
spectre of national consolidation under the doc- 
trine of implied power, angered by the sectional 
aspects of the protective tariff — a scheme "for 
rendering the South tributary to the North," 
and convinced that the growth of anti-slavery 
agitation imperiled the South. The South, he 
felt, must resist. "Let us say distinctly to Con- 
gress,'Hands off — mind your own business.' . . . 
If this fails, let us separate. It is not a case for 
reasoning or for negotiation" (The Crisis, no. 

27, p. 137)- 

In 1827 he published his most important work, 
The Crisis: or, Essays on the Usurpations of 
the Federal Government, which appeared after 
two-thirds of the essays had been published in 
the Charleston Mercury over the pen name, 
"Brutus." It is doubtful if the thinking of the 
people of any other state has ever been so im- 
pressed and influenced by a single publication as 
was that of South Carolina by this work. It is 
often said incorrectly that in it Turnbull origi- 
nated the doctrine of nullification in its South 
Carolina form, but it cannot be denied that it 
was "the first bugle-call to the South to rally" 
(Hamilton, post, p. 15), and it prepared the 
ground admirably for the seed others were soon 
to sow. Frankly confessing his feelings to be 
more sectional than national, he "struck at every 
evil in sight in such a bold, fearless, direct man- 
ner as to win the unbounded admiration of the 
masses" (Houston, post, p. 50). Seeking to show 
that Congress and the Supreme Court had trans- 
formed the Constitution into a "dead letter" 
which might mean anything or nothing, he at- 
tacked the nationalism of Monroe and Calhoun. 
He declared that since the chief interest of the 
North and West was in usurpation, while that of 
the South lay in the preservation of the compact, 
the interest of the former demanded that the gov- 
ernment become more national, and that of the 
latter that it become more federal. The remedy 
lay in resistance to implied power, to the tariff, 
and to the anti-slavery movement, in insistence 
upon the compact theory, and in reliance upon 
the sovereignty of the states, even to the point 
of separation. The essays are effectively written, 



Turnbull 

well-reasoned, and, admitting their premises, un- 
answerable. 

Having tasted blood, Turnbull was in the thick 
of the fight for the rest of his life. The legisla- 
ture in 1828 passed a series of resolutions writ- 
ten by him affirming the compact theory with 
each state as judge. In 1828 Hamilton and Cal- 
houn proclaimed the nullification doctrine. Turn- 
bull had supported Jackson in 1824 and 1828, 
but in 1830 he became his caustic critic. In that 
year he wrote The Tribunal of Dernier Ressort, 
and in a notable public address, declaring that he 
had "trodden no path which has not been hal- 
lowed by the footsteps of Jefferson" (Pro- 
ceedings of the State Rights Celebration at 
Charleston, S. C, July 1, 1830, p. 38), he again 
passionately proclaimed his principles and his 
adherence to the "Carolina doctrine." Just a 
year later, he addressed the State Rights and 
Free Trade party, defending nullification as the 
"Rock of Safety for the Union," and declaring 
his readiness to oppose secession with his last 
breath, except as a last resort from tyranny (Pro- 
ceedings of the Celebration of the 4th of July, 
1831, . . . by the State Rights and Free Trade 
Party, p. 55). He was in the same year a mem- 
ber of the Free Trade convention at Columbia 
and wrote its report. In February 1832 he at- 
tended and addressed a similar convention in 
Charleston, and on July 4 he delivered an ora- 
tion in which he characterized nullification as 
the "inherent, unmodified, all preserving prin- 
ciple of American liberty," as "the ground-work 
of Mr. Jefferson's faith," and, as "a medium 
course between those unspeakably dreadful evils 
Submission and Secession," the rightful remedy 
for usurpation. He pleaded for the preservation 
of a federal Union of sovereign states, arguing 
that the state governments could not enslave the 
people because they could impose none but direct 
taxes. "As long as these republics remain free, 
sovereign, and independent, it is impossible that 
tyranny can ever advance a single step in our 
country." (An Oration . . . Before the State 
Rights & Free Trade Party, . . . on the 4th of 
July, 1832, 1832, pp. 7, 8, 17, 20.) 

In the nullification convention he took a lead- 
ing part, writing its Address. Upon Jackson's 
proclamation, he volunteered for military serv- 
ice. He refused to believe the experiment a fail- 
ure. "Is it little to have put a bit in the teeth of 
the Tariff-Mongers?" He thought it no little 
victory to have "foiled the barbarian fury" of 
Jackson. "With but our one-gun battery of Nul- 
lification, we have driven the enemy from his 
moorings, compelled him to slip his cable, and 
put to sea." But, he added, the contest was only 



56 



Turnbull 



Turner 



well begun, and at the second session of the con- 
vention he made an elaborate speech in advocacy 
of the ordinance which he wrote and proposed 
requiring a test oath and nullifying the "Bloody 
Bill" of Congress. (Speeches Delivered in the 
Convention, of the State of South-Carolina . . . 
March, 1833, 1833, pp. 35, 52-62.) 

He died suddenly in the summer and his 
funeral was the occasion of a tremendous demon- 
stration by the State Rights party. Great as was 
his influence in life, it was perhaps greater af- 
terwards, since with James Hamilton he largely 
determined the pattern of the thinking of Robert 
Barnwell Rhett lq.v.~\. Turnbull was three times 
married: first, on Jan. 10, 1797, to Claudia But- 
ler Gervais of Charleston; second, to Valeria, 
the daughter of John Lightwood of Charleston; 
and, third, to Anna Beresford McCall of Charles- 
ton. 

[C. S. Boucher, The Nullification Controversy in 
South Carolina (1916); D. F. Houston, A Critical 
Study of Nullification in South Carolina (1896) ; Proc. 
of the Convention of the State of S. C. upon the Sub- 
ject of Nullification (1832) ; Speeches Delivered in the 
Convention of the State of S. C. in March, 1833 (1833) ; 
Dumas Malone, The Public Life of Thomas Cooper 
(1926) ; James Hamilton, An Eulogium on the Public 
Services and Character of Robert J. Turnbull, Esq. 
(1834) ; Gaillard Hunt, John C. Calhoun (1907) ; Laura 
A. White, Robert Barnwell Rhett : Father of Secession 
(1931); Charleston Mercury, June 17, 18, 19, 1833; 
Southern Patriot (Charleston), June 15, 1833 ; Charles- 
ton Courier, June 17, 1833; Carita Doggett, Dr. An- 
drew Turnbull and the New Smyrna Colony of Florida 
(1919)] J.G.deR.H. 

TURNBULL, WILLIAM (1800-Dec. 9, 
1857), soldier, engineer, was born in Philadel- 
phia, Pa., the son of William Turnbull by his 
second wife, Mary, daughter of Charles Nisbet 
[q.v.~\. The elder' Turnbull emigrated to Phila- 
delphia from Scotland about 1770. He was a 
shipping merchant and later an ironmaster with 
a blast furnace near Pittsburgh. In 1798 he re- 
turned to Philadelphia. Young William entered 
the United States Military Academy Sept. 30, 
1814, and graduated July 1, 1819. He was as- 
signed as second lieutenant in the Corps of Artil- 
lery and served in this arm, principally engaged 
on topographic duty, until Aug. 20, 1831, being 
promoted to first lieutenant Jan. 15, 1823. Trans- 
ferred with the rank of captain to the topographi- 
cal engineers, he was engaged in 1831-32 on the 
survey of a railroad route in the state of Mis- 
sissippi and then assigned to the construction of 
the Potomac Aqueduct across the Potomac River 
at Georgetown. This was his most important 
work and engaged his time for eleven years, dur- 
ing which he was promoted to the grade of major. 
The masonry piers of this aqueduct were found- 
ed on bed rock which lay thirty to forty feet be- 
low the water surface and was covered with 



about twenty feet of mud. The river itself was 
subject to floods and, in winter, to floating ice. 
The method of construction was by coffer dams, 
which Turnbull designed. This aqueduct was 
one of the first important works of American 
engineering and gave Turnbull a wide reputa- 
tion. Two reports by him were published (House 
Document 261, 24 Cong., 1 Sess., 1836, and House 
Document 459, 25 Cong., 2 Sess., 1838). After 
his death, both of these being out of print, the 
demand for them by engineers called forth the 
publication of Reports on the Construction of 
the Piers of the Aqueduct of the Alexandria 
Canal across the Potomac River at Georgetown, 
District of Columbia (1873). After the aqueduct 
was completed Turnbull was engaged in the im- 
provement of harbors on some of the Great Lakes 
and on Lake Champlain until the Mexican War. 

In this conflict he served as chief topographi- 
cal engineer on the staff of Gen. Winfield Scott 
and took an active part in all operations from the 
siege of Vera Cruz to the capture of the city of 
Mexico. For his services he was awarded the 
brevet of lieutenant-colonel for gallant and meri- 
torious services in the battles of Contreras and 
Churubusco, and that of colonel for similar serv- 
ices in the battle of Chapultepec. After the war, 
he was superintending engineer of the construc- 
tion of the custom house at New Orleans ( 1848- 
49) ; he surveyed Whale's Back Rock, Ports- 
mouth, N. H., for a lighthouse site and examined 
into the practicability of bridging the Susque- 
hanna River at Havre de Grace (1850-52) ; he 
served on a board to examine into the feasibility 
of an additional canal around the Falls of the 
Ohio (1852-53) ; and as engineer in charge of 
harbor improvements on Lake Erie and Lake 
Ontario (1853-56) and of lighthouse construc- 
tion at Oswego, N. Y. (1853-55). 

Early in 1826 he married Jane Graham Ram- 
say, sister of George Douglas Ramsay [g.v.], 
and established a home in Washington. Of six 
sons and four daughters, five sons and three 
daughters survived him. One son, Charles N. 
Turnbull (1832-1874), was also a graduate of 
the Military Academy and an officer of the topo- 
graphical engineers, serving with distinction in 
the Civil War. 

[A. D. Turnbull, William Turnbull 1751-1822, with 
Some Account of Those Coming After (privately print- 
ed, 1933) ; G. W. Cullum, Biog. Reg. Officers and Grads. 
U. S. Mil. Acad. (1st ed., 1879), vol. I; Daily Jour. 
(Wilmington, N. C.), Dec. 11, 1857; Daily Nat. Intel- 
ligencer (Washington), Dec. 11, \2, 1857.] G. J. F. 

TURNER, ASA (June 11, 1799-Dec. 13, 1885). 
Congregational clergyman, educator, brother of 
Jonathan Baldwin Turner [q.v.~\, was born in 
Templeton, Mass., the son of Asa and Abigail 



57 



Turner 



Turner 



(Baldwin) Turner, and a descendant of John 
Turner who emigrated from England in 1635 
and settled in Roxbury, Mass., through his son 
John who was admitted freeman of Medfield, 
Mass., in 1649. Asa attended a district school 
and later worked on his father's farm, teaching 
during the winter months. In the fall of 1821, 
having decided to become a minister, he entered 
Amherst Academy in order to prepare for col- 
lege, and within two years was able to meet the 
requirements for admission to Yale. Graduating 
in 1827, he enrolled at the Yale Divinity School, 
where he was soon recognized as a student of 
unusual ability. On Sept. 6, 1830, he was or- 
dained at New Haven by the New Haven West 
Association. 

That same year he became one of a group of 
seven theological students, known as the "Yale 
Band." Formally organized as the "Illinois As- 
sociation," these students signed a pledge, Feb. 
21, 1829, indorsed by the president of Yale Col- 
lege, expressing their willingness to go to Illinois 
for the purpose of establishing a seminary of 
learning, where some of them would teach, while 
the others occupied preaching stations in the 
surrounding country. Elected a trustee of the 
proposed educational institution Dec. 18, 1829, 
a position in which he served until 1844, Turner 
took an active part in the campaign for endow- 
ment, soliciting funds in Andover, Boston, Troy, 
Albany, and New York City. The money was 
secured within a few months, and on Jan. 4, 1830, 
Illinois College, at Jacksonville, was opened for 
instruction. On Aug. 31, 1830, Turner married 
Martha Bull, daughter of Dr. Isaac Dickerman 
and Mary (Watson) Bull, of Hartford, Conn. 

Having decided to establish himself in Quincy, 
111., he set out on the westward journey, Sept. 
14, 1830. The spot which he had chosen for his 
labors was sadly in need of spiritual and intel- 
lectual cultivation ; there were no schools or 
churches. Working against indifference and 
actual opposition, he established a Presbyterian 
Church in December 1830. Early in the follow- 
ing year he persuaded a schoolmaster to settle in 
the town and open a school. Turner soon became 
the leading spirit in the development of the civic 
and intellectual life of Quincy. In the summer 
of 1832, at the request of Illinois College, he 
went East to solicit additional funds and to assist 
in securing instructors. His mission for the col- 
lege successfully fulfilled, he returned late in the 
spring of 1833 accompanied by twenty people 
pledged to help in the work of "colonizing and 
civilizing." Many others had been persuaded to 
follow as settlers. Once more he entered vigor- 
ously into his work as missionary and preacher. 



58 



A Presbyterian when he first arrived in Quincy, 
he decided to become a Congregationalist, and 
on Oct. 10, 1833, by unanimous vote, his church 
adopted the Congregational form of government, 
becoming the first of this order in Illinois. Tur- 
ner traveled throughout the northern part of the 
state — visiting Iowa, also, in 1834 and 1836 — 
promoting camp meetings and urging the erec- 
tion of churches. Late in 1837, after having or- 
ganized thirteen churches, he went again to New 
England. 

After his return the following spring, he and 
the Rev. J. A. Reed, of Warsaw, 111., established 
at Denmark, Iowa, May 5, 1838, the first Congre- 
gationalist Church west of the Mississippi, and 
three months later Turner became its pastor. 
His ministry in Denmark, which began Aug. 3, 
1838, continued for thirty years. In July 1839 
the American Home Missionary Society ap- 
pointed him first missionary agent for Iowa. 
Within a few months he was exploring northern 
Iowa, which was then uninhabited. His letters 
to Eastern friends and societies induced many 
families to move thither. He pleaded with East- 
ern churches for missionaries, and by 1842 had 
persuaded twelve young ministers to join him in 
developing the frontier country. Before his ac- 
tive missionary work ceased, he had inspired 
more than one hundred others to follow their 
example. He was also responsible for the or- 
ganization of the "Iowa Association," formed 
by seven Yale theological students in 1837, for 
the purpose of establishing an educational insti- 
tution in Iowa. After much effort, he obtained 
from the territorial Assembly, Feb. 3, 1843, a 
charter for Denmark Academy, and later in the 
year he went East to raise money for its support. 
Instruction at the academy was begun in Sep- 
tember 1845, and three years later, Noy. 1, 1848, 
Iowa College was opened at Davenport. For the 
establishment of these pioneer institutions, Tur- 
ner's labors were chiefly responsible, and he 
served as trustee of both until his death. He was 
also an active participant in the movement for 
the organization of a system of public schools. 
In the anti-slavery campaign in Iowa he took a 
vigorous part, expressing his views courageous- 
ly at various political conventions. During the 
Civil War he supported the cause of abolition 
in his sermons and in articles published in East- 
ern religious journals. Failing in health in 1868, 
he withdrew from his pastorate and retired to 
Oskaloosa, where he died. 

[Obit. Record Grads. Yale Coll. (1886) ; T. O. Doug- 
lass, The Pilgrims of Iowa (1911) ; C. F. Magoun. Asa 
Turner, a Home Missionary Patriarch, and His Times 
(1889) ; Manual of the First Congregational Church of 
Quincy, III. (1865); C. H. Rammelkainp, ///. Coll.: A 



Turner 



Turner 



Centennial Hist., 1829-1928 (1928); Iowa State Reg. 
( Ues Moines), Dec. 16, 1885.] R. F. S. 

TURNER, CHARLES YARDLEY (Nov. 25, 
1850-Dec. 31, 1918), mural painter, was born in 
Baltimore, M<±, the son of John C. and Hannah 
( Bartlett) Turner. The Turners were Friends, 
and years later the quiet interior of the meet- 
ing-house often inspired the painter. The boy's 
home was one of culture, but his father's 
three marriages left little for his mainte- 
nance after preparatory schooling at the public 
and Friends' schools. He soon began to support 
himself as photographic finisher, attending at 
night the art classes of the Maryland Institute 
for the Promotion of the Mechanic Arts. After 
his graduation from the Maryland Institute in 
1870, he spent several days as apprentice in the 
architectural office of Frank E. Davis and then 
set out for New York (1872). He studied for 
the next six years at the National Academy and 
at the Art Students' League, which he helped to 
organize, and continued to earn his living by 
photographic work. In 1878 he began study in 
Paris under Jean Paul Laurens, the mural deco- 
rator, Munkacsy, the Hungarian colorist, and 
Leon Bonnat, the figure painter. On his return 
to America he became an instructor in drawing 
and painting at the Art Students' League (1881- 
84) and a director of the Maryland Institute. 

His earliest popular success was his "Grand 
Canal at Dordrecht" (1882), but he struck his 
stride as figure painter in the literary and his- 
torical field, a Miles Standish series being much 
in demand. The "Bridal Procession" (1886), 
now in the Metropolitan Museum of Art, "Days 
That Are No More," suggested by Tennyson's 
lines, and the etching of Hannah Thurston, Bay- 
ard Taylor's heroine, are further examples. His 
water colors were also frequently successful, 
especially his "Dordrecht Milkmaid" (1882), 
while "Chrysanthemums," a decorative oil in the 
Brooklyn Institute of Arts and Sciences, illus- 
trates his versatility in color. In 1886 he became 
an Academician. He was assistant director of 
decoration at the Chicago World's Fair (1893) 
and director of color at the Pan-American Ex- 
position (1901) at Buffalo. Increasingly, how- 
ever, his interests turned to mural painting, 
reaching their fullest development in the Balti- 
more Court House panels, "The Burning of the 
Peggy Stewart" ( 1905). The fact that the deco- 
rations by John La Farge, E. H. Blashfield, and 
J. P. Laurens in the same building do not sub- 
ordinate the Turners indicates at least their ad- 
mirable adaptation to their position. Other Tur- 
ner murals are to be seen in the DeWitt Clinton 
High School, the Appellate Courts Building, the 



National Bank of Commerce, the Manhattan, 
Martinique, and Waldorf-Astoria hotels, all in 
New York ; the Hotel Raleigh in Washington, 
court houses in Jersey City, Newark, Baltimore, 
Youngstown, and Cleveland, and the state Capi- 
tol, Madison, Wis. 

In 1912 Turner became the director of the 
Maryland Institute School of Art and Design, 
and in the same year received the medal of honor 
for painting given by the Architectural League 
of New York. He was engaged in painting a 
poster-picture, "The Madonna of the War," in 
the plaza outside the Baltimore Court House in 
connection with the United War Work drive 
when he contracted the influenza which resulted 
in his death. He died in New York and was 
buried in the Friends Burial Grounds, Balti- 
more. He never married. In his later years he 
was affiliated with a firm of interior decorators. 
Turner is recalled as a man of unusual kindli- 
ness, charm, and simplicity. His later pictures 
show well-formed features, a Vandyke beard, 
and brilliant eyes. 

[Who's Who in America, 1918-19; Addresses De- 
livered on the Occasion of the Unveiling of . . . "The 
Burning of the Peggy Stewart" (copr. 1905), Municipal 
Art Soc. of Baltimore ; Pauline King, Am. Mural Paint- 
ing (1902), ch. xiii ; The Brochure of the Mural Paint- 
ers (copr. 1916) ; Am. Art Ann., 1919, Am. Art News, 
Jan. 4, 1 9 19; obituaries in Sun (Baltimore) and N. Y. 
Times, which also contains a death notice, Jan. 2, 19 19.] 

W.S.R. 

TURNER, DANIEL (1794-Feb. 4, 1850), 
naval officer, was born probably at Richmond, 
Staten Island, N. Y., although there is a possi- 
bility that he was born in Rhode Island, where 
at Newport he made his home for many years, 
and one obituary notice gives New Jersey as his 
birthplace. On Jan. I, 1808, he was appointed to 
the navy as a midshipman. After a period of serv- 
ice at the New York naval station he cruised on 
board the Constitution, 1809-11. On June 8, 
18 12, he was ordered to take command of the 
gunboats at Norwich, Conn. He was commis- 
sioned lieutenant on Mar. 12, 1813, and two days 
thereafter received orders to proceed to Sacketts 
Harbor, N. Y. For a time he commanded the 
Niagara, the second vessel in the squadron of 
Commodore O. H. Perry [(/.<:'.], but previous to 
the battle of Lake Erie he was succeeded by 
Capt. J. D. Elliott [q.v.~\ and was given the com- 
mand of the Caledonia, thus being the third of- 
ficer in rank during the battle. His conduct on 
that occasion was highly commended by Perry, 
who described him as "an officer that in all situ- 
ations may be relied on" (American State Pa- 
pers, Naval Affairs, vol. T, 1834, p. 295). He 
was one of those who received the thanks of 
Congress and was awarded a silver medal. In 



59 



Turner 



Turner 



the summer of 1814 he commanded the Scorpion 
of the fleet of Commodore Arthur Sinclair and 
participated in the capture of several British ves- 
sels on Lake Huron, the burning of the fort and 
barracks at St. Joseph, and the attack on Macki- 
nac. On Sept. 5 the Scorpion was surprised and 
captured by the enemy under circumstances that 
were regarded as not discreditable to Turner. A 
court of inquiry decided that his conduct on this 
occasion was that of a discreet and vigilant of- 
ficer. After a period of imprisonment he was 
exchanged. 

In 1 81 5-17 he was with the frigate Java and 
in 1819-24 with the cruiser Nonsuch, cruising 
part of the time in the Mediterranean. On Mar. 
3, 1825, he was promoted master commandant. 
After a tour of duty at the naval rendezvous at 
Boston he cruised in the West Indies, 1827-30, 
as commander of the Erie. For three years he 
was stationed at the Portsmouth (N. H.) navy 
yard. On Mar. 3, 1835, he was promoted captain. 
After a long period on waiting orders he com- 
manded the Constitution of the Pacific Squad- 
ron, 1839-41. From 1843 to 1846 he was in com- 
mand of the Brazil Squadron. His last duty was 
performed at the Portsmouth navy yard as its 
commandant. He died suddenly at Philadelphia 
of a heart affection, leaving a wife and daughter. 
On May 23, 1837, he had married in that city 
Catharine M. Bryan. 

[Bureau of Navigation. Records of Officers, 1804- 
58; Navy Register, 1815-50; Usher Parsons, Brief 
Sketches of the Officers Who Were in the Battle of Lake 
Erie (1862); Daily National Intelligencer (Washing- 
ton, D. C), Feb. 7, 1850; Newport Mercury, Feb. 9, 
1850 ; Public Ledger (Phila.), Feb. 6, 7, 1850 ; Veterans 
Administration, Pension Files, War of 1812 ; Theodore 
Roosevelt, The Naval War of 1812 (1889).] 

CO. P. 

TURNER, EDWARD (Nov. 25, 1778-May 
23, i860), jurist, was born in Fairfax County, 
Va., the son of Lewis Ellzey and Theodosia 
(Payne) Turner, and a grandson of William 
Payne who, according to "Parson" Weems; once 
knocked George Washington down (M. L. 
Weems, A History of the Life . . . of . . . George 
Washington, 2nd ed., 1800, p. 49). In 1786 the 
Turners moved to Kentucky. Becoming a stu- 
dent in Transylvania University, Edward at- 
tended at intervals, as time and means permitted, 
and studied law while serving as clerk in the 
office of George Nicholas [q.r.~\. About this time 
Nicholas was championing Jefferson's Kentucky 
resolutions (1798). With a Democratic back- 
ground, therefore, and with letters of introduc- 
tion from Gen. Green Clay [q.v.~\ of Kentucky, 
late in 1801 Turner went to Natchez, Miss., 
where the Democrats were just coming into 
power. 



The young lawyer was well received, for 
within a few months he was made aide-de-camp 
and private secretary to the governor and clerk 
of the lower house of the territorial legislature. 
On Sept. 5, 1802, he was married to Mary, daugh- 
ter of Cato West, a prominent Democrat of Jef- 
ferson County, and about the same time became 
clerk of the court of that county. In the sum- 
mer of 1803 he was appointed by the federal gov- 
ernment register of the newly established land 
office at Washington, Miss. Losing this place in 
December 1804, he returned to Jefferson County, 
where he practised law until 1810 and then 
moved to a plantation he had acquired in War- 
ren County. He was elected to the legislature in 
181 1. In February of that year his wife died, 
and on Dec. 27, 1812, he married Eliza Baker, 
daughter of a wealthy planter from New Jersey. 
Returning to Natchez in 1813, he became city 
magistrate and president of the board of select- 
men. Two years later, he was again elected to 
the legislature and was chosen to prepare a digest 
of the laws of the territory. This was published 
in 1816 — Statutes of the Mississippi Territory 
. . . Digested by Authority of the General As- 
sembly. As a representative of Adams County 
in the convention of 1817 he was a member of 
the committee that drafted the first constitution 
of Mississippi, and he continued to shape the af- 
fairs of the new state as chairman of the judici- 
ary committee in the first state legislature (1817- 
18), and as speaker of the house in 1819 and 
1820. For a short time in 1820-21 he was at- 
torney-general. 

In 1822 he was appointed judge of the crimi- 
nal court of Adams County and in 1824 was ad- 
vanced to the supreme court of Mississippi. Five 
years later he became chief justice and remained 
in this office until the adoption of the constitution 
of 1832, which provided for the popular election 
of judges. In 1834 he was elected chancellor, 
serving until 1839, > n which year he was an un- 
successful candidate for governor on the Whig 
ticket. In 1840 he was again elected to the su- 
preme court to fill a term which expired in 1843. 
He was not a candidate for reelection, but in 
1844 he was sent to the state Senate and served 
one term. 

The last twelve years of his life he held no po- 
litical office, but continued for several years to 
serve as president of the trustees of Jefferson 
College at Washington, Miss. By his marriages 
and by the practice of law he had become com- 
paratively wealthy and he lived in comfort in his 
home near Natchez. He was survived by his 
wife and two daughters. Although Turner is 
remembered chiefly as a jurist, "his warmest 



60 



Turner 



Turner 



friends," according to Henry S. Foote (post, p. 
19), "did not claim for him any very extraordi- 
nary knowledge of law as a science." His suc- 
cess in public and private life was due to the fact 
that his "intellect was of a sound and practical 
cast, and his industry most remarkable." He 
was also "of unsurpassed integrity" and he had 
"exceedingly kind and conciliatory manners." 

[9 Miss. Re forts, 10-12 ; H. S. Foote, The Bench and 
Bar of the South and Southwest (1876) ; J. D. Lynch, 
The Bench and Bar of Miss. (1881) ; Dunbar Rowland, 
Official Letter Books of W . C. C. Claiborne, 1801-1816 
(1917), vols. I, II, and Mississippi (1907), vol. II; 
Biog. and Hist. Memoirs of Miss. (1891), vol. II ; Frank 
Leslie's Illustrated Newspaper, Nov. 6, 1858; J. F. 
Claiborne, Miss., as a Province, Territory and State 
(1880) ; manuscript diary of B. L. C. Wailes [q.v.] ; 
information supplied by L. P. Conner of Natchez, from 
family records.] Q S. S_ 

TURNER, EDWARD RAYMOND (May 28, 
1881-Dec. 31, 1929), historian, was born in Bal- 
timore, Md., the son of Charles and Rosalind 
(Flynn) Turner. After attending the public 
schools of Baltimore he matriculated at St. 
John's College, Annapolis, receiving the degree 
of B.A. in 1904. Shortly thereafter he entered 
the graduate school of the Johns Hopkins Uni- 
versity, where he devoted himself to the study 
of history. The American Historical Associ- 
ation awarded him the Justin Winsor Prize in 
1910 for his dissertation, published the following 
year with the title The Negro in Pennsylvania. 
In the same year that he received the degree of 
Ph.D. (1910), he was called to Bryn Mawr Col- 
lege as associate in history ; and, after remaining 
there one year, he accepted a professorship of 
European history at the University of Michigan. 
While occupying that chair, from 191 1 to 1924, 
Turner established himself as an able and at- 
tractive lecturer. 

In the field of historical research he devoted 
himself to English constitutional history. At 
first he planned to study the development of the 
cabinet during the reign of the early Hanoveri- 
ans, but he eventually extended his research 
through the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. 
His early contributions to the English Historical 
Review (such as the one published in April 
191 5) and the American Historical Review 
brought him into prominence both in England 
and the United States, and during the remainder 
of his life he continued his study of conciliar 
development. By reason of his abundant learn- 
ing and energy Turner was also able, during the 
same time, to produce numerous manuals that 
enjoyed wide popularity. Thus there appeared: 
Ireland and England ( 1919) ; Europe, 1789-1920 
(1920); Europe since 1870 (1921); Europe, 



1450-1789 (1923); and Europe since 1789 
(1924). 

In 1924 Turner accepted the professorship of 
English history at Yale University. The follow- 
ing year he was selected to succeed his former 
teacher, John Martin Vincent, as professor of 
European history at the Johns Hopkins Univer- 
sity, and he returned to his native city. On Sept. 
1, 1917, he had married Eleanor Howard Bowie 
of Baltimore. There were three children, of 
whom two survived him. At the Johns Hopkins 
•he entered upon his new duties with great en- 
thusiasm, invigorating the department of history 
and injecting new interest in the study of recent 
European diplomatic history. Strenuous aca- 
demic duties, however, did not prevent him 
from progressing toward the completion of his 
magnum opus, for in 1927-28 appeared two vol- 
umes on The Privy Council of England in the 
Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries. Unfor- 
tunately, the premature death of Turner prevent- 
ed him from completing his work, but two more 
volumes, left by him in type, were published in 
l 9Z°-i 2 under the title, The Cabinet Council of 
England in the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Cen- 
turies, while materials for another were left with 
his widow. It was his desire "to make these four 
volumes a repository of all the available infor- 
mation on his subject" (Adair, post, p. xvi). 
Final conclusions, "flowing from the evidence," 
were to follow. 

During almost his entire professional life, 
Turner spent his summers and sabbatical years 
in England, carrying on his research. During 
his last years he devoted much attention to the 
origins of the World War, being a frequent con- 
tributor to the American Historical Review, 
Current History, and other journals. Occasion- 
ally he became involved in controveries with cer- 
tain "revisionists," but he defended his position 
with learning and conviction. His wide re- 
search, his mastery of numerous languages, and 
his love of literature are constantly reflected in 
his works. 

[Information from Mrs. Eleanor Bowie Turner ; per- 
sonal recollection of the author ; E. R. Adair, sketch of 
Turner and discussion of his work in introduction of 
The Cabinet Council, vol. II (1932) ; The Johns Hop- 
kins Alumni Mag., Mar. 1930, in "Necrology"; "Ed- 
ward Raymond Turner, 1881-1929," in Jour, of Mod- 
em Hist., Mar. 1930; editorial note in Current Hist., 
Feb. 1930; Am. Hist. Rev., Apr. 1930, p. 689, and re- 
views, Ibid., Jan., Oct. 1928; Sun (Baltimore), Jan. 1, 
1930; Times (London), Jan. 2, 1930.] R.H.W. 

TURNER, FENNELL PARRISH (Feb. 25, 
1867-Feb. 10, 1932), missionary executive, was 
born in Danielsville, Dickson County, Tenn., the 
son of William Allen and Mary Jane (Pickett) 
Turner. Reared in the family of a Methodist 



Turner 



Turner 



minister and descended from a long line of min- 
isters, he was naturally predisposed to the pro- 
fession of his father and began preaching when 
in his teens. The oldest of the family, he shared 
the responsibility of helping to educate tbe young- 
er children. He himself attended the common 
schools, then the Wall School at Chapel Hill, 
Tenn., and in 1891 graduated from Vanderbilt 
University. He interrupted his college course 
for two years, 1888-1890, to be principal of Dix- 
on Academy, at Shelbyville, Tenn. For a year, 
1891-92, he was a student in the Biblical depart- 
ment of Vanderbilt University but left to give 
full time to the Tennessee Methodist, of which 
he became assistant editor and business manager 
in 1891. 

In 1895 ne became state secretary of the 
Young Men's Christian Association for North 
Carolina. From this position he passed in 1897 
to that of general secretary of the Student Vol- 
unteer Movement for Foreign Missions, then 
closely associated with the student department 
of the international committee of the Young 
Men's Christian Association ; that same year, 
Nov. 3, he was married to Rose Vaughan of 
Nashville, Tenn. The Student Volunteer Move- 
ment, at the time Turner took charge of it, was 
scarcely ten years old. As a recruiting and edu- 
cating agency for Protestant foreign missions, 
it had a large part in the religious life of the 
colleges and universities of the United States and 
Canada and in the growth of American foreign 
missions. The quadrennial conventions held by 
the Movement drew more students from more 
of the colleges and universities of North Amer- 
ica than any other gatherings, secular or re- 
ligious. Turner's twenty-two years ( 1897-1919) 
as its secretary spanned the Movement's most 
prosperous years, and for its development he was 
to no small degree responsible. In 191 1 he 
brought about the organization of the Board of 
Missionary Preparation and was chiefly respon- 
sible for it until 1916. In 1918 he became the 
secretary of the Committee of Reference and 
Counsel of the Foreign Missions Conference 
of North America — the body coordinating the 
Protestant foreign mission boards of the Conti- 
nent — and the following year he resigned from 
the secretaryship of the Student Volunteer Move- 
ment to give his entire time to the new post. 
From 1919 to 1928 he was also recording secre- 
tary of the Foreign Missions Conference. Dur- 
ing these years in New York, he found time to 
serve with several other organizations whose 
work was closely related to that in which he was 
chiefly engaged: from 1912 to 1919 he was a 
member of the general committee of the World's 



Student Christian Federation; in 1910 he at- 
tended the World Missionary Conference at 
Edinburgh ; from 1920 to 1928 he was a member 
of the committee of the newly formed Interna- 
tional Missionary Council, and was present at 
four of the meetings of that body, including the 
memorable one at Jerusalem in 1928 ; he was a 
member of the executive committee of the World 
Alliance for Promoting International Friend- 
ship through the Churches, and of the adminis- 
trative committee of the Federal Council of the 
Churches of Christ in America ; and he was 
a delegate to international gatherings which 
planned for Protestant activities in Latin Amer- 
ica — at Panama in 1916, at Montevideo in 1925, 
and in Havana in 1929. In these and many other 
connections he had a share in the formulation of 
the policies for the international outreach of 
Protestant Christianity. 

In 1928, when the strain of the years of heavy 
administrative duties had at last become insup- 
portable, he severed most of his major New York 
connections and became secretary for mission- 
ary education and foreign extension of the Gen- 
eral Sunday-school Board of the denomination 
of his youth, the Methodist Episcopal Church, 
South, and served until 1930. In 1930-31 he 
traveled in Asia as a member of the research 
staff of the Laymen's Foreign Missions Inquiry. 
His report, "Missionary Personnel in India, 
Burma, China, and Japan," was published in 
Laymen's Foreign Missions Inquiry: Fact-Find- 
ers' Reports, vol. VII (1933). Shortly after his 
return from the East, increasing ill health forced 
him to retire to Southern California and a few 
months later he died at Santa Cruz. Not espe- 
cially gifted in public address, and never writing 
much under his own name, Turner gave most of 
his energy to administration, to personal coun- 
sel, to service on boards and committees, and to 
editing papers and reports. A prodigious and 
not a quick worker, he willingly and patiently 
bore burdens which, as the years passed, broke 
his health. Kindly, companionable, unassuming, 
and unselfish, he won and held a wide circle of 
friends. 

[Who's Who in America, 1932-33 ; Missionary Rev. 
of the World, May 1932, and Christian Advocate (Nash- 
ville), Feb. 19, 1932, both giving Feb. 9 as day of 
death ; N. Y. Times, Feb. 11, 1932, which gives day of 
death as Feb. 10; material furnished by family and 
friends. 1 K. S. L. 

TURNER, FREDERICK JACKSON (Nov. 
14, 1861-Mar. 14, 1932), historian, was born at 
Portage, on the northern fringe of agricultural 
Wisconsin, and passed his boyhood near the 
route over which explorers and missionaries had 
made their way from the St. Lawrence Valley to 



62 



Turner 



Turner 



that of the Mississippi. He had local schooling, 
reenforced from a background of New England 
culture by his parents Andrew Jackson and Mary 
(Hanford) Turner, who were able to give him 
the best in education that the state afforded. His 
father, from Plattsburg, N. Y., a journalist and 
a politician, was a local historian as well. While 
Turner was at the University of Wisconsin, Prof. 
William Francis Allen [q.i'.] taught him to ex- 
amine sources and to weigh the inferences they 
suggested. Between 1884, when he was grad- 
uated, and 1888, when he took the degree of 
M.A., Turner gave up youthful ideas of jour- 
nalism and elocution and determined to venture 
upon the new career of professor of history. Al- 
len had already set him to work on the manu- 
scripts of Lyman C. Draper [q.v.~\ in the State 
Historical Society, where his young friend Reu- 
ben Gold Thwaites [q.v.~\ had now been installed 
as Draper's successor. Out of these initial stud- 
ies came material for "The Character and Influ- 
ence of the Indian Trade in Wisconsin," which 
Turner offered as his dissertation for the doc- 
torate at the Johns Hopkins in 1890 (Johns Hop- 
kins University Studies in Historical and Politi- 
cal Science, 9 ser., 1891). At the University of 
Wisconsin, where he was assistant professor of 
history, 1889-91, professor of history, 1891-92, 
and professor of American history, 1892-1910, 
he took part in a deliberate attempt to erect a dis- 
tinguished school of social studies. 

Turner was a teacher with unusual power to 
inspire devotion, and an appearance of youth and 
simplicity that never quite deserted him. He be- 
came a useful professor, with a practical political 
instinct that made him a central figure in his uni- 
versity and threatened to divert him from paths 
of quiet scholarship. But he was aware of the 
nearness of unique archives in which American 
life could be investigated at its beginnings, and 
he never strayed far from the themes of his early 
studies. Invited to present a brief paper at the 
special meeting of the American Historical As- 
sociation to be held at the World's Fair in Chi- 
cago, he assembled data for an essay on "The 
Significance of the Frontier in American His- 
tory," which he read July 12, 1893 (first printed 
in 1894 in Proceedings of the State Historical 
Society of Wisconsin . . . 1893, and reprinted 
that year in Annual Report of the American His- 
torical Association . . . 1893). Without warning 
he set forth a new hypothesis, and then and there 
opened a new period in the interpretation of the 
history of the United States. At the age of thir- 
ty-two he found himself treated as one of the 
significant figures in historical writing. Return- 
ing tn his teaching work, where his distinctive 



course soon became the "History of the West," 
he adjusted himself slowly to the idea of his own 
importance. 

He wrote little. His relatively small output 
may be attributed in part to a caution inspired 
by early success, in part to his endless patience 
with his students, and largely to the painstaking 
procedure by which he assembled and verified 
his facts. He was not working in a field already 
standardized, or yielding to easy narration, but 
in one in which small fragments, each of slight 
importance, needed to be brought together for 
impressive aggregates. Brief essays came from 
his study ; but there were only a dozen which he 
cared to reprint, along with "The Significance 
of the Frontier," in The Frontier in American 
History (1920) ; and only a dozen more for The 
Significance of Sections in American History 
(1932), a posthumous recipient of the Pulitzer 
Prize. He edited "Correspondence of the French 
Ministers to the United States, 1791-1797" (An- 
nual Report of the American Historical Associ- 
ation . . . 1903, vol. II, 1904). He was persuaded 
by A. B. Hart to prepare the Rise of the New 
West (1906), as a volume in the cooperative 
work, The American Nation. In this he dis- 
closed the various sectional unities in the period 
1819-29. He left incomplete at death a continu- 
ation of this ; it was later published as The United 
States, 1830-1850: The Nation and Its Sections 
(1935), with an introduction by Avery Craven. 

It was neither the bulk of his writing that 
brought Turner international recognition, nor 
the number of advanced students whom he 
trained at Wisconsin, for these were relatively 
few. It was rather the penetrating influence of 
his hypothesis, which incited investigation by 
his co-workers and led to a change in the trend 
of historical writing upon the United States. 
Trained historical craftsmen came into American 
historiography only in the decade at the close of 
which Turner took his doctorate ; they told the 
American story with increasing accuracy, but 
without developing any convincing formula to 
account for the obvious fact that emigrants from 
western Europe and their descendants had 
brought into being a nation as variant from any 
of those from which they came as though it were 
of a different breed. Earlier historians had writ- 
ten in terms of religious liberty and revolt 
against the tyranny of England, or in admiration 
of the triumph of the principle of democracy. 
Where their writings were not antiquarian in 
character they were often nationalist or party 
tracts. Turner made necessary a new synthesis. 

Seeking an explanation for that quality that 
appeared not to derive from the European sources 



63 



Turner 



Turner 



of American culture, Turner looked for elements 
in the American environment that were novel in 
it. He observed that for three centuries the im- 
migrants had found lodgment in an open conti- 
nent where there was little to impede their free 
access to good land. He observed as well that 
for many centuries the peoples of Europe had 
lived in an environment of owned land, where 
the individual not born to estate had little chance 
to acquire it. The "hither edge of free land" be- 
came the magic element in the Turner hypothesis. 
Once recognized, it led him to see in the Amer- 
ican frontier an influence unusual in history and 
perhaps formative in shaping American culture. 
He stated the formula with modesty, often ask- 
ing his students whether they could "prove an 
inference." Some of his followers were prompt- 
ed to state it dogmatically, and to go far beyond 
the master in applying it ; but Turner was con- 
tent to point out the possibility that human na- 
ture in a free environment might behave dif- 
ferently from the same nature under social and 
economic pressure, that equality of opportunity 
might have something to do with democracy in 
politics, that isolation on a new frontier might 
encourage the survival of the robust and the 
opinionated, that the necessity of repeatedly set- 
ting up social and governmental institutions 
brought about a laboratory process in which non- 
essentials dropped out while tested principles 
survived, that the relationship between frontiers- 
men and government led naturally to a national- 
ism more intense than that of the older com- 
munities. He traced in his famous essay the 
spread over the continent of a series of frontiers : 
of the discoverer and explorer, the missionary, 
the soldier, the trapper, and the farmer. But his 
hypothesis was derived largely from the experi- 
ences of the frontier farmers who first changed 
the face of nature, and who added new units of 
social and economic life to the United States. He 
pointed out, as well, that whatever the influence 
of the frontier had been, it was now in 1893 about 
to terminate. Free land had gone, after three 
centuries of access to its "hither edge"; and he 
foretold a future different from the past in so far 
at least as the open frontier had been a positive 
force. 

For the rest of his creative life Turner tested 
his hypothesis, applying it at times to microscopic 
examination of limited regions and periods, and 
trying at other moments to reconcile it with 
larger views of American development. He re- 
garded the frontier less as a place than as a con- 
tinuous process sweeping the continent, and re- 
garded the region where it was temporarily 
operating as a section with aspects and interests 



deriving from its cultural state. This led him 
easily to a consideration of other varieties of 
sections, owing their identity to topography, 
natural resources, or the racial components of 
their people. He observed in these the American 
equivalents of the distracted nationalities of Eu- 
rope. On this note he ended. 

From the day that he read his essay Turner 
was a marked man, but, declining all calls to 
other institutions, he continued until 1910 to 
serve his university. Soon welcomed to the inner 
councils of the American Historical Association, 
he served as its president in 1909-10. During 
the period 1910-15, he was a member of the board 
of editors of the American Historical Review. 
In 1910 he accepted a professorship at Harvard. 
Here, in an atmosphere less hospitable to his 
trend of thought than that of Wisconsin, he con- 
tinued until retirement in 1924. He planned 
thereafter to reside in Madison, but poor health 
intervened and winters in California gave way 
to residence in Pasadena, where the Huntington 
Library welcomed him as research associate. He 
died at the age of seventy-one. He was married 
on Nov. 25, 1889, to Carolina Mae Sherwood of 
Chicago, who, with one of their children, sur- 
vived him. 

[Turner's reference books and notes were presented 
by him to the Huntington Lib., and the bulk of his cor- 
respondence is deposited there. See Max Farrand, in 
the Huntington Lib. Bulletin, no. 3, Feb. 1933, pp. 157- 
64. Carl Becker, in H. W. Odum, ed., American Mas- 
ters of Social Science ( 1927), gives an appraisal of Tur- 
ner's work and a careful bibliography of his writings. 
Other friendly appreciations are : E. E. Robinson, in 
N. D. Hist. Quart., July 1932; Joseph Schafer, in Wis. 
Mag. of Hist., Sept. 1931, June 1932, June 1933, June 
1934; Constance L. Skinner, Ibid., Sept. 1935; M. E. 
Curti, "The Section and the Frontier in American His- 
tory : The Methodological Concepts of Frederick Jack- 
son Turner," in S. A. Rice, ed., Methods in Social Sci- 
ence (1931); F. L. Paxson,' "A Generation of the 
Frontier Hypothesis," in Pacific Hist. Rev., Mar. 1933. 
Destructive criticism is offered in J. C. Almack, "The 
Shibboleth of the Frontier," in Historical Outlook, May 
1925 ; B. F. Wright, Jr., "American Democracy and 
the Frontier." in Yale Rev., Winter, 193 1 ; L. M. 
Hacker, "Sections — or Classes," in The Nation. July 
26, 1933, with reply by Benjamin Stolberg, Ibid., Sept. 
x 3> ] 933- A valuable aid is E. E. Edwards, "References 
on the Significance of the Frontier in American His- 
tory," Bibliographical Contributions. No, 25, Oct. 1935, 
U. S. Dept. of Agriculture Lib. See also R. G. Thwaites, 
The Univ. of Wisconsin (1900) ; Am. Hist. Rev., July 
1932, pp. 823—24 ; review of Turner's last book by J. 
D. Hicks, in Am. Hist. Rev., Jan. 1936 ; obituary and 
editorial, N. Y. Times, Mar. 16, 17, 1932.] F. L. P. 

TURNER, GEORGE (Feb. 25, iSso-Jan. 26, 
1932), lawyer. United States senator, was born 
in Edina, Mo., the son of Granville Davenport 
and Maria (Taylor) Turner. His father, a cabi- 
net maker, was of English and Dutch ancestry; 
his mother, of Scotch-Irish. They had moved 
from Kentucky to Missouri in 1825. The boy's 
schooling was meager, and at the age of thirteen, 



64 



Turner 



Turner 



the Civil War then being in progress, he became 
a military telegrapher in the Union service. Af- 
ter the war, he studied law in the office of a 
brother in Mobile, where he was admitted to the 
bar in 1870. President Grant in 1876 appointed 
him United States marshal for the middle and 
southern districts of Alabama, and he served un- 
til 1880. During this period he was the acknowl- 
edged Republican leader of the state. He was 
chairman of the Alabama delegation at the Re- 
publican National Convention of 1880, and held 
his negroes in line for Grant through the six 
days' battle between the Grant and Blaine forces. 

In 1885 President Arthur appointed him as- 
sociate justice of the supreme court of Wash- 
ington Territory. Resigning in 1888, he entered 
upon the practice of law in Spokane. He was a 
member of the state constitutional convention of 
1889 and chairman of its judiciary committee. 
He is credited with the authorship of the bill of 
rights, regarded by jurists as exceedingly com- 
prehensive. The Puget Sound tidelands were 
coveted by railway interests, and his successful 
campaign in the convention to save them for the 
state created an opposition to him which repeat- 
edly prevented his election to public office later. 
Working with scanty capital in the panic years 
of the nineties, Turner and some Spokane friends 
developed the Le Roi mine, at Rossland, B. C. 
It became a rich producer and was sold to a 
British syndicate for $4,000,000. Turner's sa- 
gacity and his skill in bending insurgent stock- 
holders to his purpose were largely responsible 
for this success. He was president of the Le Roi 
and, later, of the Constitution mine and the Sul- 
livan group, near Cranbrook, B. C. With profits 
from the Le Roi, he joined Frank Graves of 
Spokane in the purchase of the Seattle Post-In- 
telligencer. They paid $50,000 for the paper in 
September 1897 and some two years later sold it 
for $350,000 to Senator John L. Wilson backed 
by James J. Hill \_qq.vJ\. This paper was, the 
principal Republican organ of the state ; Turner 
made no effort to change its policy while he was 
an owner, and it continued to attack his acts as 
United States senator. 

Turner was elected to the Senate on a fusion 
ticket of Silver Republicans, Democrats, and 
Populists, and served from Mar. 4, 1897, to Mar. 
3, 1903. At the expiration of his term, the legis- 
lature was under Republican control, and there 
was no possibility of his reelection. He had won 
high regard as a constitutional lawyer, and on 
the day following his retirement President Theo- 
dore Roosevelt notified him of his appointment, 
with Secretary of War Elihu Root and Senator 
Henry Cabot Lodge [q.v."], as a member of the 



Alaska Boundary Tribunal. In 1910 President 
Taft appointed him as counsel for the United 
States in the Northeastern fisheries dispute with 
Great Britain, which was arbitrated at The 
Hague. President Taft also appointed Turner 
to the International Joint Boundary Commission, 
on which he served in 1913 and 1914, resigning 
because of the demand for his legal services in 
Spokane. From 19 18 to 1924, however, by Presi- 
dent Wilson's appointment, he acted as counsel 
for the United States before this commission. 

Turner was always a dramatic figure. He be- 
longed to the pioneer tradition, with its vision, 
independence, and fighting spirit. He was most 
happy in the stress of the old party conventions, 
which released his vivid eloquence. His rise to 
eminence in the face of educational disadvantages 
was due to an orderly mind, phenomenal memory, 
and untiring will. On June 4, 1878, he married 
Bertha C. Dreher, daughter of George and 
Catherine Dreher of Montgomery, Ala. He died 
at his home in Spokane, survived by his widow. 

[N. W. Durham, Hist, of the City of Spokane (1912), 
I, 421, 481, 488, II, 116; Who's Who in America, 
JQS ^ 1 '» Biog. Dir. Am. Cong. (1928) ; Jonathan Ed- 
wards, An Illustrated Hist, of Spokane County (1900) ; 
Spokesman-Review (Spokane), Jan. 27, 1932; infor- 
mation as to certain facts from relatives and asso- 
ciates] G. W. F. 

TURNER, HENRY MCNEAL (Feb. 1, 1834- 
May 8, 1915), bishop of the African Methodist 
Episcopal Church, editor, author, was born near 
Abbeville, S. C. He was the son of Hardy Tur- 
ner and Sarah (Greer) and came of mixed blood. 
Losing his father when still young, Turner 
worked for a time in the cotton fields and was 
then apprenticed to a blacksmith. He was fif- 
teen before he was taught to read. He was next 
employed by a law firm, learned to write, and 
mastered arithmetic. He joined the Methodist 
Episcopal Church, South, and in 1853 was li- 
censed to preach. He became a successful re- 
vivalist among the negroes and held meetings in 
most of the Southern states until 1857, when he 
settled in St. Louis. In the following year he 
was admitted to the Missouri Conference of the 
African Methodist Episcopal Church, to which 
he thereafter adhered. 

Placed in charge of a mission in Baltimore 
and criticized locally for his imperfect command 
of English, he studied grammar, Latin, Greek, 
and Hebrew. He was ordained deacon in i860 
and elder in 1862. In the latter year he was in- 
stalled as pastor of Israel Church, Washington, 
where he came into contact with many promi- 
nent men. In 1863 he was made an army chap- 
lain by President Lincoln — the first colored man 
to be appointed to such a position — and was at- 



65 



Turner 

tached to the ist Regiment, United States Col- 
ored Troops. Mustered out in 1865, he was ap- 
pointed chaplain in the regular army by President 
Johnson and assigned to the Georgia office of the 
Freedmen's Bureau. He soon resigned in order 
to build up the African Methodist Episcopal 
Church in Georgia. Under his vigorous proselyt- 
ing a large number of churches were established, 
which became rallying points for the freed ne- 
groes. One of the founders of the Republican 
party in Georgia, Turner was elected a delegate 
to the Georgia Constitutional convention in 1867, 
and a member of the state legislature for Bibb 
County in 1868. Here he aroused the jealousy 
of the white Republicans, while his outspoken 
and provocative language made him bitterly hated 
by the Democrats. In 1869 he was appointed 
postmaster at Macon by President Grant at the 
request of Senator Charles Sumner, which of- 
fice he relinquished because of the opposition of 
the white patrons. He subsequently served as a 
United States customs inspector and as a gov- 
ernment detective. 

In 1876 he was made manager of the African 
Methodist Episcopal Book Concern in Philadel- 
phia, and from 1880 until 1892 he was bishop of 
his Church for Georgia. For twelve years he was 
chancellor of Morris Brown College (now Mor- 
ris Brown University) in Atlanta. He visited 
South and West Africa, introduced African 
Methodism there, and advocated the return of 
the negroes to Africa. He founded several peri- 
odicals, including the Southern Christian Re- 
corder (1889) and the Voice of Missions (1892) 
and was the author of The Genius and Theory of 
Methodist Polity (copr. 1885) and the compiler 
of a catechism and a hymn book. 

Turner was very tall, with an elephantine frame 
and massive head. He possessed a coarse nature, 
his manners and movements were crude, and he 
cared nothing about his dress or personal ap- 
pearance. He was an eloquent speaker, had a 
guttural voice, and was given to angry tirades 
and bitter sarcasm against both negroes and 
whites. He was married four times and had 
numerous children, of whom only two survived 
him. His first marriage, to Eliza Ann Peacher, 
occurred on Aug. 31, 1856, in Columbia, S. C. ; 
his second, to Mrs. Martha De Witt of Bristol, 
Pa., in August 1893 ; his third, to Harriet A. 
Wayman of Baltimore, Md., widow of Bishop 
Alexander Wayman [q.v."], on Aug. 16, 1900; 
and his last to Laura Pearl Lemon of Atlanta, 
Ga., divorced wife of a minister named Powell. 
Turner died in Windsor, Ontario, and was buried 
in Atlanta. 

[M. M. Ponton, Life and Times of Henry M. Turner 
(1917) ; R. R. Wright, Centennial Encyc. of the Afri- 



Turner 

can Methodist Episcopal Church (1916) ; Who's Who 
in America, 1914-15; Atlanta Constitution, Aug. 17, 
1900, Dec. 4, 1907, May 9, 1915 ; Atlanta Jour., May 9, 
WS-l H.G.V. 

TURNER, JAMES MILTON (May 16, 1840- 
Nov. 1, 1915), negro leader, minister to Liberia, 
was born a slave in St. Louis County, Mo., on 
the St. Charles Road plantation of Charles A. 
Loring. His father, John Turner, also known as 
John Colburn after a master, had been removed 
from Virginia by one Benjamin Tillman, fol- 
lowing the 1831 slave insurrection led by Nat 
Turner [q.v.]. Taught veterinary medicine by 
Tillman, Turner subsequently bought his freedom 
and in 1843 purchased his wife Hannah and their 
son, then in his fourth year. The boy's aptitude 
displayed at a clandestine school so pleased his 
parents that they sent him to Oberlin College, 
where he spent his fourteenth year in the prepar- 
atory department under the tutelage of James 
Harris Fairchild \_q.v.~\. 

In the Civil War he served as a Northern of- 
ficer's servant, and is said to have received at 
Shiloh an injury that caused a lifelong limp. Af- 
ter the war he directed his attention to negro 
public education as required by the Missouri 
constitution of 1865. In April 1866 he was ap- 
pointed by the Kansas City school board to con- 
duct a school for negroes during the winter ; no 
earlier negro public school in Missouri is re- 
corded. In June 1868 he was reappointed. Mean- 
while, he had become interested in plans for a 
negro institute in Jefferson City, Mo. For this 
undertaking, now Lincoln University, he gave 
and collected money and served as trustee. Ora- 
torical ability soon made him the acknowledged 
leader of Missouri negroes and as such a figure 
in Republican politics. The Columbia (Mo.) 
Statesman in 1870 pictured him as "possessed of 
a fine flow of language and never wanting an 
idea" (quoted in Dilliard, post, p. 379). 

On nomination of President Grant, confirmed 
by the Senate, Mar. 1, 187 1, Turner became min- 
ister resident and consul general to Liberia, the 
first negro, it is said, to serve in the diplomatic 
corps. He presented his credentials at Monrovia 
on July 25 of that year and served until May 20, 
1878. Liberia's frequent governmental changes 
and native uprisings kept him busy writing long, 
apologetic dispatches to the Department of State. 
Thorough observation of conditions led him to 
oppose settlement by American negroes on the 
ground that they were unfitted for equatorial 
life. Colonization activities of philanthropists he 
described as "well-meaning" but "absolutely in- 
jurious in results" (see Papers Relating to the 
Foreign Relations of the United States, 1877, 
pp. 370-75) ; he urged instead help for native 



66 



Turner 



Turner 



tribes. After European receptions, Turner re- 
turned to the United States to be feted widely; 
admiring negroes hauled his carriage through 
the streets of St. Louis. Later he married Ella 
De Burton of St. Joseph's Parish, La., who died 
Mar. 2, 1908 ; they had no children. On Apr. 18, 
1882, he appeared before the Missouri Historical 
Society, St. Louis, to eulogize Dred Scott [q.z'.~\ 
and to present an oil painting of him to the so- 
ciety in behalf of the widow of Theron Barnum, 
to whose family Scott had been attached. In 
1886 he presented to President Cleveland the 
claim that negro members of the Cherokee nation 
were entitled to a proportionate share of $300,- 
000 allotted that nation by Congress, and as their 
attorney was instrumental in securing an appro- 
priation of $75,000 for them in 1889. He also 
interested himself in claims for Choctaw and 
Chickasaw freedmen. 

Caught in the debris of an explosion in Ard- 
more, Okla., Turner died there. His funeral, con- 
ducted by Missouri negro Masons, was the larg- 
est ever held in St. Louis for a member of his 
race. Crowds thronged to the service, where 
tribute was paid to his leadership and generosity. 
He was buried in Father Dickson Cemetery, 
near his birthplace. A "citizen's memorial serv- 
ice" was held two weeks later. 

[The fullest source of information is Irving Dilliard, 
"James Milton Turner, a Little Known Benefactor of 
His People," The Jour, of Negro Hist., Oct. 1934; it 
cites newspaper articles, letters, memoranda, and quotes 
at length from Turner's dispatches to the Department 
of State.] I.D. 

TURNER, JOHN WESLEY (July 19, 1833- 
Apr. 8, 1899), soldier, son of John Bice and 
Martha (Voluntine) Turner, was born near 
Saratoga, N. Y. His father was a prominent 
railroad and canal constructor, and in 1843 the 
family removed to Chicago, where the elder Tur- 
ner helped build the Galena & Chicago Union 
Railroad. John Wesley was appointed to the 
United States Military Academy from Illinois, 
graduated in 1855, and was commissioned lieu- 
tenant of artillery. As a subaltern he served in 
Oregon and in hostilities against the Seminoles 
in Florida. 

In August 1861 he was commissioned captain 
in the commissary department and served as 
chief commissary under Gen. David Hunter 
[q.v.'] in Kansas from December 1861 to March 
1862, and in the same capacity under General 
Hunter when the latter was in command of the 
Department of the South in April 1862. During 
this tour of duty he was employed as an artillery 
officer in the attack on Fort Pulaski, Apr. 10-11, 
1862. Tn May of the same year he was assigned 
as chief commissary on the staff of Gen. Ben- 



jamin F. Butler [q.v.] at New Orleans and re- 
mained with him to the end of the year. In the 
spring of 1863 he returned to General. Hunter in 
the Department of the South, and when Hunter 
was relieved by Gen. Quincy A. Gillmore [g.r.], 
Turner was made chief of staff and chief of ar- 
tillery, June 13, 1863, and as such took part in 
the siege of Fort Wagner and the attack on Fort 
Sumter. For his services he received the brevet 
of major, United States Army, and was commis- 
sioned brigadier-general of volunteers. In the 
operations of 1864 Turner commanded a division 
in the Army of the James under General Butler 
on Bermuda Hundred and in front of Petersburg, 
and received the brevet of lieutenant-colonel, 
United States Army, for gallant services in ac- 
tion at the Petersburg mine, and the brevet of 
major-general of volunteers for gallant services 
in the campaign of 1864. From Nov. 20, 1864, 
to Jan. 12, 1865, he was chief of staff of the 
Army of the James. In the campaign of 1865 he 
commanded a division of the XXIV Army Corps 
and took an active part in the operations leading 
to the surrender of Lee at Appomattox. For his 
services at the capture of Fort Gregg he re- 
ceived the brevet of colonel, United States Army, 
and later those of brigadier and major-general. 
At the end of active operations he was appointed 
to the command of the District of Henrico, which 
included the city of Richmond ; this position he 
held from June 1865 to April 1866. His admin- 
istration was both efficient and tactful. On being 
mustered out of the volunteer service in 1866 he 
became purchasing and depot commissary at St. 
Louis. In September 1871 he resigned from the 
army. 

Being accustomed to command and to assume 
great responsibilities, and having a pleasing per- 
sonality and great tact, he was as successful in 
civil life as he had been in his military career. 
From 1872 to 1877 he was president of the Bogy 
Lead Mining Company, and for eleven years 
(1877-88), street commissioner of St. Louis. 
He served, also, as president of the St. Joseph 
Gas and Manufacturing Company ( 1888-97), 
and as a director of the American Exchange 
Bank and of the St. Louis Savings and Safe De- 
posit Company (1893-99). On Sept. 18, 1869, 
he married Blanche Soulard of St. Louis, by 
whom he had seven children. His death occurred 
in St. Louis and his wife and children survived 
him. 

[G. W. Cullum, Biog. Reg. . . . Grads. U. S. Mil 
Acad. (3rd ed., 1891) ; Thirteenth Ann. Reunion, Asso. 
Grads. U. S. Mil. Acad. (1899) ; War of the Rebellion: 
Official Records (Army) ; William Hyde and H. L. 
Conard, Encyc. of the Hist, of St. Louis (1899, vol. 
IV) ; St. Louis Globe-Democrat, Apr. 8, 9, 1899.] 

G.J.F. 



67 



Turner 

TURNER, JONATHAN BALDWIN (Dec. 
7, 1805-Jan. 10, 1899), educator, agriculturist, 
was born in Templeton, Mass., the son of Asa 
and Abigail (Baldwin) Turner, and a brother 
of Asa Turner [q.v.]. He obtained his early edu- 
cation in local district schools, in which he later 
became a teacher. When his brother Asa grad- 
uated from college in 1827, he persuaded his fa- 
ther to let Jonathan go to New Haven to prepare 
for Yale, and at the end of two years he was 
admitted to the college. Early in the spring of 
his senior year a call came to Yale from Illinois 
College, at Jacksonville, for an instructor in 
Latin and Greek. The president of Yale recom- 
mended Turner and offered to excuse him from 
final examinations and to forward his diploma if 
he would accept. As a result, in May 1833 he be- 
came a member of the Illinois faculty. The fol- 
lowing year he was appointed professor of rheto- 
ric and belles-lettres. He returned to the East 
in 1835 to marry, on Oct. 22, Rhodolphia S. 
Kibbe of Somers, Conn. He early became a lead- 
er in the movement for public schools in Illinois, 
lecturing in its behalf throughout the central 
part of the state. One of the organizers of the 
Illinois State Teachers' Association in 1836, he 
enlisted the aid of teachers and parents in his 
campaign. He was successful as an instructor, 
but in 1843-44 he edited the Statesman, a local 
paper, and by his vigorous condemnation of 
slavery alienated the Southern students in the 
college and the slavery advocates in Jackson- 
ville. In 1847 he resigned his professorship be- 
cause of ill health and disagreement with the col- 
lege officials over slavery and denominational 
questions. 

He now devoted himself primarily to his gar- 
dens and orchards, which he had been develop- 
ing since 1834, and to agricultural experiments. 
He made the Osage orange popular for farm 
hedges, and invented various implements for 
planting and cultivating crops. The preservation 
of game life and of national resources also en- 
gaged his attention. When the Illinois State 
Natural History Society was organized, June 30, 
1858, he was elected president. In spite of these 
activities he found time to further various edu- 
cational projects. The free school law of 1855 
was largely the result of his untiring efforts, and 
his influence had much to do with the establish- 
ment of the first normal school in Illinois in 1857. 
His most notable contribution to education, how- 
ever, was in connection with the campaign for 
land grant colleges. At a county institute of 
teachers held at Griggsville, May 13, 1850, he 
presented a plan for a state university for the 
industrial classes in each of the states of the 



Turner 

Union. This he presented, also, to a convention 
of farmers which convened in Granville on Nov. 
18, 1851. The plan was approved by this conven- 
tion, which also adopted certain resolutions in- 
cluding one which pledged the members to "take 
immediate steps for the establishment of a uni- 
versity in the State of Illinois." These resolu- 
tions and Turner's plan were printed and widely 
circulated. Other conventions were held later, 
and at one which met at Springfield, Jan. 4, 1853, 
a petition was drawn up requesting the legisla- 
ture to ask Congress to appropriate lands to each 
state for the establishment of industrial universi- 
ties. Such a request, the first probably from any 
state, was made by the Illinois legislature in 1853 
(Journal of the House of Representatives of . . . 
Illinois, 1853). Through the Industrial League, 
organized to carry on propaganda in behalf of 
industrial education, of which he became prin- 
cipal director, Turner gave time and strength to 
the movement for years. Meanwhile, it was gath- 
ering strength in other parts of the country, and 
in 1857 Justin Morrill [q.v.~], then a representa- 
tive from Vermont, introduced a bill in Congress 
providing that public lands be donated to the 
states and territories to provide colleges of agri- 
culture and the mechanic arts. This failed to 
pass over a presidential veto, but a similar bill 
became a law in 1862. Shortly after its passage, 
the small colleges of Illinois united to secure the 
advantages of the land grant, but chiefly through 
Turner's activities the legislature of 1867 de- 
cided to establish "a single new industrial uni- 
versity" (now the University of Illinois), which 
was located at Urbana, Champaign County. Af- 
ter the university was incorporated, Feb. 28, 
1867, he devoted the remainder of his life to a 
study of the Bible and its teachings. His pub- 
lished works included Mormonism in All Ages 
( 1842) ; The Three Great Races of Men ( 1861 ) ; 
Universal Latv and Its Opposites (1892) ; and 
The Christ Word Versus the Church Word 
(1895). He died in Jacksonville, 111., survived 
by four of his seven children. 

[Obit. Record Grads. Yale Univ. . . . 1890-1900 
(1900) ; M. T. Carriel, The Life of Jonathan Baldwin 
Turner (1911) ; J. W. Cook, Educational Hist, of III. 
(19 1 2) ; E. J. James, The Origin of the Land Grant 
Act of 1862 (1910) ; I. L. Kandel, Federal Aid for Vo- 
cational Education (1917); C. H. Rammelkamp, ///. 
Coll., A Centennial Hist., 1829-1929 (1928) ; Chicago 
Tribune, Jan. i_>, 1899.J - R. F. S. 

TURNER, JOSIAH (Dec. 27, 1821-Oct. 26, 

1901), editor, the eldest son of Josiah and Eliza 
(Evans) Turner, was born in Hillsboro, N. C. 
He was educated at Caldwell Institute and at the 
University of North Carolina. Admitted to the 
bar about 1845, he built up a considerable prac- 



68 



Turner 



Turner 



tice, more by native cleverness than by legal 
learning and ability. In 1856 he married Sophia 
Devereux of Raleigh, by whom he had four sons 
and a daughter. His public life began with his 
election to the House of Commons in 1852 as a 
Whig. Reelected for the succeeding term, he was 
defeated for the state Senate in 1856, but was 
elected in 1858 and again in i860. At the session 
of 1 86 1 he contested every move of the secession- 
ists and voted against calling the secession con- 
vention, but upon the passage of the ordinance, 
he enlisted immediately in the state forces and 
became a captain of cavalry. He participated in 
the battle of New Bern and was soon afterwards 
wounded and disabled. In November 1862 he 
resigned his commission and in 1863 was elect- 
ed as a peace candidate to the Confederate Con- 
gress, where he was actively hostile to the 
administration and frankly urgent for making 
terms with the United States. 

When the war ended he was no less eager for 
the restoration of the state but, distrusting Wil- 
liam W. Holden [q.z\], the provisional governor, 
as a former Democrat and a secession leader, he 
was active in the movement which led in No- 
vember 1865 to Holden's defeat. In the same 
campaign Turner won election to Congress, but 
he was denied his seat. He was subsequently for 
two years president of the North Carolina Rail- 
road. In 1868, when Holden was elected gover- 
nor, Turner was elected to the state Senate, but 
was denied his seat because of disabilities. In 
this same year he purchased the Raleigh Sentinel, 
in the editorial conduct of which he made his 
chief reputation. Bitterly hostile to congressional 
reconstruction, he threw himself into the task of 
discrediting and defeating the "Carpet-bag" gov- 
ernment. With a positive genius for political 
polemics, sparing little nor caring where he 
struck, quick-witted, ingenious in keeping politi- 
cal opponents on the defensive, he now, by ridi- 
cule and telling nicknames, brought the Repub- 
lican leaders into contempt, and again, with a 
lash of scorpions held them up to public condem- 
nation. No man was so bitterly hated and feared 
by them. He never overlooked a vital point, 
never lost his temper, and never forgot or for- 
gave. To him more than to any one man belongs 
the credit for the overthrow of reconstruction in 
North Carolina. When in 1870 Governor Hold- 
en sought to sustain his administration and carry 
the election by armed force, Turner roused the 
state to effective opposition. His own illegal ar- 
rest and imprisonment under the Governor's or- 
ders was the great event in his life and furnished 
one of the charges upon which Holden was later 
impeached. 



Turner's later career was pathetic. Essentially 
destructive, when the crisis was past he could not 
find peace but continued to fight. He expected 
high office, but his party regarded him as too 
erratic and too violent, and he soon turned on 
his late associates. He declined a nomination to 
Congress in 1872 and was denied one in 1874. 
He was a delegate to the convention of 1875, 
where he loudly clamored for the repudiation of 
the "Carpet-bag" bonds before his party was 
ready for such drastic action. He lost his news- 
paper, which was sold in 1876 under mortgage. 
Defeated for the state Senate in that year, he ran 
for Congress as an independent in 1878 and was 
defeated. He had already been elected to the 
lower house of the legislature for the term of 
1879, but was s0 persistently disorderly that he 
was finally expelled. After another defeat for 
Congress in 1884, he retired and ended his life 
a partisan Republican. He died at his home near 
Hillsboro. 

[S. A. Ashe, Biog. Hist, of N. C, vol. Ill (1905) ; 
J. G. deR. Hamilton, Reconstruction in N. C. (1914) ; 
Alumni Hist, of the Univ. of N. C. (1924) ; R. D. VV. 
Connor, North Carolina, vol. II (1929) ; News and 
Observer (Raleigh, N. C), Oct. 27, 1901 ; files of the 
Sentinel.] J.G.deR.H. 

TURNER, NAT (Oct. 2, i8ooV£i ov . ri) ^31), 
leader of slave insurrection, the son of Nancy, a 
slave woman and native of Africa, was born on 
the plantation of her owner, Benjamin Turner, 
in Southampton County, Va. He successively 
became the property of Samuel Turner, Thomas 
Moore, and Putnam Moore, and in 1830 he was 
hired to Joseph Travis, whom Mrs. Thomas 
Moore had married. His mother was little re- 
moved from savagery at the time of his birth, 
and his father, whose name has not survived, 
ran away while Nat was a child. Nat, who was 
precocious, was given the rudiments of an edu- 
cation by one of his master's sons, and, early 
developing a religious fanaticism, under his 
mother's encouragement came to believe himself 
inspired. A fiery preacher, he soon acquired lead- 
ership among the negroes on the plantation and 
in the neighborhood. According to his sworn 
confession, he deliberately set about convincing 
them of his divine inspiration, and presently be- 
lieved himself chosen to lead them from bondage. 
He began to see signs in the heavens and on the 
leaves, and to hear voices directing him. An 
eclipse of the sun in 1831 convinced him that the 
time was near and caused him to enlist four other 
slaves, to whom he communicated his plans. 
They plotted an uprising for July 4, but aban- 
doned it. After a new sign was seen in a peculiar 
solar phenomenon on Aug. 13, they settled upon 
Aug. 21 as the day of deliverance. 



69 



Turner 



Turner 



With seven others Nat attacked the Travis 
family and murdered them all. Securing arms 
and horses, and enlisting other slaves, they rav- 
aged the neighborhood. In one day and one 
night they butchered horribly and mangled the 
bodies of fifty-one white persons — thirteen men, 
eighteen women, and twenty-four children. With 
the blood of the victims Nat sprinkled his fol- 
lowers. At the first armed resistance the revolt 
collapsed and on Aug. 25 Nat went into hiding 
in a dugout, less than two miles from the Travis 
farm, where he remained, successfully concealed 
in the daytime, for six weeks. Discovered by 
accident, he was at once tried, and after convic- 
tion was hanged at Jerusalem, the county seat. 
He faced his fate with calmness. Thomas R. 
Gray, who was assigned to defend him, said : 
"He is a complete fanatic, or plays his part most 
admirably" (Gray, post, p. 19). Of his sixty or 
seventy followers, twenty-eight were convicted 
and condemned ; sixteen, including the one wom- 
an involved, were executed, and twelve were 
transported. The number that were killed in the 
suppression of the uprising has never been as- 
certained. 

The revolt, following closely upon slave in- 
surrections in Martinique, Antigua, Santiago, 
Caracas, and the Tortugas, caused a profound 
shock in the slaveholding states. Exaggeration 
magnified both the real and the false, and for 
weeks there was widespread terror. As a result 
almost every Southern state enacted new laws 
which greatly increased the severity of the slave 
codes, though, after a brief time, most of them 
were more honored in the breach than in the 
observance. The insurrection dealt a death 
blow to the manumission societies which had 
flourished in the South, and put an end there to 
the organized emancipation movement. Further, 
the blame for the uprising was placed upon the 
Garrisonian abolitionists, though not a scintilla 
of evidence ever connected them with it, and in- 
tensified the detestation and dread with which 
the South regarded them. Perhaps the most im- 
portant result of all was that never again was 
the slaveholding South free from the fear, lurk- 
ing most of the time, of a wholesale and success- 
ful slave uprising, a fact potent in the history of 
the republic during the next thirty years. 

[W. S. Drewry, The Southampton Insurrection 
(1900). S. B. Weeks, "The Slave Insurrection in Vir- 
ginia, 1831," in Mag. of Am. Hist., June 1891 ; R. R. 
Howison, A Hist, of Virginia, vol. II (1848), pp. 439- 
41 ; W. S. Forrest, Hist, and Descriptive Sketches of 
Norfolk and Vicinity (1853) ; T. R. Gray, The Confes- 
sion, Trial, and Execution of Nat. Turner (1881), pub- 
lished earlier as The Confessions of Nat Turner . . . 
to Thomas R. Gray (1832) ; Richmond Enquirer, Aug. 
26, 30 ; Sept. 2, 6; Nov. 15, 18, 1831.] J. G. deR. H. 



TURNER, ROSS STERLING (June 29, 
1847-Feb. 12, 1915) , painter, teacher of art, was 
born at Westport, N. Y. His parents, David and 
Eliza Jane (Cameron) Turner, moved in his 
boyhood to Williamsport, Pa., where Ross at- 
tended the local academy, showing special apti- 
tude for freehand and mechanical drawing. He 
was for several years a draftsman at the Patent 
Office, Washington, doing work which has been 
deplored as too mechanical and irksome for a 
man with Turner's "delicate touch and freedom 
of brush stroke" (Walker, post), but which in 
reality may have been good training toward his 
spontaneous water colors and exquisite illumina- 
tions, his chief contributions to the art of his peri- 
od. In 1876 Turner went to Munich, where as 
an art student he was associated with Frank 
Duveneck, Joseph Rodefer DeCamp, Julius Rol- 
shoven \_qq.v.~], and other young Americans. He 
was at Venice when Whistler was there, and he 
gave, shortly before his death, a talk at the 
Whistler House, Lowell, Mass., on his recollec- 
tions of Whistler. Turner settled in 1882 in Bos- 
ton where, two years later, he married Louise 
Blaney, sister of Dwight Blaney, a fellow artist. 
They made their home at Salem. Turner soon 
became one of the most popular teachers of wa- 
ter color in New England, instructing literally 
thousands of young people at his Boston studio, 
at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology 
( 1884-1914), and for a time at the Massachusetts 
Normal Art School. Among his publications 
the most important is a manual, On the Use of 
Water Colors for Beginners (1886). He made 
many illustrations, and he exhibited frequently 
at the American Water Color Society, New 
York. He was a pioneer in the movement for 
decoration of school rooms. 

Commuting for many years between Salem 
and Boston, with a summer studio at Wilton, N. 
H., Turner had an uneventful though busy and 
useful career. He was modest, friendly, and pos- 
sessed of a wide range of interests. His chief 
recreation was outdoor painting in water color, 
in which he was facile and proficient. In his later 
life he discovered the charm of the Bahamas as a 
sketching ground, and there, at Nassau, he died. 
He was survived by his wife and two sons. He 
had previously developed a form of art of which 
he was one of the few modern exponents, that 
of the illuminated manuscript, where he used the 
materials and followed the manner of the medi- 
eval craftsmen. His illuminations were exhibited 
from time to time at the Society of Arts and 
Crafts, Boston. He was a charter member of the 
Guild of Boston Artists (formed in 1913), which 
in March 19 15 held a memorial exhibition of his 



70 



Turner 



Turner 



works. According to a friend, he was a "charm- 
ing companion, simple as a child with the broad- 
er wisdom that declines to see evil" (Walker, 
post, p. 299). 

{Who's Who in America, 1914-15; C. H. Walker, 
in Technology Rev., Apr. 1915 ; F. T. Robinson, Living 
New England Artists (1888), with reproductions of 
several early water colors ; cat. of the memorial exhi- 
bition, Guild of Boston Artists, Mar. 22, 1915 ; Artists 
Year Book, 1905 ; Am. Art Ann., 1915 ; Am. Art News, 
Feb. 20, 1 9 1 5 ; obituary in Boston Globe, Feb. 13, 
1915.] F.W.C. 

TURNER, SAMUEL HULBEART (Jan. 23, 
1790-Dec. 21, 1861), Protestant Episcopal cler- 
gyman, educator, was born in Philadelphia, Pa., 
the son of the Rev. Joseph Turner, a native of 
England, and Elizabeth (Mason), the daughter 
of a physician of Devonshire, England. He re- 
ceived his early education under private tutors 
and at the Quaker Academy on Fourth Street, 
near Chestnut, and in January 1806 entered the 
University of Pennsylvania. Graduating in 1807, 
he prepared for the ministry under the personal 
direction of Bishop William White [q.i'.]. Look- 
ing back on this course of study in later years, 
he acknowledged his great indebtedness to the 
learned bishop, but confessed that "a good deal 
of reading without much thought . . . left my 
mind poorly disciplined" {Autobiography, post, 
p. 33). His awareness of this defect led him to 
seek the remedy, and he early developed habits 
of exact scholarship and sustained thinking. He 
was ordained deacon Jan. 27, 181 1, and priest in 
1814. His first charge was that of the church 
at Chestertown, Md. The parish was a small one 
and the young minister was free to devote much 
of his time to the further pursuit of his studies 
without neglecting his pastoral duties. His repu- 
tation for scholarship grew and he was offered 
a Latin professorship in St. John's College at 
Annapolis, which he declined. Removing to 
Philadelphia in 1817, he was appointed, early 
the following year, superintendent of theologi- 
cal students in the diocese of Pennsylvania. The 
duties were not onerous, for only two young men 
were in his care ; but one of these was Alonzo 
Potter \_q.vJ], who was later to attain eminence 
as bishop of Pennsylvania. 

At this time the Protestant Episcopal Church 
was formulating plans for a theological school, 
and on the establishment of the General Theo- 
logical Seminary in New York, Turner was 
made professor in historic theology, his appoint- 
ment dating from Oct. 8, 18 18. When the insti- 
tution was moved to New Haven in 1820, Tur- 
ner went with it. On its reorganization in New 
York in 1822 he became professor of Biblical 
learning and interpretation, a position which he 
held for forty years. He had, therefore, a large 



part in shaping the traditions of the seminary, 
and since theological education in the United 
States was then in its formative stage, his influ- 
ence was not inconsiderable in wider circles. 

Along with his chair at the seminary he held 
for some years, beginning in 1830, the professor- 
ship of the Hebrew language and literature in 
Columbia College. His earlier writings, all of 
them on Biblical subjects, were for the most part 
translations of the more conservative German 
books of the day; but in 1841 he published an 
original work entitled A Companion to the Book 
of Genesis, and this was followed by a series of 
commentaries dealing with other parts of the 
Bible. They were all characterized by solid learn- 
ing and sober judgment. A reviewer remarked 
that his books showed an "intimate acquaintance 
with German theology" but were "in no respects 
tainted by its neology" (Johnson, post, p. 29). 
At the same time, his sturdy, matter-of-fact exe- 
gesis with its resolute rejection of forced and 
fantastic interpretation of Holy Scripture played 
its part in paving the way for a just appreciation 
of that Biblical criticism which was later to revo- 
lutionize the study of the Bible, and would have 
sadly disturbed him. 

During the latter half of his ministry the ef- 
fects of the Oxford Movement were making 
themselves felt in the Episcopal Church in the 
United States, and the seminary was necessarily 
involved in the long controversy which followed. 
Turner, who opposed the movement but would 
have classed himself among the "moderates," de- 
fended his position throughout with a becoming 
sobriety of argument. His appeal was always to 
learning, "without which," in his own words, 
"piety is the more likely to degenerate into 
fanaticism and the suggestions of fancy to be 
taken for illapses of inspiration." He was mar- 
ried on May 23, 1826, to Mary Esther Beach of 
Cheshire, Conn., who died Sept. 2, 1839. At his 
death in New York City, he was survived by 
two sons and a daughter. His own account of 
his life, Autobiography of the Rev. Samuel H. 
Turner, D.D., appeared in 1863. 

[In addition to the Autobiog., see S. R. Johnson, 
Sermon Commemorative of the Life and Services of 
Rev. Samuel H. Turner (1863) ; N. Y. Times and N. Y. 
Tribune, Dec. 23, 1861.] H.E. W. F. 

TURNER, WALTER VICTOR (Apr. 3 : , 
1866-Jan. 9, 1919), engineer, inventor, son of 
George and Beatrice (Brandon) Turner, was 
born in Epping Forest, Essex, England. After 
completing his education in the Textile Techni- 
cal School at Wakefield, Yorkshire, he engaged 
in the woolen textile business in that country. 
In 1888 he was sent by his employer to the United 



71 



Turner 

States to investigate wool growing. In 1893 he 
became secretary and manager of the Lake Ranch 
Cattle Company, Raton, N. Mex., and a year or 
two later, with a partner, started a similar busi- 
iness of his own, which, however, was not suc- 
cessful. 

One day he happened to pick up parts of an 
airbrake triple valve from a wrecked freight 
train, which so fascinated him that he spent days 
studying it until he had mastered its intricacies. 
Ideas for improvements came to him and in 1897, 
to gain mechanical experience, he obtained a job 
as a car repairer for the Atchison, Topeka & 
Santa Fe Railway. During the succeeding six 
years he rose to be mechanical instructor for the 
entire system and gained a wide reputation as a 
mechanical genius, particularly in the airbrake 
field. Meanwhile, he devised and patented sev- 
eral airbrake improvements. In 1903 he entered 
the employ of the Westinghouse Air Brake Com- 
pany at Wilmerding, Pa., as mechanical expert 
and applied himself to the betterment of the exist- 
ing braking equipment. His advancement was 
rapid; in 1910 he was made chief engineer and 
in 1916, manager of engineering, which position 
he held at the time of his death. During his ca- 
reer Turner acquired over 400 patents and 
gained the reputation of being the foremost pneu- 
matic engineer in the world. One of his greatest 
inventions was the "K" triple valve, first patent- 
ed Oct. 25, 1904, of which at the time of his death 
there were more than 2,000,000 in use. This 
valve solved many difficulties connected with the 
operation of long freight trains, making it pos- 
sible to handle a train of 100 or more cars, where- 
as previously the maximum had been fifty ; this 
gain led in its turn to the building of heavier 
locomotives and larger capacity cars. By the 
use of this valve, also, passenger trains could be 
brought to a stop in half the distance formerly 
required. Another invention, the electro-pneu- 
matic brake, permitted a vast increase in traffic 
in subways and elevated railways without any 
increase in rolling stock. One of his last achieve- 
ments was the system for automatically increas- 
ing or decreasing the braking power of a car as 
the number of passengers increased or decreased. 

Turner was a frequent contributor to technical 
publications and often lectured before engineer- 
ing societies of which he was a member. He was 
also the author of books regarded as classics in 
their field. Among these are Development in Air 
Brakes for Railroads (1909), and Collection of 
Air Brake Papers (n.d.). In iqn, for his paper 
"The Air Brake as Related to Progress in Loco- 
motion' 1 (Journal of the Franklin Institute, De- 
cember 1910, January 191 1 ) , he was awarded 



Turney 

the Edward Longstreth medal of merit by the 
Franklin Institute, Philadelphia, which organi- 
zation likewise awarded him the Elliott Cresson 
gold medal in 1912 for his airbrake inventions 
and developments. On Dec. 9, 1887, he married 
Beatrice Woolford at Wakefield, England, and 
at the time of his death at Wilkinsburg, Pa., he 
was survived by his widow and three children. 

[Jour, of the Franklin Institute, Mar. 1919 ; Me- 
chanical Engineering, Apr. 1919; Railway Rev., Jan. 
11, 1919; Railway Age, Jan. 10, 1919; Railway and 
Engineering Rev., Mar. 24, 1906; Pittsburgh Post and 
Pittsburg Dispatch, Jan. 10, 1919; Who's Who in 
America, 1918-19 ; Patent Office records.] C. W. M. 

TURNEY, PETER (Sept. 22, 1827-Oct. 19, 
I 9°3)» jurist, governor of Tennessee, Confed- 
erate soldier, the son of Hopkins Lacy and 
Teresa (Francis) Turney, was born at Jasper, 
Marion County, Tenn. His father, the son of a 
German immigrant, was a prominent figure in 
Tennessee politics, serving as a member of the 
state legislature (1828-37), representative in 
Congress (1837-43), and United States sena- 
tor ( 1845-51 ). His mother's family was of promi- 
nent Virginia stock which emigrated to Tennes- 
see late in the eighteenth century. Peter was 
educated in the public schools at Winchester, 
Franklin County, and at a private school in Nash- 
ville. At the age of seventeen he became sur- 
veyor but soon abandoned this work to read law 
in his father's office. Following his admission to 
the bar in 1848, he practised in partnership with 
his father until the latter's death in 1857. He 
was twice married: first, in 1851, to Cassandra 
Garner of Winchester, who died in 1857 ; and 
second, in 1858, to Hannah F. Graham of Mari- 
on County ; by his first wife he had three chil- 
dren, and by his second, nine. 

Following the election of Lincoln in i860, Tur- 
ney became an active advocate of secession, and 
was one of the leaders in the attempt to secure a 
convention to take Tennessee out of the Union. 
When this proposal was rejected by popular vote 
in February 1861, he led the citizens of Franklin 
County in the adoption of an ordinance with- 
drawing their county from Tennessee and at- 
taching it to Alabama. He at once raised a vol- 
unteer regiment and marched it to Virginia, 
where it was mustered into the Confederate serv- 
ice as the 1st Tennessee, with himself as colonel. 
He was attached to the Army of Northern Vir- 
ginia, and served under "Stonewall" Jackson un- 
til the battle of Fredericksburg, Dec. 13, 1862, 
when Turney was wounded. On his recovery he 
was transferred to Florida, where he surrender- 
ed in May 1865. 

At the close of the war he resumed his law 
practice at Winchester, and soon gained political 



72 



Tuthill 



Tuthill 



prominence through his opposition to the recon- 
struction program of Gov. William G. Brown- 
low [q.v.]. When the Democrats gained control 
of the state in 1870, he was elected a member of 
the supreme court and was reelected in 1878 and 
1886, serving as chief justice from 1886 to 1893. 
In his work as a judge he was described by a con- 
temporary as "one who refuses to conform to 
custom and defies classification" (Pitts, post, p. 
~J2). He impressed his associates as a man of 
strong common sense with a clear perception of 
practical justice, who framed his opinions by 
going at once to the heart of a case and deciding 
it and then giving briefly his reasons with little 
citation of authorities. 

Although he had taken little active part in 
politics, he was known to be a Democrat of the 
conservative school, and therefore was selected 
by that element of his party to become its candi- 
date for governor in 1892, with the hope that the 
party might be saved from the threatened domi- 
nation of the agrarian movement. He won the 
election and during his first term was able to 
preserve nominal harmony in the party, although 
he failed to appeal to the younger and rural ele- 
ment. As a result his candidacy for reelection 
in 1894 was a close contest in which H. Clay 
Evans [q.v.], his Republican opponent, received 
a bare majority of the votes on the face of elec- 
tion returns. The Democratic leaders at once 
raised a charge of fraud and demanded a recount 
by the legislature. A legislative investigating 
committee finally reported that an "honest count" 
gave the victory to Turney by a majority of over 
2,000 votes. As a result of the antipathy thus 
a.oused, he was not considered again for public 
office and at the close of his term, in 1897, he re- 
turned to his home at Winchester, where he died. 

[Sources include John Allison, Notable Men of Tenn. 
(1905) ; J. T. Moore and A. P. Foster, Tenn. the Vol- 
unteer State (4 vols., 1923) ; D. M. Robison, Bob Tay- 
lor and the Agrarian Revolt in Tenn. (1935) ; J. A. 
Pitts, Personal and Professional Reminiscences of an 
Old Lawyer (1930) ; O. R. Temple, East. Tenn. and the 
Civil War (1899) ; Biog. Dir. Am. Cong. ( 1928) ; Who's 
Who in America, 1903-05 ; Nashville Banner, Oct. 19, 
1903. Turney 's supreme court opinions are in 47-92 
Tenn. Reports ; official records of his terms as governor 
are in House and Senate Jours, of the 48th and 49th 
Tenn. Gen. Assemblies ; the legislative report on the 
election of 1894 was published with the title, Contest 
for Gov. of Tenn., Complete Proceedings of the Joint 
Convention and the Investigating Committee (2 vols., 
1895)] W. C. B. 

TUTHILL, WILLIAM BURNET (Feb. 
II, 1855-Aug. 25, 1929), architect, was born in 
New York City, the son of George F. and Jane 
(Price) Tuthill. On his father's side he was de- 
scended from Henry Tuthill who came to Amer- 
ica about 1637 and about 1644 settled in South- 
old, L. I. After graduating from the College of 



the City of New York in 1875, Tuthill entered 
the office of Richard Morris Hunt [g.?'.], where 
he carried on his architectural studies for two 
years. In 1877 he opened his own office. He had 
an extensive practice for over fifty years. His 
most important work was Carnegie Hall in New 
York City (1891), with Dankmar Adler and 
Louis H. Sullivan of Chicago as associate archi- 
tects. Adler and Sullivan were engaged because 
of the Auditorium in Chicago, which they had 
just completed, but there is little evidence that 
they exercised more than a general supervision 
of practical matters. Carnegie Hall was acous- 
tically a tremendous success. In its design Tut- 
hill studied the acoustics of all the more important 
European concert halls, and as a result developed 
an unusual empirical command of the subject 
that led him to be called in as consultant for 
many churches and concert halls. A valuable 
manuscript monograph on the subject still exists 
(1936) in the possession of his son. Among Tut- 
hill's other buildings were the Harlem Young 
Women's Christian Association (1888), the 
Jekyl Island Club, Jekyl Island, Ga. (T888), the 
Princeton Inn, Princeton, N. J. (1893), a Car- 
negie library, Pittsburgh (1894) ; and the Post 
Graduate Medical School and Hospital (1892), 
the Women's Medical College of the New York 
Infirmary (1900), the Columbia Yacht Club 
(1900), the Home for the Friendless (1902), 
and the white marble Schinasi residence (1909), 
all in New York City. He also had charge of the 
alteration of the Church of the Messiah, New 
York City (1918). Tuthill's architecture is on 
a broadly eclectic basis ; often, as the taste of the 
time decreed, over-lavish in surface decoration. 
But beneath its peculiarities of detail the basic 
creative planning is sound and practical ; after 
over forty years Carnegie Hall is still the musi- 
cal center of New York, and the wide-spreading, 
low-pitched roofs of the Columbia Yacht Club 
are inviting and excellent in mass. 

In addition to being an able architect, Tuthill 
was one of those born musicians who seem to 
develop naturally into the art, without much 
training. Possessed of an excellent tenor voice, 
he joined the Oratorio Society of New York in 
1878 and for many years served as its secretary 
(1881-1917). He was also an accomplished 
'cellist and was a member of an amateur quartet, 
which, with changing membership, played week- 
ly for over thirty-six years. He was an intimate 
friend of most of the musical world of New York 
of his time. In 189 1 he was a member of the 
board of directors of the concerts given in Car- 
negie Hall under Walter Damrosch. In 1919 he 
and his son were the founders of the Society for 



73 



Tuttle 



Tuttle 



the Publication of American Music, and served 
as executive officers. His exuberant vitality can 
be seen in the fact that in addition to his archi- 
tecture and his music, he found time to write 
several once-popular architectural books: Prac- 
tical Lessons in Architectural Drawing (copy- 
right 1881), which passed through many edi- 
tions; Interiors and Interior Details (1882); 
The City Residence, Its Design and Construction 
(1890) ; The Suburban Cottage, Its Design and 
Construction (2nd ed., 1891) ; and The Cathedral 
Church of England (1923). In 1881 he married 
Henrietta Elizabeth Corwin of Newburgh, N. 
Y., who died Mar. 11, 1917. She was an organ- 
ist and pianist. They had two children, a daugh- 
ter who died as an infant, and a son who became 
a musician. 

[For information on Henry Tuthill, see G. F. Tuttle, 
The Descendants of William and Elisabeth Tuttle 
(1883). See Music Festival . . . for the Inauguration 
of the Music Hall Founded by Andrew Carnegie ( 1891 ) 
and Festival of Music : the Oratorio Soc. of N. Y ., 1920 
for Tuthill's musical activities, and obituary in N. Y. 
Times, Aug. 27, 1929. Family information has been 
supplied by Burnet C. Tuthill, Tuthill's son.] 

T.F.H. 

TUTTLE, CHARLES WESLEY (Nov. 1, 
1829- July 17, 1881), astronomer, writer on his- 
torical and antiquarian subjects, lawyer, was 
born at Newfield, Me., the eldest of the seven 
children of Moses and Mary (Merrow) Tuttle. 
His father was descended from John Tuttle (or 
Tuthill) who by 1640 had settled at Dover, N. 
H., and his mother from Dr. Samuel Merrow 
(or Merry) who as early as 1720 was living at 
Dover. At Newfield he became especially inter- 
ested in natural history and astronomy, and in 
his teens he constructed a small telescope. Fol- 
lowing his mother's death in 1845, he lived with 
relatives at Dover. Under the influence of an 
uncle, he became a carpenter's apprentice, de- 
voting his spare time to astronomy, mathematics, 
and history. In 1849 he went to Cambridge, 
Mass., and began work as a carpenter. With the 
aid of Truman Henry Safford \_q.v.~], whom he 
met there, he gained admission to the Harvard 
Observatory, where he so impressed the director, 
William Cranch Bond [q.z\~\, by his knowledge 
of astronomy that in October 1850 he was ap- 
pointed an assistant. He immediately began tak- 
ing part in the program set for the great equa- 
torial. On Nov. 15, 1850, he made his most 
important contribution to astronomy by explain- 
ing Saturn's "dusky" ring (see W. C. Bond, 
"Observations on the Planet Saturn," Annals of 
the Astronomical Observatory of Hanvrd Col- 
lege, vol. II, 1857). Outside the routine of the 
Observatory he compared "the lustre of the 
stars" at sea level (the Isles of Shoals) and on 



the summit of Mount Washington (1852), inde- 
pendently discovered Comet 1853 I (Astronomi- 
cal Journal, Mar. 15, p. 47, Apr. 25, 1853, p. 72), 
computed cometary orbits and ephemerides, and 
took part in the eclipse expedition to the summit 
of Mount Washington in May 1854. By this time 
the effects of observation on his eyes made it 
clear that he must give over his ambitions in 
practical astronomy, and he resigned as observer 
to begin the study of law at the Harvard Law 
School in September 1854. In August 1855 he 
visited England on an expedition for the United 
States Coast Survey. He was admitted to the 
bar in March 1856 at Boston, where he began 
practice. In 1857 he opened an office in New- 
buryport, Mass., but returned to Boston about 
1858. He was admitted to practice in the United 
States circuit courts (1858) and before the 
United States Supreme Court (1861). In i860 
he was appointed a United States commissioner 
and in 1874 took testimony for use before the 
Court of Alabama Claims. 

As a result of historical and antiquarian stud- 
ies connected with Maine and New Hampshire, 
he contributed many articles, often brief but of 
rich content, to such publications as the New- 
England Historical and Genealogical Register, 
the Proceedings of the Massachusetts Historical 
Society, Notes and Queries, and to newspapers 
of Dover and Boston. After his death appeared 
his Capt. John Mason (1887), edited by J. W. 
Dean, and Capt. Francis Champemownc . . . 
and Other Historical Papers (1889), edited by 
A. H. Hoyt. He was always the discriminating, 
accurate scholar, the master of clear, concise ex- 
pression, interested only in bringing the facts to 
light. From time to time he addressed historical 
societies, and showed his continued interest in 
astronomy by occasional lectures as well as by 
observations and computations. He was a mem- 
ber of many historical and antiquarian societies. 
He received the honorary degree of A.M. from 
Harvard in 1854 and of Ph.D. from Dartmouth 
in 1880. He married, Jan. 31, 1872, Mary Louisa 
Park, daughter of John C. Park of Boston, who 
survived him. 

[See C. W. Tuttle, "The Tuttle Family of New 
Hampshire," New-Eng. Hist, and Geneal. Reg., Apr. 
1867; John Wentworth, The Wcntworth Geneal. (2nd 
ed., 1878), vol. I, p. 260, vol. II, p. 284; J. W. Dean, 
in C. W. Tuttle, Capt. Francis Champemownc (1889), 
the most complete account, and in New-Eng. Hist, and 
Geneal. Reg., Jan. 1888; E. F. Slafter, in Proc. Mass. 
Hist. Soc, 2 ser., vol. I (1885); Annals of the As- 
tronomical Observatory of Harvard Coll., vol. I (1856), 
p. clxxix ; S. I. Bailey, The Flist. and Work of Harvard 
Observatory (1931) ; obituary in Boston Daily Adver- 
tiser, July 18, 1 88 1. In the lib. of the New-Eng. Hist.- 
Geneal. Soc, Boston, is galley proof of an article on 
Tuttle written during his lifetime.] 7 y[ p r 



74 



Tuttle 



Tuttle 



TUTTLE, DANIEL SYLVESTER (Jan. 26, 
1837-Apr. 17, 1923), bishop of the Protestant 
Episcopal Church, was a descendant of William 
Tuttle, or Tothill as the name was spelled in 
Devonshire, who settled in New Haven (Conn.) 
in 1639. His great-grandfather, Jehiel Tuttle, 
was an officer in the French and Indian War, his 
grandfather, Charles, a soldier of the Revolution. 
Second son among four children of Daniel Bliss 
Tuttle and Abigail Clark (Stimson), Daniel Syl- 
vester was born in Windham, N. Y., where his 
father was the village blacksmith. Family de- 
votions were regularly held in his parents' Meth- 
odist home, but it was Thomas S. Judd, Wind- 
ham's Episcopal rector, whose kindly interest in 
the boy inclined him toward the ministry. Fol- 
lowing such education as the district school af- 
forded and three years under Judd's tutelage, he 
entered the academy in Delhi, N. Y., in 1850, 
paying part of his way by milking cows and by 
assistant teaching. In 1853 he was baptized in 
the Episcopal Church and confirmed by Bishop 
Wainwright. Using money he earned by teach- 
ing for a year in Scarsdale, N. Y., he enrolled in 
Columbia College as a sophomore in 1854 and 
graduated in 1857, second in his class. After two 
years as a tutor in New York, he entered the 
General Theological Seminary, from which he 
was graduated in 1862. On June 29 of that year 
he was ordered deacon and on July 19, 1863, he 
was elevated to the priesthood having gone 
meanwhile to Morris, N. Y., to assist Rev. 
George L. Foote, whom he succeeded, and whose 
daughter, Harriet Minerva, he married on Sept. 
12, 1865. 

While ministering diligently among his rural 
parishioners, he was surprised, Oct. 5, 1866, by 
election as missionary bishop of Montana with 
jurisdiction in Utah and Idaho. Not yet thirty, 
he remained in Morris till he reached the re- 
quired age and then after consecration in Trin- 
ity Chapel, New York, May 1, 1867, left his wife 
and infant son behind and went to his new field. 
For the next nineteen years he labored in the 
rocky vineyard of the Northwest. Of powerful 
frame and democratic, "Bishop Dan" was well 
fitted for frontier life. His letters to his wife 
(Reminiscences, post) present a vivid picture of 
the region and its hindrances to the advancement 
of the gospel. In 1868 he was elected bishop of 
Missouri, but because he felt that his part in the 
winning of the West had just begun, did not 
accept. The following year he established his 
family in Salt Lake City, where he and the Mor- 
mons grew to respect each other, despite their 
religious differences (Ibid., ch. xii). A second 



call to Missouri he accepted in 1886, and there- 
after St. Louis was his home. 

On Sept. 7, 1903, through seniority, he be- 
came presiding bishop of his church. A har- 
monizer whose utterances were marked by liber- 
ality and courtesy, he took virtually no part in 
church controversy, although he vigorously op- 
posed the movement toward the election of pre- 
siding bishops, on the ground that God should 
designate the church's head ( Churchman, Aug. 
2 3> i9 J 3)- His humility, kindly wit, sagacity, 
and long years of service endeared him to all 
groups. A deep, resonant voice made the more 
impressive his carefully prepared sermons, while 
his long snow-white beard, high bald head, and 
dignified bearing gave him a striking presence. 
From middle life he was quite deaf and presided 
over meetings only with the aid of an informer. 
He was physically strong, however, made a prac- 
tice of walking the two miles from his St. Louis 
home to the downtown cathedral, and at his sum- 
mer place at Wequetonsing, Mich., he was 
swimming and cutting wood after he was eighty. 
From its founding he was a trustee of the Mis- 
souri Botanical Garden. 

He died at the age of eighty-six, of grippe 
contracted while conducting a funeral. He had 
been a bishop for fifty-six years, and had helped 
consecrate eighty-nine bishops. Predeceased by 
his wife (1899) and four children, he was sur- 
vived by two sons. St. Louis mourned him as its 
most distinguished citizen, and a $500,000 build- 
ing was reared in his memory, adjoining his be- 
loved Christ Church cathedral. Wholly expres- 
sive of the man was the inscription placed by his 
desire on his gravestone in Bellefontaine Ceme- 
tery: "God be merciful to me a sinner." 

[ Turtle's own Reminiscences of a Missionary Bishop 
(1906) chronicle his life until his removal to the Mis- 
souri diocese. See also : G. F. Tuttle, The Descendants 
of William and Elisabeth Tuttle (1883) ; Who's Who 
in America, 1922-23 ; Wm. Hyde and H. L. Conard, 
Encyc. of the Hist, of St. Louis (1899), vol. IV ; Church 
News (St. Louis), May 1923, and Sept.-Oct. 1924; 
The Living Church Annual, 1924 (1923) ; St. Louis 
Post-Dispatch, Oct. 23, 1921, Apr. 17, 18, 20, 1923; 
Living Church, Oct. 11, Dec. 6, 1924 ; Churchman, Apr. 
28, 1923; information from Mrs. George M. Tuttle of 
St. Louis. A life-size portrait by Charles F. Gait hangs 
in the Tuttle Memorial.] j pj 

TUTTLE, HERBERT (Nov. 29, 1846-June 
21, 1894), historian, college professor, was born 
in Bennington, Vt, the son of Charles J. Tuttle 
and Evaline (Boynton) Tuttle. In 1853 the fam- 
ily moved to Hoosick Falls, N. Y. As a student 
in the University of Vermont, from which he 
was graduated in 1869, Tuttle attracted the at- 
tention of President James B. Angell \_q.v.~], his 
first teacher of history, who noted the orderliness 
of his mind and his keen interest in the growth 



75 



Tuttle 

of political institutions. Tuttle desired to make 
journalism his profession, and President Angell 
aided him in securing a position on the Boston 
Daily Advertiser, which he held nearly two 
years, for a time acting as Washington corre- 
spondent. Still richer opportunities for observa- 
tion came in October 1871, when he began a long 
residence in Europe, at first as special corre- 
spondent of the Advertiser in Paris, and from 
1873 to 1879 as Berlin correspondent of the Lon- 
don Daily News. In 1872 he reported the pro- 
ceedings of the Court of Alabama Claims at 
Geneva for the New York Tribune, and it was 
probably upon the recommendation of George 
W. Smalley [q.v.], London correspondent of the 
Tribune, that the great London daily offered 
this young American of twenty-six so important 
a post as Berlin. 

Tuttle had not been in Berlin long before he 
conceived the idea of writing a history which 
should show the relation of the earlier Prussia, 
and especially the work of Frederick the Great, 
to the triumphant Prussia and Germany of the 
seventies. He had discovered "how inadequate 
was Carlyle's account ... of the working sys- 
tem of the Prussian government" (History of 
Prussia, 1888, vol. II, p. vi). When Andrew D. 
White [q.v.~] went to Berlin in 1879 as Ameri- 
can minister, he encouraged Tuttle's project and 
suggested an academic career. President An- 
gell, now at the University of Michigan, gave 
him his first appointment, inviting him to lec- 
ture on international law (1880-81) during his 
own absence in China. In the fall of 188 1 White, 
as president of Cornell University, gave him a 
similar appointment, and until 1883 he divided 
his time between Michigan and Cornell. In 1883 
he was made associate professor at Cornell. In 
1887 he was promoted to a full professorship, 
with the history of political institutions added to 
his title. In 1890 he was made professor in his 
chosen field, Modern European history. While 
he was still in Berlin he had published a volume 
of essays on German Political Leaders (New 
York, 1876). The first volume of his History of 
Prussia (dated 1884) appeared late in 1883, an 
introduction covering the period from 1134 to 
1740. Of the five planned (an introduction and 
four volumes on Frederick the Great), Tuttle 
lived to complete only the introduction, two vol- 
umes on Frederick (1888), and part of a third 
(1896). His health broke down in 1893, and he 
died in Ithaca on June 21, 1894. His History of 
Prussia is based upon documentary collections, 
edited mainly by German scholars, and upon 
monographs published since Carlyle wrote. His 
career as a teacher was equally significant. His 



Tutwiler 

students remembered him as incisive and judicial, 
with a horror of exaggeration or inaccuracy. 
His comments were occasionally touched by a 
sub-acid wit. He had little sympathy with the 
more radical plans of departmental organization, 
and when, upon the recommendation of Presi- 
dent Charles Kendall Adams [q.v.], the trustees 
of the university created "The President White 
School of History and Political Science," in 
recognition of White's gift of his noble library, 
Tuttle so vigorously opposed the appointment of 
a dean of the School that the plan was not fully 
carried through. Tuttle was one of the original 
members of the American Historical Associ- 
ation, and was a frequent contributor to learned 
and critical journals. On July 6, 1875, be mar- 
ried Mary McArthur Thompson of Hillsboro, 
Ohio, who survived him. 

[Tuttle's full name was Charles Herbert Tuttle, but 
he dropped the first name before 1876. Sources include 
J. F. and C. H. Boynton, The Boynton Family (1897) ; 
H. B. Adams, in Tuttle's Hist, of Prussia, vol. IV 
(1896), pp. xi-xlvi, an amplification of an article in 
Ann. Report Am. Hist. Asso. . . . 1894 (1895) ; W. T. 
Hevvett, Cornell Univ.: A Hist. (1905), vol. II ; H. M. 
Jones, The Life of Moses Coit Tyler (1933). based on 
an unpublished dissertation by T. E. Casady ; Mary M. 
T. Tuttle, Memorial to Herbert Tuttle (priv. printed, 
1910) ; obituaries in Evening Post (N. Y.) and N. Y. 
Tribune, June 22, 1894; recollections of Tuttle's col- 
leagues. A bibliog. of Tuttle's writings appears in his 
Hist, of Prussia, vol. IV (1896).] H E B 



TUTWILER, HENRY (Nov. 16, 1807-Sept. 
22, 1884), Alabama educator, was born in Har- 
risonburg, Va., the son of Henry and Margaret 
(Lorchbaugh) Tutwiler. He was of German de- 
scent, and there was a family tradition that his 
ancestors came from the German section of 
Switzerland, settling first in Pennsylvania and 
moving later into the Valley of Virginia. The 
boy was for the most part self-taught, although 
for a short time he attended a school kept by a 
Presbyterian minister, the Rev. Daniel Baker 
[q.v.]. When the University of Virginia opened 
its doors in 1825, Tutwiler was one of the first 
students to enroll. He devoted himself to mathe- 
matics and the classics and completed his course 
in 1829, but spent another year in the Univer- 
sity studying law. More than fifty years later he 
delivered an address before the alumni of the 
University published under the title Early Years 
of the University of Virginia (1882). In 1831, 
when the newly established University of Ala- 
bama was seeking a faculty, the trustees turned 
to the University of Virginia to find professors, 
and Henry Tutwiler was highly recommended 
for the chair of ancient languages. He moved to 
Alabama in that same year and made his home 
there for the remainder of his life. 

It was said of Tutwiler that although he held 



76 



Tutwiler 



Tutwiler 



the professorship of ancient languages he was 
really a whole faculty, for he had a knowledge 
of law and was a student of science as well, show- 
ing special interest in chemistry and astronomy. 
The early years of the University of Alabama 
were not happy, and in 1837 the entire faculty 
resigned. For the next ten years Tutwiler held 
professorships in various small colleges in Ala- 
bama and at the end of that time turned to the 
fulfilment of a life-long ambition, the education 
of boys. Near the village of Havana, in the pres- 
ent Hale (then part of Greene) County, he 
opened in 1847 Greene Springs School for Boys, 
which soon attained wide recognition for the 
advanced ideas of education it embodied. Called 
the "Rugby of the South," it gave training pri- 
marily in the classics and mathematics, but laid 
an emphasis on the sciences which was unusual. 
Even more unusual in the equipment of a prepar- 
atory school of that time were its chemical labora- 
tory, telescope, and library of 1,500 volumes. 

Tutwiler insisted that trained teachers were 
as important for his boys as for college students, 
and the faculty of the Greene Springs School 
compared very favorably with those of the col- 
leges of the day. Respect for the individual stu- 
dent was an important tenet of his educational 
creed : corporal punishment was forbidden, and 
students were not divided into classes, but in 
each study the student was placed in the class 
which he was prepared to enter. Tutwiler re- 
mained at the head of the Greene Springs School 
until his death in 1884, twice declining the presi- 
dency of the University of Alabama with the 
statement that he was determined never again to 
put himself in any position where he could not 
be his own master. His scholarly interests filled 
his life and left small place for other things. He 
was a Whig and opposed secession, but he took 
no active part in the political events of his day. 
Nevertheless, though indirect, his influence in 
the life of the South through the students who 
went out from the Greene Springs School was 
very great. Tutwiler was married in Tuscaloosa, 
Dec. 24, 1835, to Julia Ashe, of a distinguished 
North Carolina family. He died at Greene 
Springs, survived by eleven children, one of 
whom, Julia Strudwick Tutwder [q.v.~], was also 
a noted educator. 

[T. M. Owen, Hist, of Ala. and Diet, of Ala. Biog. 
(1921), vol. IV; Willis Brewer, Alabama (1872) ; W. 
G. Clark, Hist, of Educ. in Ala. (18S9) ; A. B. Moore, 
Hist, of Ala. (1927), vol. I ; T. C. McCorvey, "Henry 
Tutwiler and the Influence of the University of Vir- 
ginia on Education in Alabama," Trans. Ala. Hist. Soc. 
(1904), vol. V ; P. A. Bruce, Hist, of the Univ. of Va., 
vols. II, III (1920-21) ; Montgomery Advertiser, Sept. 
26, 1884; Daily Register (Mobile), Sept. 27, 1884.] 

H.F. 



TUTWILER, JULIA STRUDWICK (Aug. 
15, 1841-Mar. 24, 1916), educator, social re- 
former, was born in Greene Springs, Ala., the 
daughter of Henry Tutwiler [q.v.~\ and Julia 
(Ashe). Her father had views of education far 
in advance of the practices of his day and in 1847 
established at Greene Springs a boys' school in 
which to carry out his ideas. One of his convic- 
tions was that his daughters should be as well 
educated as his sons. Julia, who was the third 
girl in the family, responded eagerly to the teach- 
ing offered her and after receiving her early 
training from her father, was sent for two years 
of study in Philadelphia. In January 1866 she 
enrolled in Vassar College, where she remained 
for half a school year. She showed unusual abil- 
ity in languages, and was subsequently permitted 
to spend a year in Lexington, Va., studying 
Greek and Latin under the tuition of professors 
in Washington and Lee University. Still later, 
after teaching for a time in the Tuscaloosa Fe- 
male Seminary, she spent three years in advanced 
study in Germany and France at a time when 
such study was most unusual for a woman. At 
the end of this period she passed the government 
examinations required of teachers in the Prus- 
sian schools and received a teacher's certificate. 

She returned to Alabama in 1876 and devoted 
the rest of her life to education and social serv- 
ice there. She introduced kindergarten methods 
which she had learned in Germany and taught 
for a time in her father's school at Greene 
Springs, but her primary interest was in the edu- 
cation of women. In 1882, while she was co- 
principal of the Livingston Female Academy at 
Livingston, Ala., she persuaded the state legis- 
lature to appropriate $2,500 to establish a nor- 
mal department in the school — the first gift, ac- 
cording to her own statement (Bennett, post, p. 
13), which the women of Alabama had ever re- 
ceived from the state. As a result, the Alabama 
Normal College was incorporated Feb. 22, 1883, 
with Julia Tutwiler as co-principal. In 1888 she 
became sole principal, and later her title was 
changed to president. 

The creation of a normal school was only the 
first step in her long struggle to secure voca- 
tional training for women in Alabama. Her pa- 
per, "The Technical Education of Women" 
(Education, Boston, November 1882), attracted 
wide attention and had considerable influence. 
In 1893 with the support of the women of the 
state and the agricultural interests, she secured 
a grant from the legislature for the Alabama 
Girls Industrial School, which was opened in 
October 1896 at Montevallo, Shelby County. She 
was offered the presidency of this school but de- 



77 



Twachtman 



Twachtman 



clined. In 1896 she persuaded officials of the 
University of Alabama to permit several young 
women prepared at the Alabama Normal Col- 
lege to enter the junior year in the University 
and to reside in a cottage on the campus. In this 
first year these women captured sixty per cent, 
of the honors awarded to the junior class, and in 
1900, when the first women received degrees 
from the University, four of the six honors 
awarded to graduates went to "Miss Julia's" 
students. After that experiment the doors of the 
University were thrown open to women on equal 
terms with men. 

Active also in prison reform in Alabama, she 
was for many years the superintendent of prison 
and jail work for the Woman's Christian Tem- 
perance Union. Her efforts were instrumental 
in securing the classification of prisoners and 
the separation of the sexes, the first juvenile re- 
form school, and the first law providing for the 
inspection of jails and prisons. She labored to 
secure the establishment of night schools and vo- 
cational education in prisons, and fought the con- 
vict leasing system, although she never succeed- 
ed in driving it from the state. She wrote many 
magazine articles on subjects relating to prison 
reform and the education of women, and com- 
posed poems for her own pleasure. One of these, 
"Alabama," has become the state song. In 1910 
she became president emeritus of the Alabama 
Normal College, and six years later died in 
Birmingham. 

[T. M. Owen, Hist, of Ala. and Diet, of Ala. Biog. 
vol. IV (1921) ; A Woman of the Century (1893), ed. 
by F. E. Willard and M. A. Livermore ; Who's Who in 
America, 1916-17; I. H. Weed, in Am. Mag., Sept. 
191 1 ; Helen C. Bennett, "Julia Tutwiler, First Citizen 
of Alabama," Pictorial Rev., Apr. 1913 ; Edna Kroman, 
"Julia S. Tutwiler, Pioneer in Education of Women in 
Alabama," Birmingham News, July 22, 1923 ; H. L. 
Hargrove, Julia S. Tutwiler of Alabama (n.d.) ; Mont- 
gomery Advertiser (Montgomery, Ala.), Mar. 25, 1916.] 

H.F. 

TWACHTMAN, JOHN HENRY (Aug. 4. 

1853-Aug. 8, 1902), painter, was born in Cin- 
cinnati, Ohio, the son of Frederick Christian and 
Sophia (Droege) Twachtman. Both his parents 
came from the province of Hanover, Germany. 
His father, born in Erichshagen, where his fore- 
bears had been for several generations prosper- 
ous farmers, came to America at an early age 
and settled in Cincinnati. As a boy John helped 
his father in making decorated window shades. 
Later he studied drawing at the night school of 
the Ohio Mechanics' Institute, and at the Uni- 
versity of Cincinnati School of Design. In 1875, 
with Frank Duveneck [q.Z'.~\, the son of family 
friends, Twachtman went to Munich. After work- 
ing there two years under Luchvig Lofftz, he 



joined Duveneck and William Merritt Chase 
[q.v.1 at Venice for a year. Returning to Amer- 
ica in 1878, he painted in New York (1879) and 
at Avondale, near Cincinnati. He spent the win- 
ter of 1880 in Florence, where Duveneck had 
settled the year before. After his marriage in 
the spring of 1881 to Marthe Scudder, daughter 
of Jane (Hannah) and John Milton Scudder 
[g.t\], he traveled abroad, visiting London and 
spending a short time in Holland. At Schleiss- 
heim, near Munich, he painted a number of 
large canvases directly from nature and, after a 
short stay in Venice, returned to New York. In 
1883 he was again in Europe, this time studying 
in Paris at the Julian Atelier under Jules Joseph 
Lefebvre and Gustave Boulanger. In the sum- 
mer he painted at Honfleur and at Arques-la- 
Battaille, near Dieppe, where he produced many 
of the most characteristic examples of this peri- 
od. After wintering in Venice (1884), he re- 
turned to the United States. He had sent many 
of his pictures in advance, but unhappily the ship 
was lost at sea and with it much of the best work 
of Twachtman's continental experience. 

After unsuccessfully endeavoring to combine 
farming and painting, Twachtman worked in 
Chicago on one of the great war cycloramas, 
then popular, picturing the battle of Gettysburg. 
In 1888 he joined his friend, Julian Alden Weir 
[q.v.~], at Branchville, Conn. In the fall of 1889 
he acquired a place near Greenwich, Conn., and 
there during the following ten years many of his 
finest pictures were painted. At this time he be- 
came an instructor of the antique class at the 
Art Students' League, a position he held until 
his death. From his anchorage at Round Hill 
he made several more distant excursions in order 
to paint Niagara Falls and Yellowstone Park. 
Later he spent the summers at Gloucester, Mass., 
in company with Duveneck, J. R. De Camp, C. 
A. Corwin, and E. H. Potthast, whom he had 
known in Florence. Separated from his family, 
he lived much alone. Never robust in physique, 
he was somewhat indifferent and careless about 
his health. He died at Gloucester, still compara- 
tively young, survived by his wife and five chil- 
dren. Prizes awarded him included a medal at 
the World's Columbian Exposition, Chicago 
(1893) ! the Webb Prize, Society of American 
Artists ( 1888) ; the Temple gold medal, Penn- 
sylvania Academy of the Fine Arts (1895) ; and 
a silver medal, Pan-American Exposition, Buf- 
falo (1901). He was a member of the Society 
of American Artists, from which he later re- 
signed, the Ten American Painters, the New 
York Etching Club, and the Pastel Club, New 
York. 



78 



Twachtman 

The art of John Twachtman falls into three 
distinct periods. The work of the first period 
(1875-81) is characterized by strong contrast of 
values, in subdued variations of brown and 
black ; vigorous brushwork, the pigment heavily 
applied ; and direct rendering from nature. The 
small decorative panels of buildings, shipping, 
and waterways painted at Venice are more spir- 
ited and personal than the larger and more am- 
bitious landscapes of the same time. Among the 
pictures of the early period are the highly orig- 
inal "Brooklyn Bridge"; the "Italian Land- 
scape," dated 1878, in the Museum of Fine Arts, 
Boston; the graphic and powerfully realistic 
"Oyster Boats," dated New York, 1879, and the 
"Venice" with the dogana in the background. 

The second period is marked by a reaction 
against the heavy impasto and dark tones of the 
Munich tradition. The color is in variations of 
silvery greys and greens, showing a close study 
of relative values and atmospheric perspective ; 
the pigment is applied thinly with a delicate but 
precise technique over a fine French linen ; the 
composition is restricted to very simple themes. 
There is seldom an attempt at sunlight or full 
color. Most characteristic of Twachtman's style 
at this time are the pictures painted in France 
and Holland, notably the "Arques-la-Battaille" 
dated 1885 ; "Windmills," with striking silhou- 
ette and effective spatial arrangements ; "Canal 
Boats"; "Winding Path"; the "Sketch" in the 
Museum of Fine Arts, Boston ; and "L'Etang." 

The final period belongs to America. It was 
not until Twachtman settled at Greenwich in 
1889 that he seems definitely to have found him- 
self. Impressionism had in the meantime an ob- 
vious influence on his development. From sub- 
dued hues of neutral greys the color changes to 
the higher key of sunlight, the delicately attuned 
relations of gold, blue, and violet, or the ethereal 
and pallid harmony of winter landscape. The 
painter's artistic nature is revealed in delicacy 
rather than strength, in the sensitive rather than 
the striking, in the subtle rather than the obvi- 
ous. He was a master of nuance ; his mood is 
one of intimacy and charm. He was not a real- 
ist in the literal sense of the term and openly de- 
clared the decorative intention of his work. 
Particularly worthy of note in the final period 
are the series of waterfalls painted on Twacht- 
man's own place at Greenwich and the pictures 
of winter — "Falls in January," the ice and snow 
patterned against the turbulent brook ; "The 
Cascade" ; and similar motives in the Metropoli- 
tan Museum and the Worcester Art Museum, 
Worcester, Mass.; "Snow," in the Worcester 
Art Museum; "Old Mill in Winter"; "Round 



Twain — Tweed 

Hill Road," in the National Gallery of Art, 
Washington ; "February," in the Museum of Fine 
Arts, Boston; "Snowbound" and "Hemlock 
Pool," which Twachtman himself considered one 
of the best of his pictures. The figure subjects 
are less widely known, but they remain among 
the most personal and distinguished examples of 
Twachtman's brush. Most of the subjects are his 
own family, painted in the intimate environment 
of his home. 

Twachtman occupies a unique position in 
American painting. Not following the earlier 
tradition, which portrayed the scenic aspects of 
nature or its romantic associations, he found his 
interest in the expressive organization of form, 
and the harmonic relation of line and color. His 
intention was more truly esthetic than pictorial. 
His art is therefore related to the doctrine of 
Whistler and the cult of "art for art's sake" so 
prevalent in the nineties. He had a militant dis- 
like of conventional composition, banalities, and 
sentimentality. He took a purely sensuous de- 
light in the beauty of the visible world, and a 
keen enjoyment in esthetic adventure. But if 
Whistler quickened Twachtman's artistic sensi- 
bility and stimulated the search for new dis- 
coveries in line and form, Monet awakened his 
appreciation of light and color. He thus re- 
sponds to the two dominant influences of his 
generation. Dependent upon optical stimulation 
and the exhilaration of the moment, Twachtman's 
art lacks something of the intellectual and uni- 
versal ; finely attuned to the fleeting, it misses the 
eternal. Both his expression and presentation 
were nevertheless very personal and original. 
The distinction of his art rests upon beauty of 
design, harmonic tonal relations, and the sensi- 
tive interpretation of evanescent effect. 

[IVho's Who in America, 1901—02; Samuel Isham, 
The Hist, of Am. Painting (1927 ed.) ; Eliot Clark, in 
Art in America, Apr. 1919, Intcrnat. Studio, Jan. 1921, 
Scribner's Mag., Dec. 1922, and John Twachtman 
(1924) ; Allen Tucker, John Twachtman (copr. 193 1) ; 
R. J. Wickeden, "The Art and Etchings of John Henry 
Twachtman," booklet published by Frederick Keppel & 
Co., New York ; Carolyn C. Mase, in Internal. Studio, 
Jan. 1921 ; Margery A. Ryerson, in Art in America, 
Feb. 1920: Royal Cortissoz. in N. Y. Tribune, Jan. 12, 
1919. reprinted in American Artists (1923): Charles 
De Kay, in Arts and Decoration, June 1918 ; C. C. Cur- 
ran, in Lit. Miscellany, Winter 1910; J. Alden Weir 
and others, in North Am. Rev., Apr. 1903 ; obituary in 
N. Y. Times and editorial in N . Y. Daily Tribune, Aug. 
9, 1902; information from Mrs. Twachtman.] E. C. 

TWAIN, MARK [See Clemens, Samuel 
Langhorne, 1835-1910]. 

TWEED, WILLIAM MARCY (Apr. 3, 1823- 
Apr. 12, 1878), political boss, was born in New 
York City, the son of Richard and Eliza Tweed. 
His great-grandfather, a blacksmith, emigrated 



79 



Tweed 

from Kelso, Scotland, in the middle of the eigh- 
teenth century. His father was a chairmaker, 
and young William was taken from the public 
school to begin learning the same trade at the age 
of eleven. At thirteen, however, he was appren- 
ticed to a saddler and worked with him nearly 
two years. He then attended a private school at 
Elizabeth, N. J., for one winter, learned book- 
keeping, and became a junior clerk in a mercan- 
tile office in New York. Meanwhile, his father 
had bought an interest in a small brush factory, 
and William at seventeen became its bookkeeper. 
He was made a member of the firm at nineteen. 
At twenty-one he married the daughter of the 
principal owner of the factory, Mary Jane Ska- 
den. She bore him eight children and died in 
1880. Tweed was a sober, steady young man, but 
big-bodied and powerful, and on occasion he 
could use his fists effectively. He became a vol- 
unteer fireman, and in 1848 helped to organize a 
new engine company, Americus No. 6. At the 
age of twenty-seven he was elected its foreman. 
The head of a tiger which was painted on the 
engine became in time the symbol of Tweed's 
political organization, Tammany Hall. 

Volunteer fire companies were often stepping 
stones to political power, and Tweed's capacity 
for leadership, which began to display itself at 
an early age, inevitably led him into politics and 
alliance with Tammany. In 1850, the year he 
became foreman of "Big 6," he ran for assistant 
alderman in his home ward, but was defeated by 
a small margin. In 185 1 he was nominated by 
the Democrats for alderman. There seemed small 
chance for him to win, but he persuaded a friend, 
a prominent educator, to run as an independent 
Whig, which split the Whig vote sufficiently to 
insure Tweed's election — his first venture in po- 
litical strategy. The common council to which 
he was elected came to be known in New York 
as "The Forty Thieves." Tweed's capacity as 
an alderman ic grafter soon rendered further hon- 
est toil unnecessary. In 1852 he was elected to 
Congress, but served only two years (1853-55), 
continuing to sit as alderman. He preferred 
municipal politics. A wave of Know-Nothing- 
ism, however, caused his defeat for alderman in 
1855. He and two other men, Peter B. Sweeny 
[q.v."] and Richard B. Connolly, later his chief 
partners in the "Tweed ring," had now begun to 
be drawn together in the faction of Tammany 
Hall opposing Mayor Fernando Wood [q.v.], 
who was finally forced out of the Hall. In 1856 
Tweed was chosen as a member of the newly 
created, bi-partisan, popularly elected board of 
supervisors, intended to check corruption at elec- 
tions, but which itself became an agencv for graft. 

8< 



Tweed 

Tweed was also appointed school commissioner. 
In 1857 he succeeded in having his friend Sweeny 
nominated for district attorney, and another ally, 
George G. Barnard, for recorder, and both were 
elected. Connolly was elected county clerk. Thus 
was the foundation laid for the Tweed machine. 

He was now a sachem of Tammany, and by 
1859 was considered one of the most powerful 
men in the organization. He well-nigh domi- 
nated the state Democratic convention of i860 
and sent his friend Barnard to the state supreme 
court bench. In 1861 he ran for sheriff, but lost. 
Nevertheless, he succeeded in bringing about the 
defeat of Wood for mayor, and one of his dear- 
est aims was accomplished. But the campaign 
had cost him his entire fortune of about $100,000. 
He made the office of supervisor pay, however, 
and within two years, it is said, he had recov- 
ered practically half his loss. He was made chair- 
man of the Democratic central committee of 
New York County in i860. Another cog in his 
machine, A. Oakey Hall [q.v.], was now district 
attorney. Tweed had become chairman of Tam- 
many's general committee, and thereafter was 
supreme dictator of nominations for mayor and 
other positions. He opened a law office in the 
autumn of i860. His knowledge of law was 
small, but he collected some huge fees for "legal 
services," the Erie Railroad alone paying him 
more than $100,000. In 1864 he bought a con- 
trolling interest in a printing concern, which 
thereafter did all the city's printing and which all 
railroads, ferries, and insurance companies must 
patronize if they wished to stay in business. He 
also organized a marble company and bought a 
quarry in Massachusetts from which the stone 
for the new county court house — for that gigan- 
tic swindle was now under way — was bought at 
extortionate prices. By 1867 Tweed was doubt- 
less a millionaire, and had moved his family 
from the lower East Side up to a Murray Hill 
residence just off Fifth Avenue. He assisted in 
launching the Brooklyn Bridge project in 1866, 
and received a $40,000 block of stock as his 
perquisite. 

He practically secured control of the State in 
1868, when he placed in the governor's chair 
John T. Hoffman \_q.v.~\, who had been Tam- 
many mayor of the city for two years. In Hoff- 
man's stead as mayor the Tweed henchman, A. 
Oakey Hall, was elected. Another puppet was 
made speaker of the Assembly. Tweed had been 
elected state senator in 1867, and his luxurious, 
seven-room hotel suite in Albany was virtually 
state Democratic headquarters. He was still New 
York County Democratic chairman, and for New 
York City was school commissioner, assistant 



Tweed 



Tweed 



street commissioner, and president of the Board 
of Supervisors. In 1868 he realized a life-long 
ambition when he was made grand sachem of 
Tammany. In 1869 the "ring," convened in Al- 
bany, decided that all bills thereafter rendered 
against the city and county must be one-half 
fraudulent. Later the proportion was raised to 
85 per cent. ("Report of the Special Committee 
of the Board of Aldermen," pp. 74-76, 397, 403). 
The money thus gained was to be divided into 
five parts, of which Tweed, City Chamberlain 
Sweeny, Comptroller Connolly, and Mayor Hall 
received one share each, while the fifth was used 
to bribe smaller politicians. Bogus naturaliza- 
tion of immigrants and repeating at elections 
were now carried to hitherto unknown lengths. 
Tweed was a partner with Jay Gould and James 
Fisk [qq.z'.l in the plundering of the Erie Rail- 
road, and was a director (often without invest- 
ment) in banks, gas, and street railroad com- 
panies. 

By this time Harper's Weekly, with Thomas 
Nast [q.v.~\ as its cartoonist, was beginning its 
long campaign against Tweed and his group 
(especially Jan. 22, 1870, and thereafter). But 
many leading citizens, Peter Cooper and Horace 
Greeley among the rest, were so deceived that 
they gave approval to the new city charter in 
1870, which riveted the rule of the "ring" more 
firmly on the city. Samuel J. Tilden \_q.v.~i as- 
serted that it cost Tweed more than a million 
dollars to put the charter through the legislature, 
and Tweed himself testified that he paid about 
$600,000 ("Report ... of the Board of Alder- 
men," p. 73). The New York Times, under the 
ownership of George Jones [#.?'.], began its 
attacks on Tweed late in 1870 (editorial, Sept. 
20, 1870). The uncompleted county courthouse 
(its final cost was $12,000,000, of which two- 
thirds was fraudulent) had begun to arouse sus- 
picion, but most of the newspapers and leading 
citizens were still servile in loyalty to the "ring" 
(see report of a committee of business men, Nov. 
1, 1870, in N. Y. World, Nov. 6, N. Y. Times, 
Nov. 7). When Tweed's daughter was married 
in May 187 1, gifts to her from prominent citi- 
zens were valued at $700,000. That spring Sher- 
iff O'Brien and another discontented official 
turned over to the Times proofs of enormous 
swindling by the "ring." Learning that the 
Times had these figures, the boodlers offered 
Jones $5,000,000 not to publish them. Nast was 
offered $500,000 to cease his attacks. Both of- 
fers were rejected, and the Times published the 
evidence (especially July 8, July 20-29, 1871). 
On Sept. 4, 1871, at a mass meeting in Cooper 
Union, a committee of seventy was formed to 

8 



take action. An injunction was obtained against 
further taxation or payment of money. On Oct. 
26, on Tilden's affidavit, a civil suit was brought 
to recover stolen money (N. Y. Times, Oct. 26, 
2j, 1 871). Tweed's $2,000,000 bail was quickly 
raised, Jay Gould supplying $1,000,000. By fraud 
at the polls he was reelected to the state Senate 
that autumn. On Dec. 16 he was arrested in a 
criminal action. Connolly, Sweeny, and others 
implicated had fled to Canada and Europe. 

At Tweed's first criminal trial, the jury dis- 
agreed ; but at the second, in November 1873, he 
was convicted and sentenced to twelve years in 
prison and a fine of $12,750. The court of ap- 
peals reduced the sentence to a year and a $250 
fine, and in January 1875 Tweed left the prison 
on Blackwell's Island. He was at once rearrest- 
ed on a civil action brought by the state to re- 
cover $6,000,000 of the "ring's" stealings. Fail- 
ing to procure $3,000,000 bail, he was sent to 
prison. Here he was treated leniently, taking 
a carriage ride almost every afternoon, and fre- 
quently visiting his home, accompanied by two 
turnkeys. On Dec. 4, while visiting his home, 
he escaped by the back door while the turnkeys 
sat in the parlor. Aided by friends, he lay in 
hiding near New York for several weeks, then 
got away to Cuba, and from there went to Spain 
disguised as a common seaman. Identified by 
Spanish officials through a Nast cartoon (in 
Harper's Weekly, July 1, 1876), he was arrested 
and returned to America in November 1876. 
Judgment in the civil suit had been obtained 
against him in his absence, and in default of 
payment he was again committed to Ludlow 
Street Jail, this time in strict confinement. He 
was now failing steadily in health. Hoping that 
he might secure release from jail in return for 
his testimony, he supplied considerable infor- 
mation to the state, and before an aldermanic 
investigating committee in the winter of 1877- 
78 he testified frankly about many of his crooked 
transactions. He died in his room at the jail at 
the age of fifty-five. At his request, his wife 
and a married daughter had gone abroad to es- 
cape humiliation, and they were in Paris at the 
time of his death. 

Tweed was genial and generous in disposition, 
and not vindictive toward his enemies. Nast's 
cartoons were not bad portraits of him, though 
his facial expression was milder and his photo- 
graphs show that he might easily have been mis- 
taken for a thoroughly respectable man. He was 
crafty, but even more remarkable for boldness 
and plausibility. The amount which his "ring" 
filched from the city has been variously esti- 
mated at from $30,000,000 to $200,000,000. 



Twichell 

[D. T. Lynch, "Boss" Tweed (1927); M. R. Wer- 
ner, .Tammany Hall (1928) ; R. H. Fuller, Jubilee Jim: 
The Life of Colonel James Fisk, Jr. (1928); obitu- 
aries and articles in Evening Post (N. Y.), N. Y. Times, 
Sun (N. Y.), N. Y. Herald, N. Y. Tribune, World (N. 
Y.), Apr. 12-14, 1878 ; "Report of the Special Commit- 
tee of the Board of Aldermen Appointed to Investigate 
the 'Ring' Frauds," Documents of the Board of Alder- 
men of the City of N. Y. . . . Part II — 1877, Doc. No. 
8 (1878); C. F. Wingate, "An Episode in Municipal 
Government," North American Review, Oct. 1874, Jan., 
July 1875, Oct. 1876 ; W. C. Gover, The Tammany Hall 
Democracy of the City of New York and the General 
Committee for 1875 (1875) ; A. P. Genung, The 
Frauds of the New York City Government Exposed 
(1871); S. J. Tilden, The New York City "Ring" 
(1873); Charles O'Conor, comp., Peculation Trium- 
phant (1875), a collection of documents on the trials; 
J. D. Townsend, New York in Bondage (1895), by 
Tweed's counsel, 1876-78; H. L. Clinton, Celebrated 
Trials (1897) ; Harold Zink, City Bosses in the United 
States (1930), with good chapter on Tweed and defi- 
nite references ; scrapbooks of newspaper clippings 
relating to N. Y. City politics, N. Y. Pub. Lib.] 

A.F.H. 

TWICHELL, JOSEPH HOPKINS (May 27, 
1838-Dec. 20, 1918), Congregational clergyman, 
was a native of Connecticut and spent practi- 
cally his entire life there, becoming one of its 
best known and most beloved citizens. Born in 
the nearby town of Southington, he was called 
to Hartford in 1865 to take charge of the newly 
organized Asylum Hill Congregational Church 
and remained as pastor and pastor emeritus un- 
til his death more than fifty years later. He was 
the son of Edward Twichell, a tanner and manu- 
facturer, by his first wife, Selina Delight Carter, 
his ancestry running back to Benjamin Twitch- 
ell, born in Chesham Parish, Buckinghamshire, 
England, who emigrated to Massachusetts about 
1630. Prepared for college in the schools of 
Southington, Joseph graduated from Yale with 
the class of 1859. He began his theological stud- 
ies at Union Seminary, New York, but they 
were interrupted by the outbreak of the Civil 
War. From 1861 to 1864 he saw active service 
as chaplain of the 71st New York Volunteers, 
in the meantime, Jan. 30, 1863, being ordained in 
his native town. When mustered out, he entered 
Andover Theological Seminary, from which he 
graduated in 1865. That same year, recom- 
mended to the Asylum Hill Church by Horace 
Bushnell [q.vJ], he began his Hartford pastor- 
ate, and on Nov. 1, married Julia Harmony 
Cushman of Orange, N. J., by whom he had nine 
children. For thirty-nine years (1874-1913) he 
was an active member of the Board of Fellows 
of Yale University. 

During his half century in Hartford he exert- 
ed much influence in the religious and civic af- 
fairs of his city and state. He was handsome, 
athletic, abounding in good humor, and had a 
sympathetic understanding of all sorts and con- 
ditions of men, derived in part from his army 

8: 



Twichell 

experiences. His humanness is indicated by the 
fact that he was invariably alluded to as "Joe" 
Twichell. Although not a scholar in the academic 
use oi the term, he had a well stocked and well 
disciplined mind, keen discernment, sound judg- 
ment, and a fine literary taste. His influence 
was exerted not only directly, but indirectly 
through his close association with newspaper 
editors, writers, and public officials, who held 
him in high esteem. He was so often introduced 
into Charles Dudley Warner's conversation 
"that many persons felt they had a certain ac- 
quaintance and wished they knew him better" 
(Mrs. J. T. Fields, Charles Dudley Warner, 
1904, p. 41). Upon taking up his residence in 
Hartford, he at once became a member of the 
circle that included Warner, Calvin and Harriet 
Beecher Stowe \_qq.v.~\, and other notable peo- 
ple. When Samuel L. Clemens [q.v.~\ came to 
the city in 1868 to supervise the publication of 
a book, he met Twichell and a most intimate 
friendship began. Twichell was one of the of- 
ficiating clergymen at Clemens' wedding in El- 
mira ; later the two were neighbors in Hartford ; 
they tramped together, and traveled together. 
They were companions on the trip described in 
A Tramp Abroad, in which Twichell figures as 
"Harris" (Paine, post, II, 629, 666), and it was 
Twichell who made the suggestion that prompt- 
ed the writing of the sketches which formed the 
basis of Life on the Mississippi (Ibid., I, p. 531 ). 
In his description of the pastor's appearance in 
the pulpit with "green hair," the humorist affec- 
tionately immortalized his friend in a most 
amusing skit (Mark Twain's Autobiography, 
post, I, 342-43). They stood together, in a Re- 
publican stronghold, in support of Cleveland 
rather than Blaine for the presidency, a stand 
which almost cost Twichell his pastorate (Ibid., 
II, 20-26). When apart, the two corresponded 
at length, their letters disclosing that there was 
no one to whom Clemens revealed his soul more 
fully than to Twichell. The latter's own literary 
output was not great. He made contributions to 
periodicals, among them "Mark Twain" (Har- 
per's Monthly, May 1896), and "Qualities of 
Warner's Humor" (The Century, January 
1903) ; and he published two more substantial 
works, John Winthrop (copr. 1891), in the 
Makers of America Series, and Some Old Puri- 
tan Love-Letters (1893), being the correspond- 
ence of John and Margaret Winthrop. 

[R. E. Twitchell, Gcneal. of the Twitchell Family 
(1929); Yale Univ. Obit. Record . . . 1019 (1920); 
A. B. Paine, Mark Twain (3 vols., 191 2) ; Mark 
Twain's Autobiog. (2 vols., 1924) ; and Mark Twain's 
Letters (2 vols., 1917) ; Who's Who in America, 1918- 
19; Congrcgationalist, Jan. 2, 1919; Flartford Daily 



Twiggs 



Times, Dec. 20, 191 8; Hartford Daily Courant, Dec. 
21, 1918.] HE s 

TWIGGS, DAVID EMANUEL (1790-July 
15, 1862), soldier, the son of Brigadier- General 
John Twiggs, who was called the "Savior of 
Georgia" in the Revolution, and his wife, Ruth 
Emanuel, was born in Richmond County, Ga. 
He was appointed a captain in the 8th United 
States Infantry in March 1812, and served in 
minor capacities during the war with Great 
Britain. He became a major of the 28th In- 
fantry in September 1814, but his regiment was 
disbanded the following June, and he was with- 
out a commission. When interest in military 
affairs revived, he was commissioned a major 
of the 1st Infantry on May 14, 1825, lieutenant- 
colonel of the 4th Infantry, July 15, 1831, and 
colonel of the 2nd Dragoons, June 8, 1836. It 
was in the last capacity that he joined Zachary 
Taylor's forces at the beginning of the War with 
Mexico. Shortly thereafter arose the unfortunate 
dispute between himself and Brevet Brigadier- 
General William J. Worth [q.v.], whose regular 
rank was that of colonel, junior to Twiggs. 
Through the awkward handling of this contro- 
versy over prestige and rank by Taylor, the 
troops lost confidence in all three of their su- 
periors. Twiggs, however, gave a good account 
of himself at Palo Alto and Resaca de la Palma, 
so that, on June 30, 1846, he was promoted to the 
grade of regular brigadier-general. After the 
capture of Monterey, Taylor asked for another 
promotion for him, although Twiggs had os- 
tensibly been ill and had taken no part in the 
fight. Singularly enough, he was brevetted a ma- 
jor-general for gallantry at Monterey. 

Throughout the northern campaign he had 
commanded the 1st Division, but when Scott's 
southern campaign began he was withdrawn to 
the south. He served at Vera Cruz arid com- 
manded the vanguard of that army in its prog- 
ress toward Mexico city. Although his leader- 
ship at Cerro Gordo was more intrepid than in- 
telligent and his feint before Mexico city lacked 
vigor, his work mainly showed dogged perse- 
verance and bravery. He was a stanch and loyal 
supporter of his commander when too many of 
the other commanders about him were insubor- 
dinate and conniving. On Mar. 2, 1847, Con- 
gress voted him a sword, with a jeweled hilt and 
a gold scabbard, in testimony of his gallantry at 
Monterey, and he was subsequently presented 
two others by the legislature of Georgia and by 
the city of Augusta. He was a member of the 
court of inquiry on Worth's defiant conduct, 
and was military governor of Vera Cruz from 
December 1847 to March 1848. Twiggs was a 



Twining 

robust, powerfully built man, nearly six feet tall, 
with thick red face, heavy white hair, and an 
abundant beard. To his soldiers he was the em- 
bodiment of dynamic physical energy. They 
called him variously "Old Davy," "The Horse," 
and "Bengal Tiger." 

After the war his peace-time duties of de- 
partmental commander, mostly in the South, 
simmered into the routine of the decade pre- 
ceding the Civil War. In February 1861, he was 
in command of the Department of Texas. It was 
then, because of his Southern affiliations, that he 
surrendered all of the Union forces and stores 
under his control to the Confederate general, 
Ben McCulloch [q.v.~\. He was, accordingly, 
promptly dismissed from the United States 
Army. On May 22, 1 861, he was made a major- 
general of the Confederate army and assigned 
to the command of the district of Louisiana. At 
this time he was the ranking general of the Con- 
federate forces, but he was too old to take the 
field. He died and was buried near his birth- 
place in the old Twiggs Cemetery, about ten 
miles from Augusta. He was survived by his 
second wife and two children. His first wife 
was Elizabeth Hunter, of Virginia ; and his 
second was a Mrs. Hunt, of New Orleans, La. 
His daughter became the wife of Abraham C. 
Myers [q.i\], of the Confederate army. 

[Georgia's Roster of the Revolution (1920) ; F. B. 
Heitman, Hist. Reg. and Diet, of the U. S. Army 
(1903) ; W. A. Ganoe, The Hist, of the U. S. Army 
(1924) ; Men of Mark in Ga., vol. II (1910) ; J. H. 
Smith, The War with Mexico (2 vols., 1919) ; Battles 
and Leaders of the Civil War (1887-88), vol. I; 
Confed. Mil. Hist. (1899), vol. VI; records in the 
Old Files Section, Adjutant-General's Office, Wash- 
ington, D. C. ; information from the family.] 

W. A. G. 

TWINING, ALEXANDER CATLIN (July 
5, 1801-Nov. 22, 1884), inventor, engineer, as- 
tronomer, was the son of Stephen and Almira 
(Catlin) Twining, and was born in New Haven, 
Conn., where his father for many years was 
steward and treasurer of Yale College. He 
was a descendant of William Twining who was 
in Yarmouth in 1643. Upon completing his 
preparatory school work at Hopkins, N. H., 
Twining entered Yale and graduated in 1820 
with the degree of A.B. He then took two years 
of post-graduate work for his master's degree 
and entered Andover Theological Seminary to 
study for the ministry. He did not complete the 
course, however, for the reason that he had mean- 
while become intensely interested in mathematics 
and engineering. Subsequently he returned to 
Yale, where for two years he served as a tutor 
(1823-24), and engaged in further study in natu- 
ral philosophy and mathematics. Later he entered 



8u 



Twitchell 



Twitchell 



the United States Military Academy at West 
Point, and took a course in civil engineering, 
specializing at the same time in mathematics and 
astronomy. While there Twining observed the 
remarkable star shower of November 1833. As 
a result he formulated independently a theory of 
the cosmic origin of meteors, which was also 
propounded at the time by Denison Olmsted 
[q.v.] ; that is, that shooting stars are bodies com- 
ing into the air from external space, and that 
their discussion belongs to astronomy and not to 
terrestrial physics (American Journal of Sci- 
ence and Arts, vol. XXVI, no. 2, 1834). Be- 
tween 1834 and 1839 Twining engaged in rail- 
road engineering, chiefly for the Hartford & 
New Haven Railroad Company, locating most 
of its northern routes out of New Haven. He 
later served for many years as a railroad con- 
sultant not only in New England but in the Mid- 
dle West. In 1839 he accepted the chair of mathe- 
matics and natural philosophy at Middlebury 
College, Middlebury, Vt. Ten years later he re- 
signed, and returned to New Haven in order to 
resume his engineering practice and the inven- 
tive work which he had undertaken in the mean- 
time. 

His most important invention was a method 
of manufacturing ice, the initial patent for which 
was granted on Nov. 8, 1853 (patent no. 10,221), 
although he filed a caveat of the invention in 
1849. Because this was one of the earliest appli- 
cations of the absorption process for the manu- 
facture of ice on a commercial scale, Twining 
was granted extensions of his patent in 1864 and 
1871. Although he devoted all his time to it after 
1849, he never succeeded in having his process 
introduced commercially. He wrote a number of 
papers on mathematical problems. He married 
Harriet Amelia Kinsley of West Point on Mar. 
2, 1829, and at the time of his death in New Haven 
was survived by six children. 

[T. T. Twining, Gcneal. of the Twining Family 
(1890) ; Obit. Record Grads. Yale Coll. (1885) ; Cat. 
of the Officers and Grads. of Yale Univ. (1895) ; E. H. 
Knight, Knight's Am. Mechanical Diet., vol. II (1875) ; 
A. C. Twining, The Rights of Am. Inventors: A Peti- 
tion in the 45th Cong., Jan. 28, 1879 (1879) ; obitu- 
aries in New Haven Evening Reg., Nov. 22, and New 
Haven Morning Courier, Nov. 24, 1884.] C. W. M. 

TWITCHELL, AMOS (Apr. 11, 1781-May 

26, 1850), pioneer New Hampshire surgeon, was 
born in Dublin, N. H., the son of Samuel and 
Alice (Willson) Twitchell, and a descendant of 
Benjamin Twitchell who emigrated from Eng- 
land to Dorchester about 1630. He was the 
seventh of nine children. His father, a patriot- 
farmer of 1775, served in the state legislature and 
established a library in Dublin as early as 1793. 



Following a preliminary education in the New 
Ipswich Academy, Twitchell entered Dartmouth 
College and, after a struggle against poverty and 
poor health, was graduated with the degree of 
A.B. in 1802. While in college he formed warm 
friendships with Daniel Webster and the elder 
George Cheyne Shattuck [qq.v.]. Stimulated to 
study medicine by the energetic Nathan Smith, 
1762-1829 [q.v.], then forming the medical 
school at Dartmouth, he became one of Smith's 
most ardent pupils, and later his life-long ad- 
mirer and friend. Receiving the degrees of A.M. 
and B.M. in 1805, Twitchell first practised medi- 
cine in Norwich, Vt., then in Marlborough, N. 
H., and finally in Keene, N. H., where he settled 
in 1810 and remained until his death. He married 
Elizabeth, daughter of Dr. Josiah Goodhue, one 
of his teachers, in 1815; there were no children. 
Honors came to him, and he was offered many 
teaching positions in medicine, all of which he 
refused in order to continue his arduous practice. 
He became an overseer of Dartmouth College in 
1816, having received the degree of M.D. there 
in 181 1, served as president of the New Hamp- 
shire Medical Society ( 1829-30), and held mem- 
bership in the American Medical Association, 
the College of Physicians of Philadelphia, and 
the National Institution for the Promotion of 
Science (1841). He died in Keene, May 26, 
1850, after a period of over forty years as the 
leading surgeon of northern New England. 

Twitchell became an outstanding figure in his 
time at an early age, owing to a bold and dra- 
matic operation. At the age of twenty-six, on 
Oct. 18, 1807, while in practice at Marlborough, 
he saved the life of a man severely injured by a 
gun-shot wound in the neck, by tying the carotid 
artery, an operation not previously thought pos- 
sible without fatal results. The scene in the farm- 
house, with the mother holding open the wound 
and the young surgeon acting under great pres- 
sure in the dire emergency, was modestly but 
effectively described by Twitchell many years 
later (New England Quarterly Journal of Medi- 
cine and Surgery, October 1842). Only once had 
this operation been performed before, by a sur- 
geon in the British navy, unknown to Twitchell. 

In Keene, Twitchell led the life of a country 
practitioner, performing many operations with 
exceptional skill. He was one of the first in the 
United States to perform extensive amputation 
for malignant disease, operations for stone in the 
bladder and ovarian tumors, tracheotomy, and 
trephining of the long bones for suppuration. He 
traveled by chaise, with frequent changes of 
horses ; known throughout the countryside, "the 
doctor" got the best and fastest horse, and he 



84 



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er 



Tyl 



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often covered a hundred miles or more a day. 
His health, never very good, was carefully guard- 
ed by a rigorous diet, total abstinence from 
tobacco and alcohoi, and frequent short rest peri- 
ods. He was a stanch upholder of the best of 
American medical traditions, although a frequent 
advocate of conservative reforms in the Ameri- 
can Medical Association during its period of 
formation. Honest, intellectual, with both surgi- 
cal acumen and originality, Twitchell should be 
regarded as one of the outstanding early Ameri- 
can physicians. 

[The date of Twitchell's birth, given by Bowditch as 
Apr. 14, is from Dartmouth Coll. records. The chief 
source is H. I. Bowditch, Memoir of Amos Twitchell 
(185 1 ), with portrait. See also R. E. Twitchell, Gcncal. 
of the Twitchell Family (1929) ; Albert Smith, in N. 
H. Jour, of Medicine, June 185 1; Am. Jour, of the 
Medic. Sciences, July 1850 ; H. J. Bowditch, in Charles- 
ton Medic. Jour., Nov. 1849; Medic. Communications, 
Mass. Medic. Soc. (1854) ; L. W. Leonard and J. L. 
Seward, The Hist, of Dublin, N. H. (1920) ; obituary 
in N. H. Statesman (Concord), June 7, 1850 ; Twitchell 
MSS. in the Boston Medic. Lib.] H.R. V. 

TYLER, BENNET (July 10, 1783-May 14, 

1858), theologian and educator, was born in Mid- 
dlebury, Conn., the son of James and Anne 
(Hungerford) Tyler. An accident when he was 
fifteen years of age incapacitated him for a life 
of manual labor and his family determined out of 
their meager resources to send him to college. 
He prepared under his pastor, the Rev. Ira Hart, 
and entered Yale in 1800, graduating four years 
later. After teaching a year in the academy at 
Weston, Conn., he studied theology with the Rev. 
Asahel Hooker of Goshen. In 1807 he was in- 
vited to the church in South Britain, Conn., and 
on Nov. 12 of that year was married to Esther 
Stone of Middlebury. Ordained and installed 
over the church June 1, 1808, he continued a 
highly successful ministry for fourteen years, 
then to his surprise, Mar. 6, 1822, be was called 
to the presidency of Dartmouth College. This 
institution he served acceptably for six years, his 
most outstanding service being the raising of a 
fund of ten thousand dollars to aid students fit- 
ting for the ministry. His inclinations, however, 
turned strongly towards the pastorate and he ac- 
cepted an urgent call to the Second Church of 
Portland, Me., being installed in September 1828. 
In this same year a sermon preached by Dr. 
Nathaniel W. Taylor [q.v.~\ at the Yale Com- 
mencement let loose a flood of theological con- 
troversy among the New England churches, 
especially in Connecticut, between the "Old 
School" Calvinists and the "New Divinity" as 
promulgated from New Haven. Being an ardent 
conservative and one of the ablest interpreters 
of the old theology, Tyler was drawn into the 
debate and became a recognized leader of the 



conservatively orthodox. On Sept. 10, 1833, for- 
ty ministers met in East Windsor, Conn., and 
resolved to establish a theological seminary — if 
twenty thousand dollars could be raised — to coun- 
teract, as far as possible, the harmful effects of 
the "New Divinity" as taught in New Haven. 
The money was raised in a few weeks, the cor- 
ner-stone of the Theological Institute of Con- 
necticut, now the Hartford Theological Semi- 
nary, was laid May 13, 1834, and Tyler was 
inducted into office as president and professor of 
Christian theology on the same day. This po- 
sition he held for twenty-three years, resigning 
on account of the infirmities of age July 16, 1857. 
In closing his services with the Theological 
Institute he delivered an address in which he set 
forth with great clarity and force the convictions 
that had governed his thinking and actions — the 
absolute sovereignty of a perfect God, the total 
depravity of human nature, the federal headship 
of Adam, the substitutionary death of Christ, 
man's natural ability but moral inability to re- 
pent, the elective grace of the Almighty, regen- 
eration effected by the direct agency of the Holy 
Spirit, the endless punishment of the wicked. 
These doctrines he had held consistently and un- 
changed during all his years of public service. 
After his retirement he lived less than a year, 
dying some two months after Nathaniel W. Tay- 
lor, his chief opponent. Not an original or specu- 
lative thinker, Tyler dwelt contentedly in the 
Calvinistic system as modified by Jonathan Ed- 
wards and tempered by Timothy Dwight \_qq,vJ\. 
To him it was real Christianity, the complete and 
final revelation of the divine plan ; whosoever 
sought to mitigate its severities or deny its logi- 
cal implications, him he conscientiously opposed. 
Although a fearless controversialist, he was a 
man of amiable disposition, genial temper, and 
genuine humility. He had six sons and six 
daughters ; one of the daughters became the first 
wife of Calvin E. Stowe [q.v.]. In addition to 
numerous sermons and tracts he published Let- 
ters on the Origin and Progress of the New 
Haven Theology (1837), A Review of President 
Day's Treatise on the Will (1838), A Treatise 
on the Sufferings of Christ (1845), New Eng- 
land Revivals ( 1846) , Letters to the Rev. Horace 
Bushncll Containing Strictures on His Book En- 
titled "Views of Christian Nurture" (two series, 
1847, 1848). After his death, Lectures on Theol- 
ogy with a Memoir by Rev. Nahuin Gale (1859) 
was issued. 

[In addition to the memoir by Gale, his son-in-law, 
see F. B. Dexter, Biog. Sketches Grads. Yale Coll., vol. 
V (191 1) ; C. M. Geer, The Hartford Theological Sem. 
(1934) ; J. K. Lord, A Hist, of Dartmouth Coll., vol. 
II (1913); William Cothren, Hist, of Ancient Wood- 



85 



Tyler 

Oury (2 vols., 1854-72) ; Am. Congregational Year 
Book (1859).] C.A.D. 

TYLER, CHARLES MELLEN (Jan. 8, 
1832-May 15, 1918), Congregational clergyman, 
college professor, was born in Limington, Me., 
the son of Daniel and Lavinia (Small) Tyler. 
He was a descendant of Job Tyler who emi- 
grated from England to Newport, R. I., as early 
as 1638, and later settled in Andover, Mass. He 
received his early education from his father, a 
lawyer by profession, in the common schools, and 
at Lewiston Academy. Financial reverses in- 
terrupted his schooling, and for a time he worked 
in a ship-chandler's shop at Belfast and later for 
the wholesale grocery house of D. L. Gibbons, 
Boston. Subsequently, after taking the senior 
year at Phillips Academy, Andover, he entered 
Yale and graduated with the class of 1855. He 
distinguished himself as a scholar and won prizes 
in Latin, English composition, and oratory. Hav- 
ing spent a year in Union Theological Seminary, 
New York, he accepted a call to the First Con- 
gregational Church, Galesburg, 111., and was 
ordained and installed in June 1857. A year later 
he became pastor of the Congregational Church 
in Natick, Mass., which position he held until 
1867. During this period he took an active in- 
terest in civic affairs and in 1861-62 was a mem- 
ber of the Massachusetts legislature. He came 
of fighting stock, both his grandfather and his 
great-grandfather having been soldiers in the 
Revolution, and he and his father served in the 
Civil War, the latter as a paymaster under Gen- 
eral McClellan, and Charles as chaplain of the 
22nd Massachusetts Volunteers, with rank of 
captain. He was with the army in the Wilder- 
ness Campaign and about Petersburg. An out- 
come of his war experiences was the publication 
of a little book, Memorials of Lieut. George H. 
Walcott, Late of the 30th U. S. Colored Troops 
(1865). From 1867 to 1872 he was pastor of the 
South Church, Chicago. 

In the latter year he took charge of the Re- 
formed Dutch Church, Ithaca, N. Y., which later 
became the First Congregational Church. There- 
after until his death he was intimately connected 
with the affairs of Ithaca and Cornell University. 
He became a trustee of the University in 1886 
and was active in this position until 1892, at 
which time he had assumed a professorship there. 
Two years before, Henry W. Sage [q.?'.~\, a 
friend of Tyler, had endowed the Susan Linn 
Sage School of Philosophy, the organization of 
which included a chair of history and philosophy 
of religion and Christian ethics. Tyler was chosen 
in 1891 to be its first occupant and served in this 
capacity for twelve years, becoming professor 



Tyl 



er 



emeritus in 1903. In addition to contributions 
to periodicals, he published a substantial work, 
entitled Bases of Religions Belief, Historic and 
Ideal (1897). A resume of modern thought on 
the subject with some critical comment, rather 
than an original treatise, it was valuable in its 
day to students as an introduction and guide. In 
1907 he was again elected a trustee of the Uni- 
versity, and served until his death. He was twice 
married: first, in New Haven, Conn., Dec. 10, 
1856, to Ellen A., daughter of Thomas and Har- 
riet N. (Rich) Davis, who died Jan. 14, 1891 ; 
second, June 1892, to Kate E. Stark, professor of 
music at Syracuse University. By his first wife 
he had two daughters ; he died at the home of 
one of them, in Scranton, Pa. 

[W. I. T. Brigham, The Tyler Gcneal. (1912) ; Obit. 
Record Grads. Yale Univ. . . . igi8 (1919); W. T. 
Hewett, Cornell Univ., A Hist. (1905) ; Who's Who in 
America, 1918-19; Cornell Alumni News, May 23, 
»9 l8 -] H.E.S. 

TYLER, DANIEL (Jan. 7, 1799-Nov. 30, 
1882), soldier, industrialist, was born in Brook- 
lyn, Windham County, Conn. His parents were 
Daniel Tyler, III, a Revolutionary officer, de- 
scended from Job Tyler, one of the early settlers 
of Andover, Mass., and Sarah (Edwards) Chap- 
lin Tyler, a grand-daughter of Jonathan Ed- 
wards [(?.£'.]. After attending the public schools, 
the boy was sent in 1812 to Plainfield Academy 
to prepare for Yale, but secured instead an ap- 
pointment to the United States Military Acad- 
emy in 1816. Three years later, as a lieutenant 
of light artillery, he began service in New Eng- 
land, and in 1824 he was ordered to the Artillery 
School of Practice at Fortress Monroe, Va. His 
own need for professional knowledge led him to 
import the best books on the subject and then to 
translate from the French a work on drill and 
maneuvers originally published in Paris in 1824. 
This translation was used by a commission ap- 
pointed in 1826 to prepare a light artillery system 
for the American army, and in 1828 Tyler was sent 
to France to make further study of the French 
system. Admitted to the artillery school at Metz, 
he found it so far superior to that at Fortress 
Monroe that he proceeded at great expense to 
obtain copies of every drawing and treatise on 
the French system and to translate their latest 
manual of exercise and instruction for field artil- 
lery (1829). His detailed inspection of French 
armories and construction of small arms he 
turned to good advantage in 1830 when he inves- 
tigated the armory at Springfield, Mass., ex- 
posing the inferior quality of the arms produced 
there and pointing to political influence as the 
cause. Likewise, as superintendent of inspectors 
of contract arms in 1832, he rejected as defective 



86 



Tyler 

most of the muskets delivered by manufacturers. 
When the Ordnance Corps was reorganized, he 
was recommended for the commission of captain, 
but President Jackson, doubtless owing to po- 
litical pressure, refused to appoint him. Tyler 
then resigned from the army, May 31, 1834. On 
May 28, 1832, in Norwich, Conn., he married 
Emily Lee. 

After an unsuccessful venture in iron-making 
in Lycoming County, Pa., he turned to the financ- 
ing and engineering of a series of transportation 
projects. In the early 1840's, as president of the 
Norwich & Worcester Railroad and the Morris 
Canal & Banking Company, he rescued both from 
bankruptcy. During 1844-45 he was asked to 
complete the construction of a railroad from 
Macon, Ga., to Atlanta, then for sale at $150,000, 
scarcely one-tenth of the capital already expend- 
ed. Through Tyler's financial aid and the back- 
ing of a group of Macon men, the rechartered 
Macon & Western Railroad was opened for 
traffic in ten months and was soon paying a divi- 
dend of eight per cent. Anticipating disunion, 
Tyler resigned in 1849 from the presidency of 
the road and returned to Connecticut. During 
the 1850's he reorganized and improved a num- 
ber of railroads in Pennsylvania, New Jersey, 
and Kentucky. 

With the outbreak of the Civil War, in April 
1861 Tyler was chosen to command the 1st Con- 
necticut Regiment ; in May he was commissioned 
brigadier-general, and shortly before the Bull 
Run campaign he was given a division command. 
Whether or not this campaign "was gotten up," 
as Tyler said, "by Gen. McDowell ... to make 
him the hero of a short war" ("Autobiography," 
Mitchell, post, p. 49), Tyler disobeyed orders' by 
failing to go to Centreville to intercept the Con- 
federates' communication with Fairfax Court 
House and by bringing on a premature engage- 
ment, July 18, at Blackburn's Ford, where he 
was repulsed by Beauregard {War of the Re- 
bellion: Official Records, Army, 1 ser., II, 31 1— 
12; Fry, post, pp. 17-25). His opponent failed 
to follow up the advantage, but during the main 
battle of Bull Run, July 21, Tyler did not press 
the attack when he could have, and he must bear 
some of the blame for the disastrous outcome of 
that battle. He was in action at Corinth in 1862 
and in command of Maryland Heights and Har- 
pers Ferry during the summer 6f 1863, and he 
also aided in recruiting, prison-camp adminis- 
tration, and army investigations. 

After the death of his wife in 1864 he moved 
to New Jersey and traveled extensively year af- 
ter year in Europe and in the South. Tn Charles- 
ton, S. C, in 1872, he met Samuel Noble \q.f.~]. 



Tyler 

who induced him to examine the iron deposits of 
Eastern Alabama. They explored the country 
on horseback, and the upshot of the visit was the 
organization of the Woodstock Iron Company 
by Tyler, his son Alfred, and Noble in 1872. 
Furnace No. 1 was erected immediately at a cash 
investment of $200,000, and gave rise to the town 
of Anniston, named for Tyler's daughter-in-law. 
The company and the town enjoyed a steady 
growth despite the depression years immedi- 
ately following : a second furnace was added in 
1879; a cotton mill with 10,000 spindles, a water 
works, and a car factory were built; improve- 
ments in agriculture were introduced. During 
his last years he served as president of the Mo- 
bile & Montgomery Railroad with his residence 
in Montgomery and spent his winters in Gua- 
dalupe County, Tex., where he had invested in 
railroad lands, but he visited Anniston frequently. 
He died in New York City, but was buried in 
Anniston. Three sons and two daughters sur- 
vived him. 

[W. I. T. Brigham, The Tyler Gcneal. (19 12), vol. I ; 
D. G. Mitchell, Daniel Tyler: A Memorial Vol. Con- 
taining His Autobiog. and War Record (1883) ; J. B. 
Fry, McDoivell and Tyler in the Campaign of Bull Run, 
1861 (1884) ; T. M. Vincent, "The Battle of Bull Run," 
Military Order of the Loyal Legion of the U. S., Com- 
mandery of D. C, War Papers, no. 58 (1905) ; G. W. 
Cullum, Biog. Reg. ...U.S. Mil. Acad. (3rd ed.. 
1891), vol. I ; Fourteenth Ann. Reunion, Asso. Grads. 
U. S. Mil. Acad. (1883) ; Ethel Armes, The Story of 
Coal and Iron in Ala. (1910) ; U. B. Phillips, A Hist, 
of Transportation in the Eastern Cotton Belt (1908) ; 
N. Y. Times, Dec. 1, 1882 ; Army and Navy Journal, 
Dec. 2, 1882.] l T c. 

TYLER, JOHN (Feb. 28, 1747-Jan. 6, 1813), 
Revolutionary patriot, judge, governor of Vir- 
ginia, and father of President John Tyler [g.z/.], 
was the son of John Tyler, marshal of the colo- 
nial vice-admiralty court of Virginia, and his 
wife Anne Contesse. He was descended from 
Henry Tyler who had emigrated from England 
before the middle of the seventeenth century and 
settled in York County. Here at the ancestral 
home the fourth John Tyler was born, and hence 
he went at an early age to the College of Wil- 
liam and Mary. Versifying and fiddling broke 
the monotony of his student days, and upon com- 
pletion of his collegiate course he devoted five 
years to the reading of law under direction of 
Robert Carter Nicholas [q.v.~\. During this im- 
pressionable period he became a friend of Thomas 
Jefferson and an admirer of Patrick Henry, 
whose speech against the Stamp Act he heard 
in 1765; the famous comparison with which it 
closed was repeated by him to William Wirt for 
the benefit of future generations (Wirt, Sketches 
of the Life and Character of Patrick Henry, 181 7, 
p. 65). Having completed his legal training, he 



87 



Tyl 



er 



removed to Charles City County and took up the 
practice of his profession. 

As the Revolutionary movement was already 
under way, a young man of ability had many 
opportunities to distinguish himself. The first 
of these came in the form of an appointment to 
the committee of safety of Charles City County 
in 1774. The following year Tyler raised a com- 
pany of volunteers and accompanied Patrick 
Henry on his march against Lord Dunmore to 
recapture the powder which His Lordship had 
removed from Williamsburg. In 1776 the young 
lawyer married Mary Marot Armistead, daugh- 
ter of Robert Armistead of York County, and 
established his home at "Greenway," near the 
court house of Charles City County. During the 
same year Tyler was appointed one of the judges 
of the newly organized high court of admiralty 
for Virginia. In 1777 he, along with Benjamin 
Harrison "the Signer" [g.T\], was elected to rep- 
resent Charles City County in the House of Dele- 
gates. During 1780 he was appointed a member 
of the Council of State, but finding it impossible 
to execute the functions of this office in addition 
to other duties, he resigned it in 1781. This year 
Benjamin Harrison was elected governor of Vir- 
ginia, and Tyler succeeded him as speaker of the 
House of Delegates. After Harrison retired from 
the governorship in 1784, he again sought a seat 
in the House, but was defeated by Tyler ( W. C. 
Ford, ed., Letters of Joseph Jones of Virginia, 
1889, p. 145). Harrison, however, secured an 
election from another county and then defeated 
Tyler for the speakership by a narrow margin 
(Breckinridge papers, Library of Congress, 
Archibald Stuart to John Breckinridge, Oct. 24, 
1785). During all these years in the Assembly, 
Tyler maintained his friendship for Patrick 
Henry. They worked together in their support 
of congressional authority and strenuous oppo- 
sition to Great Britain. Tyler favored a con- 
gressional impost on imports, and opposed the 
negotiation of a separate peace with Great Brit- 
ain. At the end of the war he refused to support 
Henry in his lenient policy toward the Loyalists, 
but worked with him to defeat Madison's at- 
tempt to provide for the payment of British debts 
until Great Britain should comply with the terms 
of the treaty of peace (I. S. Harrell, Loyalism in 
Virginia, 1926, pp. 128, 132, 193; L. G. Tyler, 
Judge John Tyler, Sr., and His Times, pp. 14- 
16). His most important act as a member of the 
House was to present in 1785 a resolution calling 
a federal convention to meet at Annapolis in 1786 
(J. B. McMaster, A History of the People of the 
United States, I, 1883, p. 279). 

In the Virginia convention of 1788, Tyler was 



Tyler 

elected vice-president, and stood with Henry 
against the adoption of the federal Constitution. 
When the point was carried against them, the 
public life of the Admiralty Judge was seriously 
affected. The new government now took over 
the duties of his court, and he was transferred to 
the general court of Virginia. In this position 
he was one of the first judges to assert the over- 
ruling power of the judiciary. The relative aloof- 
ness of this position was not disturbed for some 
years, but Tyler retained his interest in politics. 
When national parties began to develop, he be- 
came an ardent Republican and kept in touch 
with his old friend Thomas Jefferson (Lipscomb 
and Bergh, The Writings of Thomas Jefferson, 
XI, 1904, pp. 32-35, 69-70; XIII, 1904, pp. 165- 
68). In 1808 he was elected governor of Vir- 
ginia and held that post until 1811, when he 
accepted an appointment as judge of the federal 
court for the district of Virginia. As governor 
he opposed submission to the maritime policy of 
Great Britain and advocated a progressive policy 
in regard to public education and improved com- 
munications. The state Literary Fund sprang 
from one of his urgent messages. 

His life was lived in troubled times, but despite 
his vehemence there was an air of benevolence 
in his manner and a touch of humor in his blue 
eyes. His facial features were much like those 
of his distinguished son, with a large Roman 
nose. He was an aristocrat by nature, but a 
democrat by choice. In politics he was a liberal, 
but an unruffled conservative in his private life. 
While war was still raging in the country, he 
died and was buried beneath the quiet shades of 
"Greenway." 

[The most extensive account of the life of Judge 
Tyler is given by his grandson Lyon G. Tyler, in The 
Letters and Times of the Tylers, vols. I, II (1884-85). 
Another account by the same author is Judge John 
Tyler, Sr., and His Times (1927). Briefer sketches 
appear in Margaret V. Smith, Virginia, 1492-1802 . . . 
A Hist, of the Executives (1893), pp. 313-14; H. B. 
Grigsby, The Hist, of the Va. Federal Convention of 
1788, vol. I (1890), 247-54; and Charles Campbell, 
Hist, of the Colony and Ancient Dominion of Va. 
(i860), pp. 723-24. For an obituary, see Enquirer 
(Richmond), Jan. 12, 1813.] T P A 

TYLER, JOHN (Mar. 29, 1790-Jan. 18, 1862), 
tenth president of the United States, was the sec- 
ond son of Judge John Tyler [q.v.~\ and Mary 
(Armistead) Tyler. There was something clas- 
sical in the simple dignity of Virginia's aristo- 
cratic republicans of that day, and the life of the 
Tyler homestead, "Greenway," in Charles City 
County, where young John was born, represented 
these qualities in full measure. There was a cer- 
tain delicacy in the boy's manner, but he had his 
share of sterner stuff and was, on one occasion 
at least, a ringleader in a rebellion against his 



88 



Tyler 

schoolmaster. "Sic Semper Tyrannis" was his 
father's only comment upon the incident. Com- 
pleting his career at the local school, at the age 
of twelve he was bundled off to the College of 
William and Mary. Here he followed in the 
footsteps of his father, finding relaxation from 
studies in fiddling and poetry. He was also deep- 
ly interested in political subjects, and often 
sought his father's advice concerning them. 
Finishing his collegiate course at the age of 
seventeen, he read law under the direction of his 
father for two years and then entered upon the 
practice of his profession in his native county. 
It was only two more years before he was elected 
to the House of Delegates, and on Mar. 29, 1813, 
he married Letitia Christian, daughter of Robert 
Christian of New Kent County. 

The War of 18 12 was in progress. Tyler served 
for a month around Richmond as captain of a 
company of volunteers, but the enemy did not 
appear and he returned to civil life. In the As- 
sembly he supported President Madison and the 
war and gave early notice that he was a strict 
constructionist of the school to which his father 
belonged. The Assembly had passed resolutions 
instructing Virginia's senators to vote against a 
bill proposing to recharter the Bank of the United 
States. One senator refused to comply, and the 
othet complied under protest. Tyler introduced 
resolutions to censure them for their conduct. 
With a gracious manner and a definite gift for 
public speaking, the young member from Charles 
City became increasingly popular with his con- 
stituents and in the House of Delegates. He was 
elected to that body for five successive years, and 
finally, during the session of 1815-16, was chosen 
to sit on the executive council of the state. This 
service, however, was cut short by his election 
in 1816 to the federal House of Representatives. 
His membership in this body continued until 
1821, when ill health forced him to resign. Dur- 
ing these five years he put himself still further 
on record as a strict constructionist. As a mem- 
ber of a committee to report on the operation of 
the Bank of the United States, he favored the 
revocation of its charter (House Document No. 
92, 15 Cong., 2 Sess., 1816). He voted against 
Calhoun's "bonus" bill for the aid of internal im- 
provements, against a protective tariff, for the 
censure of Andrew Jackson's conduct in the 
Florida campaign, and against the adoption of 
the Missouri Compromise measure of 1820. His 
Virginia colleagues in Congress, with few ex- 
ceptions, and the powerful Richmond Enquirer, 
supported him in his denial that the federal gov- 
ernment had the right to control the question of 
slavery in the territories. The Tylers, both fa- 



Tyler 

ther and son, were consistent in their opposition 
to the slave trade, and wished to see slavery pass 
away, but they trusted to time and climate for its 
ultimate abolition. They held that good faith to 
the Southern states required that while slavery 
existed, it should have all the protection of any 
other property (Tyler, post, I, 313). 

On his retirement from Congress, Tyler bought 
"Greenway," which on the death of his father in 
1813 had descended to an older brother, Dr. Wat 
Henry Tyler ; and there for two years he lived 
the life of a private citizen. In 1823 he was 
again elected to the House of Delegates and from 
this post took a leading part in the exciting 
events connected with the presidential campaign 
of 1824. Along with the majority of the Jeffer- 
sonian Republicans of Virginia, he supported 
William H. Crawford in that contest. Andrew 
Jackson he considered a mere military hero, and 
of little value as a civilian. After the election of 
Adams and the appointment of Clay as secretary 
of state, Tyler refused to believe the "bargain 
and corruption" story, and wrote to Clay stating 
his opinion (Calvin Colton, ed., The Private Cor- 
respondence of Henry Clay, 1856, pp. 119-20). 
In 1825 and again in 1826 Tyler was elected gov- 
ernor of Virginia, and in this capacity worked 
for the development of roads and schools, as his 
father had done before him. While not a sup- 
porter of the Adams administration, Tyler did not 
at once follow John Randolph and the Enquirer 
into the Jackson camp (C. H. Ambler, Thomas 
Ritchie, 1913, p. in ; Tyler, post, I, 375-76). In 
1827 he was elected to the United States Senate 
by the anti-Jackson element in the Assembly. 
In 1828 he voted against the "tariff of abomina- 
tions" and supported Jackson for the presidency 
as a "choice of evils." However, Tyler soon flew 
in the face of the President by opposing his ap- 
pointment of several newspaper editors to high 
federal posts (C. G. Bowers, The Party Battles 
of the Jackson Period, 1922, p. 82). There were 
apparently some phases of Jackson's democracy 
with which he did not sympathize. This fact i-> 
further illustrated by his stand, as a member of 
the Virginia constitutional convention of 1829- 
30, in favor of the "federal ratio" of apportion- 
ment for the upper house of the Assembly (Tyler, 
I» 397-4 4)- Jackson's veto of the Maysville road 
bill was an action after Tyler's own heart, and 
so was the President's opposition to the rechar- 
tering of the Bank of the United States, but the 
removal of the deposits was another matter. In 
the Senate he supported the resolutions which 
condemned the President for this act. While not 
a believer in nullification, Tyler considered Jack- 
son's nullification proclamation as subversive of 



89 



Tyler 



Tyler 



the Constitution and he cast the only vote record- 
ed in the Senate against the Force Bill. But his 
state-rights views did not lead him into merely 
obstructionist tactics. It was he who first formu- 
lated a plan of conciliation and brought Calhoun 
and Clay together to agree upon the compromise 
tariff of 1833 (Tyler, I, 455-60; A. C. Cole, The 
Whig Party in the South, 1913, pp. 24-25). 

It cannot be said that Tyler was ever a Jack- 
son man in the strict sense of the term. He sup- 
ported him in 1828 and again in 1832, but not 
without reservations, and considered him dis- 
tinctly unsound on constitutional principles. 
Coming finally to a definite break with the ad- 
ministration, he became a member of the South- 
ern state-rights group in Congress which co- 
operated and acted with the National Republicans 
within the newly forming Whig party. Neither 
Tyler nor any of his group pretended to accept 
the nationalistic doctrines of Clay and his fol- 
lowing. 

In 1833 Tyler was reelected to the Senate. 
Virginia supported him without reservation in 
his stand on the Force Bill (C. H. Ambler, 
Thomas Ritchie, p. 152). But times were chang- 
ing. The Jacksonians, under the lead of John 
Randolph and Thomas Ritchie of the Enquirer, 
got control of the state, and Tyler became a 
member of the opposition. In 1836 the legislature 
instructed him to vote for the expunging of reso- 
lutions censuring Jackson for removal of the 
deposits, and he resigned his senatorship rather 
than comply {Letter of John Tyler . . . to the . . . 
General Assembly of Virginia, 1836). In this 
year the Virginia Whigs supported him as their 
vice-presidential candidate on a ticket which was 
split between Harrison and White as to the first 
place. William C. Rives \_q.vJ\ was elected to 
the seat in the Senate vacated by Tyler, but by 
1839 the Whigs had ousted the Democrats from 
the control of the Assembly and Tyler was again 
a member of that body. In this year Rives came 
up for reelection. Meanwhile, he had broken with 
the Democrats on the sub-treasury issue, and the 
Whigs were anxious to win him over. In the 
election, John Y. Mason was the regular Demo- 
cratic candidate and Tyler the regular Whig. A 
number of Whigs, however, deserted Tyler and 
voted for Rives with the result that none of the 
candidates was able to secure a majority. It ap- 
pears that Henry Clay was cognizant of this 
scheme to desert Tyler in order to win Rives, 
and that he had held out hopes of the vice-presi- 
dential nomination for Tyler in case his friends 
would cooperate. But Tyler had no part in any 
of these schemes (Henry A. Wise, Seven De- 
cades of the Union, p. 158; Tyler, I, 588-93). 



It did, nevertheless, come about that Tyler was 
nominated for the second place on the Harrison 
ticket of 1840; that he was elected in the boister- 
ous campaign of that year; and that, Harrison 
dying within a month of his inauguration, he be- 
came president of the United States by right of 
succession. No vice-president had ever thus be- 
come president, and there were those who would 
have withheld from him the full title, but Tyler 
maintained his claim. Henry Clay certainly in- 
tended to withhold from him the leadership of 
the Whig party, and in this he was successful. 
Tyler's constitutional views were well known 
when he was nominated and elected, but the ma- 
jority of the Whigs were nationalists, with Clay 
as their leader, and they could not refrain from 
bringing forward the old measures of the Na- 
tional Republican party, which they had mini- 
mized in the recent canvass. Tyler regarded this 
as an act of bad faith, but, hoping to avoid a 
break, he held a conference with Clay and tried 
to reach an agreement with him on the bank 
question (Tyler, II, 127-28 ; Speech of Mr. Gush- 
ing . . . on the Post Office Bill. 1841 ). Clay, how- 
ever, wished no agreement. This was the last 
meeting between the two men. Clay said, "I'll 
drive him before me," but Tyler still hoped for 
conciliation. His retention of Harrison's cabi- 
net could have had no other meaning, but he 
found that Harrison's plans as to the use of the 
patronage were a bit too strong for him (Tyler, 
II, 310). He signed an act abolishing the sub- 
treasury system, but insisted that the "distribu- 
tion" measure be dropped from the tariff bill of 
1842 before he would sign it (Thomas H. Ben- 
ton, Thirty Years' View, 1856, II, 413-17). 
Furthermore, his policy on the question of in- 
ternal improvements was far more conservative 
than had been that of Jackson or Adams. 

It was the bank question that brought on the 
crisis between the President and the party. Tyler 
had made it clear from the beginning that he 
would not sanction a measure which permitted a 
National Bank to establish branches in the states 
without their previous consent. He devised a 
plan, known as the "exchequer system," which 
would have avoided this difficulty, and recom- 
mended it to Congress, but Clay did not wish to 
satisfy Tyler on that point (Wise, Seven Decades. 
pp. 204-05; Tyler, II, 15-16, 131, 134). A bill 
was passed chartering a bank along the lines de- 
sired by Clay, and Tyler promptly vetoed it. 
Conferences were thereupon held. Three mem- 
bers of the cabinet, followers of Clay, later 
averred that the President had agreed to a re- 
vised plan for a bank, and a second bill was pre- 
sented to Congress, but Tyler had never seen it 



90 



Tyler 

(A. C. Gordon, John Tyler, pp. 30-31 ; Wise, 
pp. 185-90). Feeling that it did not properly 
safeguard the rights of the states, he vetoed it 
when it was passed (J. F. Jameson, ed., "Corre- 
spondence of John C. Calhoun," Annual Report 
of the American Historical Association for the 
Year 1899, vol. II, 1900, pp. 487-89). At the 
behest of Clay, the cabinet members then re- 
signed, with the exception of Webster who saw 
no reason for such action. Thus Tyler became a 
president without a party. 

It was not believed that his administration 
would result in much constructive work, but this 
did not prove to be the case even on the legis- 
lative side, while as an administrator and nego- 
tiator Tyler made a remarkable record. His hand 
was seen in many constructive acts of Congress, 
prominent among which was the entire reorgani- 
zation of the Navy, the establishment of a depot 
for nautical charts and instruments, which de- 
veloped into the National Observatory ; and the 
act to test the practicability of establishing a 
system of magnetic telegraphs for the use of the 
United States, which has had a many-sided de- 
velopment, especially in the Weather Bureau. 
The government was conducted with a minimum 
of waste and extravagance despite the fact that 
Congress had provided no system for the keeping 
of public funds. The Seminole War was brought 
to an end. Dorr's Rebellion was quieted without 
Federal interference (Edward Everett, ed., The 
Works of Daniel Webster, 1851, vol. VI, 237- 
38), a treaty was negotiated with China opening 
the doors of the Orient for the first time, and the 
Monroe Doctrine was enforced in the case of 
Texas and the Hawaiian Islands. 

The greatest achievements were the negoti- 
ation of the Webster-Ashburton treaty and the 
annexation of Texas. Webster has usually been 
given all the credit for the settlement of the north- 
eastern boundary dispute with Great Britain, but 
many of the provisions were Tyler's own, and it 
was Tyler who oiled the wheels of the negoti- 
ation which not only settled the question of the 
boundary, but dealt with several other difficult 
though lesser causes of friction between the two 
countries (J. H. Latane, A History of American 
Foreign Policy, 1927, pp. 210-22; William and 
Mary College Quarterly Historical Magazine, 
July 1916, pp. 1-8; Tyler's Quarterly Historical 
and Genealogical Magazine, III, 255-57; Tyler, 
II, 216-18). Early in his administration Tyler 
broached the Texas question to Webster, but he 
hesitated to press it on account of the slavery 
issue (Tyler, II, 126-27). After Webster's resig- 
nation, Upshur negotiated the treaty of annex- 
ation, but the latter's untimely death left the mat- 



Tyl 



er 



ter still unsettled. The appointment of a new 
secretary of state to finish the work was a deli- 
cate matter. In this crisis, Henry A. Wise [q.i'A 
committed the President to the appointment of 
Calhoun (Wise, Seven Decades, pp. 221-25). 
On the score of friendship and policy, the Presi- 
dent accepted the situation and Calhoun took 
over the Texas negotiation. His partisans hoped 
to capitalize the appointment and make the South 
Carolinian the Texas candidate for the succes- 
sion (C. H. Ambler, ed., "Correspondence of R. 
M. T. Hunter," Annual Report of the American 
Historical Association for the Year 1916, vol. 
II, 1918, pp. 51-55; Ambler, Thomas Ritchie, 
pp. 227, 232). But Tyler's reluctance to appoint 
Calhoun received ample justification when Clay 
and Van Buren came out against immediate an- 
nexation and the Senate rejected the treaty. 
Tyler was then supported for the presidency by 
a strong element in many states, but when the 
Democrats selected Polk as their candidate on 
an annexationist platform Tyler withdrew in his 
favor (U. B. Phillips, ed., "The Correspondence 
of Robert Toombs, Alexander H. Stephens, and 
Howell Cobb," Annual Report of the American 
Historical Association for the Year 1911, vol. II, 
I 9 I 3» P- 59 ; The Madisonian Pamphlet, Letter of 
John Tyler "To my Friends throughout the 
Union," 1844; Tyler, II, 341, III, 139-43, 147, 
*53> Io 9; Tyler's Quarterly Historical and 
Genealogical Magazine, Oct. 1924, pp. 81-97). 
Polk was elected, but Texas was annexed by 
joint resolution while Tyler was still president. 
He could retire with the satisfaction of knowing 
that he had accomplished much for his country. 

One who saw him at the time he occupied the 
White House said : "In his official intercourse 
with all men, high or low, he was all that could 
be asked : approachable, courteous, always will- 
ing to do a kindly action, or to speak a kindly 
word. . . . He was above the middle height, some- 
what slender, clean-shaven, with light hair. His 
light blue eyes were penetrating, and had a 
humorous twinkle which aided the notable faculty 
he possessed for telling a good story, and for 
making keen conversational hits" (W. O. Stod- 
dard, William Henry Harrison, John Tyler, and 
James Knox Polk, 1888, p. 55). It was this ami- 
ability and efficiency which enabled him to ac- 
complish so much as an administrator. 

The ex-President retired to "Sherwood For- 
est." His first wife, who bore him seven chil- 
dren, died in 1842. Two years later he himself 
had narrowly escaped death when a large gun 
exploded during trials on board the warship 
Princeton. One of the victims of that accident 
was David Gardiner of New York ; and his 



91 



Tyler 



Tyler 



daughter, Julia, being thrown with Tyler under 
these tragic circumstances, became his bride 
within a few months (June 26, 1844). She pre- 
sided as mistress of the White House during the 
closing scenes of the administration, and now 
became mistress of "Sherwood Forest." She had 
seven children. The family lived the quiet life 
of rural Virginia until the outbreak of the Civil 
War called Tyler again into public activity. Be- 
lieving in the desirability of conciliation, he pro- 
posed a convention of the border states to meet 
and consider compromises which might save the 
Union. The Virginia Assembly proposed a con- 
vention of all the states for this purpose, and 
when it met in Washington in February 1861 
Tyler acted as its chairman. These efforts fail- 
ing, Tyler in March was a member of the Vir- 
ginia convention which met to consider the ques- 
tion of secession. As soon as all compromise 
measures had failed, he declared for separation. 
When Virginia seceded he urged that Southern 
troops occupy Washington and that the South 
appropriate the name and the flag of the old 
Union. He believed an offensive to be better than 
a defensive policy (Tyler, II, 658-62). These 
proposals were rejected, but Tyler served in the 
provisional Congress of the Confederacy and was 
elected to a seat in the Confederate House of 
Representatives. He died before he was able to 
take his place, and lies buried in Hollywood 
Cemetery, Richmond. His memory has been 
dimmed by the writings of historians who find 
a record of courageous consistency bewildering. 

[The most complete account of the life of President 
Tyler is in The Letters and Times of the Tylers (3 
vols., 1884, 1885, 1896), by his son Lyon G. Tyler. 
Other accounts are in H. A. Wise, Seven Decades of 
the Union (1872) ; Observations on the Political Char- 
acter and Services of President Tyler and His Cabinet 
(1841), by "A Native of Maryland" (John L. Dorsey) ; 
anonymous, Life of John Tyler (1843) ; J. R. Irelan, 
"History of the Life, Administration and Times of John 
Tyler," The Republic, vol. X (1888); John Tyler 
(1932), address of C. G. Bowers; A. C. Gordon, John 
Tyler (1915), an address, reprinted in substance in Vir- 
ginian Portraits (1924). Special phases of his admin- 
istration are discussed by J. H. Smith, The Annexation 
of Texas (19 11); J. S. Reeves, American Diplomacy 
under Tyler and Polk (1907) ; and C. M. Fuess, The 
J^ife of Caleb dishing (1923). Some of Tyler's later 
papers are published in "An Echo from the Civil War," 
by Stephen F. Peckham, in Journal of Am. History, 
Oct. 191 1, pp. 611-63, an d Mar. 1912, pp. 73-86. There 
is a collection of Tyler papers (8 vols.) in the Lib. of 
Cong, and another in the library of Duke Univ. The 
William and Mary College Quart. Hist. Mag. and Tyler's 
Quart. Hist, and Gencal. Mag. contain many letters and 
other articles bearing on his administration. For an 
obituary see Daily Richmond Enquirer, Jan. 20, 1862.] 

T. P. A. 

TYLER, MOSES COIT (Aug. 2, 1835-Dec. 

28, 1900), historian and educator, son of Elisha 
and Mary (Greene) Tyler and a descendant of 
Job Tyler, an early settler of Andover, Mass., 



was born in Griswold, Conn. After various wan- 
derings the family settled in Detroit, where Moses 
attended the public schools, and whence he en- 
tered the University of Michigan. In Detroit he 
came strongly under the influence of the Rev. 
Harvey D. Kitchel, who strengthened his life- 
long tendency to religious preoccupation. In 
1853 Tyler withdrew from the institution at Ann 
Arbor to enter Yale, where he was graduated in 
1857. After attending the theological seminaries 
at New Haven and Andover, but without a de- 
gree from either, he was ordained to the Congre- 
gationalist ministry at Owego, N. Y., in August 
1859, and after a year there became pastor of a 
Congregational Church in Poughkeepsie, where 
he was formally installed in February 1861. Dur- 
ing this period he was an ardent disciple of Henry 
Ward Beecher \_q.v.~\. On Oct. 26, 1859, he had 
married Jeannette Hull Gilbert, by whom he had 
a daughter and a son. Failing health and dissat- 
isfaction with orthodox theology led him to re- 
sign his pulpit in October 1862. 

At one time or another Tyler took up various 
reforms, including the temperance movement, 
abolition, and the cause of women's rights, but 
the one to which he gave most time was the ad- 
vocacy of "musical gymnastics," a system of 
calisthenics invented by Dio Lewis [q.v.~\, under 
whose influence the future historian fell after 
leaving Poughkeepsie for Boston. At Lewis' 
suggestion, Tyler went to England in April 1863 
to crusade for physical education. He was ex- 
traordinarily successful as a lecturer on calis- 
thenics, and gradually extended the range of his 
topics to include literary addresses and a de- 
fense of the Union cause. He was gradually 
drawn into journalism, and thought for a time 
of making it his career. The best of Tyler's es- 
says from this period, reprinted in Glimpses of 
England (1898), reveal him as an ardent liberal. 

After returning to the United States, in De- 
cember 1866, Tyler was for a time at a loss, but 
in 1867 received appointment as professor of 
rhetoric and English literature at the University 
of Michigan. He did much to modernize instruc- 
tion in literature at Ann Arbor, for he was an 
extraordinarily effective teacher. In the mean- 
time his own interests were increasingly direct- 
ed to the interpretation of American colonial 
history, the reading of H. T. Buckle's History 
of Civilization helping to arouse his enthusiasm 
and his curiosity. Finding no way to carry for- 
ward effective investigation at Michigan, Tyler 
resigned his professorship in 1873 and secured 
an appointment to the staff of the Christian 
Union, then under Beecher's control, believing 
that it would give him leisure and access to 



92 



Tyler 

Eastern libraries. The association proved un- 
happy, however, owing to the Tilton-Beecher 
scandal and to Tyler's moral disgust with "the 
gilded age," and he returned thankfully to Mich- 
igan in 1874. Here he remained as professor of 
English literature until 1881, when Andrew D. 
White [q.v.], a lifelong friend, called him to 
Cornell as the first professor of American his- 
tory in the country. In both institutions Tyler 
helped to introduce German methodology into 
graduate instruction. Except for a personal con- 
troversy with President Charles Kendall Adams 
over the organization and control of the Cor- 
nell department of history, Tyler's years in 
Ithaca were uneventful, though he was occasion- 
ally troubled by a mild religious melancholia. 
In 1 88 1 he was ordered deacon and in 1883 
ordained priest in the Protestant Episcopal 
Church. The last fifteen years of his life were 
in many ways the most effective, for he labored 
happily at American history, helped to found 
the American Historical Association (1884), 
gained wide recognition as an authority on the 
colonial literature of the country, and was gen- 
erally recognized as a leader in the cause of 
"critical" as opposed to "patriotic" history. He 
died at Ithaca, survived by his wife and both 
children. Personally, he was a genial, humor- 
ous, quick-tempered, ever-active man. 

Tyler produced a mass of more or less ephem- 
eral essays and reviews, a group of scholarly ar- 
ticles, one or two minor volumes, and a few text- 
books, but his permanent reputation is due to 
his historical and biographical researches. Dur- 
ing his second period at Michigan he wrote A 
History of American Literature during the 
Colonial Time, 1607-1765 (2 vols., 1878). This 
he followed by Patrick Henry (1887), the first 
modern biography of the Virginia leader, and 
by The Literary History of the American Rev- 
olution 1763-1783 (2 vols., 1897), written at 
Cornell. With the last-named work should be 
associated his Three Men of Letters (1895), 
critical biographies of George Berkeley, Timo- 
thy Dwight, and Joel Barlow, characterized by 
great charm and insight ; these he planned to 
follow by a book to be called "Vivi Mcmorabiles," 
which was not completed. Because of Tyler's 
thorough preparation, clearness of style, and 
sanity of judgment, his four volumes of literary 
history have become by common consent the 
standard account of the first two centuries of 
American literary development. 

[The Tyler papers in the library of Cornell Univ. 
were used in H. M. Jones, The Life of Moses Coit 
Tyler (1033), based on an unpublished dissertation 
from original sources by T. E. Casady. Tyler's daugh- 
ter, Jessica Tyler Austen, published Moses Coit Tyler: 



Tyl 



er 



Selections from His Letters and Diaries (1911). See 
also W. I. T. Brigham. The Tyler Gccal. (2 vols., 
1912) ; W. P. Trent, in Forum, Aug. 1901 ; G. L. Burr, 
in New Eng. Hist, and Gcncal. Reg., Apr. 190 1, supp. ; 
Who's Who in America, 1899-1900 ; Yale Univ. Obit. 
Record, 5 ser. (1910) ; N. Y. Times, Dec. 29, 1900.] 

H.M.J. 

TYLER, RANSOM HUBERT (Nov. 18, 
1815-Nov. 21, 1881), legal writer, son of Peter 
and Eunice Tyler, was born in Franklin County, 
Mass., whence, when he was three, his family 
moved to Oswego County, N. Y. During his 
boyhood he worked on his father's farm and in 
the winter attended public school. Having 
shown an eagerness for an education, he was 
sent to Mexico Academy, where he acquired a 
good classical schooling. In 1836 he began the 
study of law, at the same time taking charge of 
the principal school of Fulton village, and in 
1840 he was admitted to practice. Four year'"- 
later he was appointed master in chancery, keep- 
ing this office until its termination, as the result 
of constitutional changes, in 1846. After serv- 
ing as district attorney for three years, he was 
elected county judge for a term running from 
Jan. 1, 1852, to Dec. 31, 1855, and again for a 
similar term beginning Jan. 1, 1864. 

Between his judgeships Tyler edited gratui- 
tously for one year the Oswego County Gazette 
and in 1858 ran unsuccessfully for Congress on 
the Democratic ticket. In 1861, however, he 
changed his political allegiance to support Lin- 
coln. During this same period his strong reli- 
gious tendencies led him to publish a book enti- 
tled The Bible and Social Reform or, the Scrip- 
tures as a Means of Civilization (i860). The 
hold that theology had on him was further dem- 
onstrated by his first legal textbook, American 
Ecclesiastical Law (1866), in which he not only 
discussed the laws of the several states bearing 
on ecclesiastical organizations, but also dissect- 
ed the dogmas of the various creeds with a skill 
that won contemporary praise. 

Closely following this publication came texts 
and treatises on various aspects of civil law, 
namely Commentaries on the Law of Infancy, 
including Guardianship and Custody of Infants, 
and the Law of Coverture, embracing Dower, 
Marriage and Divorce, and the Statutory Policy 
of the Several States in Respect to Husband and 
Wife (1868, 2nd ed., 1882) ; A Treatise on the 
Lazv of Boundaries and Fences (1874); A 
Treatise on the Remedy by Ejectment and the 
Law of Adverse Enjoyment in the United States 
(1870, 1874, 1876) ; A Treatise on the Law of 
Usury, Pawns or Pledges, and Maritime Loans 
(1873) ; and A Treatise on the Lazv of Fixtures 
(1877). In addition, he contributed to periodical 



93 



Tyl 



er 



literature. All his books were the products of 
considerable research and valuable for their 
wealth of material, but they were subject, as a 
whole, to the criticism of prolixity, poor ar- 
rangement, and, ofttimes, lack of clarity. 

Apart from his legal interests, Tyler was at 
ope time a bank president and for a period was 
an officer in the New York militia, attaining the 
rank of brigadier-general before resigning. He 
took an abiding interest in religious and social 
activities and traveled extensively, through Eu- 
rope, Asia, and Africa. Friendly and generous 
by nature, he was liked and respected by his 
community. He was married twice, first to 
Nancy D. Cadwell, and after her death, to Mary 
E. Douglas. He died at his home in Fulton, 
N. Y., survived by his second wife and one child. 

[Sources include Landmarks of Oswego County, 
N. Y. (1895), ed. by J. C. Churchill ; Crisfield Johnson, 
Hist, of Oswego County, N. Y. (1877) ; clippings from 
an unidentified newspaper preserved by the Am. An- 
tiquarian Soc. in "Roe Contemporary Biography," 
vol. II, p. 42. Tyler's middle name is given as Heb- 
bard in some accounts, but appears as Hubert in the 
Alumni Register of Hamilton College, which in 1853 
awarded him the honorary degree of A.M. {The Ham- 
ilton Coll. Bull., Nov. 1922).] L. M. S. 

TYLER, ROBERT (Sept. 9, iSi6-Dec. 3, 

1877), lawyer, politician, and editor, son of Pres- 
ident John Tyler \_q.v.~\ and Letitia (Christian), 
was born in Charles City County, Va. Like his 
father and grandfather, he was educated at the 
College of William and Mary, graduating in 
1835. He then studied law under Prof. Beverley 
Tucker and began practice in Williamsburg. On 
Sept. 12, 1839, he married Elizabeth Priscilla, 
daughter of Thomas Abthorpe Cooper, the fa- 
mous Irish tragedian and protege of William 
Godwin (John Bernard, Retrospections of 
America, 1887, p. 164). When John Tyler be- 
came president in 1841, Robert took up his resi- 
dence in Washington, acting as private secre- 
tary to his father, while his wife presided as mis- 
tress of the White House during the first year 
of the administration. The young man found 
time while thus engaged to write two serious 
poems of a religious nature ; Ahasuerus, and 
Death: or Medorus' Dream, published in 1842 
and 1843 respectively. 

Toward the close of President Tyler's term 
of office, Robert moved to Philadelphia and at 
once began to take a leading part in the politics 
of that city. In 1844 he was elected president of 
the Irish Repeal Association. In 1847 he be- 
came solicitor to the sheriff of Philadelphia, 
and a little later was made prothonotary to the 
supreme court of Pennsylvania. During the 
Mexican War he recruited a regiment in Phila- 
delphia, but its services were declined (L. G. 



Tyler 

Tyler, post, II, 456). Meanwhile, he had become 
a political friend of James Buchanan, secretary 
of state under President Polk. Buchanan had 
not been friendly to the Tyler administration, 
and the ex-president seems to have had no part 
in making this alliance nor in shaping the career 
of his son at this time (Ibid., II, 494). In 1852 
Robert Tyler supported Buchanan for the Dem- 
ocratic nomination for the presidency. In 1854 
he became one of the earliest advocates of a 
Pacific railway. In 1856 Henry A. Wise, a close 
friend of the Tylers, was elected governor of 
Virginia, and he and Robert Tyler were able to 
bring Virginia to the support of the Pennsyl- 
vanian in the Cincinnati convention of 1856. 
This service was followed by Tyler's appoint- 
ment in 1858 to the chairmanship of the Demo- 
cratic executive committee of Pennsylvania. (C. 
H. Ambler, "Correspondence of Robert M. T. 
Hunter," Annual Report of the American His- 
torical Asso. . . . 1916, 1918, II, 299-300). 

When the Civil War broke out, a Philadel- 
phia mob attacked the home of the Virginian be- 
cause of his well-known Southern sympathies, 
and he was forced to flee to Richmond. It was 
not long before President Davis appointed him 
to be register of the Confederate Treasury. In 
this capacity he published valuable reports on 
Confederate shipping and finance. At the end of 
the war, he removed his family to Montgom- 
ery, Ala., and in 1867 became editor of the Mont- 
gomery Mail and Advertiser. This position en- 
abled him to take a leading part in the expul- 
sion of Carpet-bag rule from Alabama, and his 
work was recognized by his appointment as 
chairman of the Democratic state central com- 
mittee, in which capacity he served for several 
years. Thus, in very different scenes and cir- 
cumstances, he twice became the leader of his 
party in the state of his residence. Strong con- 
victions, fervor of temperament, and ability as a 
political speaker and writer enabled him to at- 
tain his position quite independently of any aid 
from his more famous father. When he died, at 
the age of sixty-one, his remains were interred 
in Montgomery. 

[The most complete sketch of Tyler's career is in 
T. M. Owen, Hist, of Ala. and Diet, of Ala. Biog. 
(1921), vol. IV; see also L. G. Tyler, The Letters and 
Times of the Tylers, vol. II (1885) ; William Brewer, 
Ala., Her Hist., Resources, War Record, and Public 
Men (1872) ; P. G. Auchampaugh, Robert Tyler, South- 
ern Rights Champion (1934) and "John W. Forney, 
Robert Tyler, and James Buchanan," in Tyler's Quart. 
Hist, and Geneal. Mag., Oct. 1933 ; Mobile Daily Reg., 
Dec. s, 6, 1877. The Confederate treasury reports are 
in the Lib. of Cong., in pamphlet form.] x. P. A. 

TYLER, ROBERT OGDEN (Dec. 22, 1831- 
Dec. 1, 1874), soldier, was born at Hunter, 



94 



Tyl 



er 



Greene County, N. Y., the son of Frederick and 
Sophia (Sharp) Tyler and a nephew of Daniel 
Tyler \_q.v.~\. He was descended from Job Tyler 
who was in Newport, R. I., in 1638 and later 
went to Massachusetts. Robert's grandfather, 
Daniel Tyler, was adjutant to Gen. Israel Put- 
nam during the Revolution, and three uncles 
were army officers. Given an excellent prepara- 
tory education, he entered the United States 
Military Academy' in 1849, graduated in 1853, 
and became a second lieutenant of the 3rd Artil- 
lery. He soon participated in a movement of 
troops from the Missouri River to Salt Lake 
and San Francisco (1854-55). In 1856 — he was 
promoted first lieutenant on Sept. 1 of that year 
— he was engaged in Indian wars in what is 
now the state of Washington. In 1859, he went 
to the Sioux country in Minnesota. 

At the opening of the Civil War he was in 
garrison at the Fort Columbus Recruiting Sta- 
tion, N. Y. He accompanied the relief expedi- 
tion to Fort Sumter, S. C, in April 1861, and 
then went to Baltimore to assist in the opening 
of that city to Federal forces. In May 1861 he 
transferred as a captain to the quartermaster's 
department and opened a supply depot at Alex- 
andria, Va. In September he became colonel of 
the 1st Connecticut Heavy Artillery. He found 
this regiment, considerably demoralized, with- 
in the defenses of Washington, but soon brought 
it to a state of high efficiency. The following 
spring he participated in the Peninsular cam- 
paign. He prepared his batteries to bombard 
Yorktown, but owing to the fact that the Con- 
federates withdrew just before the batteries were 
ready to fire, there was no engagement. With 
great effort the batteries were moved up for an 
attack on Richmond, which also never occurred. 
At Gaines's Mill, June 27, 1862, the batteries 
did good work in assisting the Federals north 
of the Chickahominy. In the retreat to Malvern 
Hill, Tyler brought off all his guns but one and 
used them in repulsing the Confederate attack 
on July 1. For these services he was appointed 
a brigadier-general of volunteers on Nov. 29, 
1862. The following month he had charge of 
the Federal batteries which fired upon Fred- 
ericksburg. In the Gettysburg campaign he 
commanded the artillery reserve of 130 guns 
and, under direction of Gen. Henry J. Hunt 
[q.r.~], chief of artillery, disposed these guns to 
maximum advantage, especially in stopping 
Pickett's charging infantry. In 1864 Tyler's ar- 
tillery served as infantry throughout the Wil- 
derness campaign. It distinguished itself at 
Spotsylvania, May 17-24, driving back the 
Confederate forces under Gen. Richard Ewell 



Tyler 

[q.z:]. At Cold Harbor, on June 1, it was one 
of the brigades selected for the famous bloody 
assault. Early in this action Tyler was shot 
through the ankle, a wound from the effects of 
which he never recovered. 

Returning to duty in December, he was as- 
signed to board duties, and to the command of 
districts outside of the theatre of active opera- 
tions. On Mar. 13, 1865, he was brevetted ma- 
jor-general for gallant conduct and meritorious 
services. He was mustered out of the volunteer 
service Jan. 15, 1866, and on July 29 was ap- 
pointed to the Regular Army as a lieutenant- 
colonel in the quartermaster's department. In 
this capacity he served at many important mili- 
tary headquarters, with constantly declining 
health. In an effort to recuperate he took a year's 
leave in 1872, visiting the Far East. A diary 
relating to part of this trip was published in 
Memoir of Brevet Major-General Robert Ogden 
Tyler (1878). Failing to find the relief he had 
sought, Tyler died at Boston in the year after 
his return from the East, and was buried in 
Hartford, Conn. He never married. He was 
noted for strictness and justice, but was of kind- 
ly disposition. 

[W. I. T. Brigham, The Tyler Geneal. (1912, vol. I) ; 
G. W. Cullum, Biog. Reg. Officers and Grads. U. S. Mil. 
Acad. (3rd ed., 1891), vol. II ; War of the Rebellion: 
Official Records (Army) ; F. B. Heitman, Hist. Reg. 
and Diet. U. S. Army (1903), Sixth Ann. Reunion 
Asso. Grads. U. S. Mil. Acad. (1875) ; N. Y. Tribune, 
Dec. 2, 1874.] C.H.L— a. 

TYLER, ROYALL (July 18, 1757-Aug. 26, 
1826), playwright, novelist, jurist, was born in 
Boston, Mass., the son of Royall and Mary 
(Steele) Tyler. His father, grandson of Thom- 
as Tyler who settled in Boston about 1680, was 
a graduate of Harvard, a merchant, and a mem- 
ber of the King's Council from 1765 to 1771. 
Royall, junior, was christened William Clark, 
but his name was afterwards changed to Royall 
by action of the General Court. Entering Har- 
vard College July 15, 1772, he attracted atten- 
tion by his ability, his wit, and his lively nature. 
Upon his graduation in 1776, Yale College be- 
stowed the degree of B.A. upon him, in early 
recognition of those intellectual qualities of 
which he had already given evidence. While 
engaged in the study of law with Francis Dana 
[q.v.~] in Cambridge, he was one of the leaders 
of a group of young men who were interested in 
writing, painting, and politics. 

He joined the Independent Company of Bos- 
ton and in 1778 served as aide to General Sulli- 
van, with the rank of major, in the attack on 
Newport, but owing to his mother's widowhood, 
his military service was not continuous. On 



95 



Tjrl 



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Aug. 19, 1780, he was admitted to the bar, prac- 
tising first in Falmouth, now Portland, Me., 
then in Braintree, Mass., where he became en- 
gaged to be married to Abigail Adams, daugh- 
ter of John Adams [q.z>.], then in France. 
Adams, however, insisted that his wife and 
daughter join him at Auteuil in the summer of 
1784, and in 1785 Tyler received word that the 
engagement was cancelled. No reason was 
given, but the subsequent marriage of Abigail 
Adams to her father's secretary of legation, 
Col. William Stephens Smith [q.z'.~\, makes it 
unnecessary to lay too much stress on the per- 
sistent tradition that John Adams distrusted 
the stability of Tyler. The latter was of an 
extremely sensitive nature, however, and retired 
for some months to his mother's home at Jamaica 
Plain ; but before the close of the year he re- 
sumed active practice, this time in Boston, 
where he resided with Joseph Pearce Palmer 
and renewed his friendship with little Mary 
Palmer, who was afterward to be his wife. 

Early in 1787 he joined the staff of Gen. Ben- 
jamin Lincoln [<7.t.], again with the rank of 
major, and assisted in the suppression of Shays's 
Rebellion, partly by his eloquence in addressing 
the rioters. He was less successful in his diplo- 
matic journey into Vermont to secure Shays, 
but it was on a mission connected with the fugi- 
tives that he was sent by Governor Bowdoin to 
New York City. He arrived on Mar. 12, 1787. 

In New York, inspired by the production of 
The School for Scandal and other plays he un- 
doubtedly saw at the old John Street Theatre, 
and by his acquaintance with the well-known 
low comedian, Thomas Wignell [q.z>.~\, he wrote 
The Contrast, produced Apr. 16, 1787, by the 
American Company, the second play and the 
first comedy written by a native American and 
produced by a professional company. It was in- 
stantly successful, being repeated five times in 
New York and soon played in Baltimore, Phila- 
delphia, Boston, and Charleston. Tyler gave the 
copyright to Wignell, who published it in Phil- 
adelphia in 1790 as by "a citizen of the United 
States," with a list of subscribers headed by 
Washington. The play is a sterling social com- 
edy, comparing the American officer and gentle- 
man, in Colonel Manly, with Dimple, the imi- 
tator of British affectations. Charlotte, the flirt 
of that day, is as real today as she was then, and 
Jonathan was the prototype of a long succession 
of stage Yankees. The scene in which Jonathan 
goes to the play without knowing it has become 
a classic. During recent years The Contrast has 
been produced at many of the leading American 
universities and little theatres, and always with 



effect ; and its influence upon playwrights like 
William Dunlap [q.i\~\, who were inspired by 
its success in its own day, can hardly be esti- 
mated. 

Tyler followed The Contrast with a comic 
opera in two acts, May Day in Town; or, New 
York in an Uproar, performed at the John Street 
Theatre, May 19, 1787. It probably reflected the 
confusion occasioned by the custom of moving 
households on May 1 in New York, but it has 
not survived, even in manuscript. Neither has 
The Georgia Spec; or, Land in the Moon, a 
comedy in three acts which ridiculed the land 
speculations in the Yazoo country in Georgia. 
It was first played in Boston, at the Haymarket 
Theatre, Oct. 30, 1797, and in New York, Dec. 
20 and later. According to the memoir of Tyler, 
prefaced by his son, he also wrote a farce, The 
Farm House; or, The Female Duellists, which, 
according to the son (T. P. Tyler, post), "was 
performed and was especially popular." It has 
not survived, and the cast as given at the Boston 
Theatre is identical with that of Kemble's farce 
of the same name. Tyler may have adapted the 
English play. The same authority attributes to 
Tyler The Doctor in Spite of Himself, evidently 
an adaptation of Moliere. 

Tyler's ability as a playwright must be judged 
by The Contrast and by four unpublished manu- 
scripts. The first, bearing two titles, The Island 
of Barrataria [sic] and Tantalization or The 
Governor of a Day, is an amusing farce in three 
acts based upon the second part of Don Quixote. 
Through Sancho Panza, who is made governor 
of the island for one day and decides the cases 
brought before him with a shrewd common 
sense which contrasts sharply with the verbiage 
of the lawyers, Tyler satirizes cleverly the meth- 
ods of his own profession. It would act well, 
though no sure record exists of its production. 
Three sacred dramas, The Origin of the Feast of 
Pnrim, or The Destinies of Human and M ,r- 
decai; Joseph and His Brethren ; and The Judg- 
ment of Solomon, are written in blank verse of 
a flexible and even distinguished character, but 
could hardly have been placed upon the stage. 
They represent Tyler as a writer of verse, in 
which he had a facility that resulted in a large 
quantity of satiric and occasional poems con- 
tributed to periodicals. Practically all of these 
were printed anonymously and it is not now pos- 
sible to identify them with surety. 

In 1794, Tyler entered into a literary part- 
nership with his friend Joseph Dennie [q.v.~\ 
under the name of "Colon and Spondee," which 
proposed to furnish verse and prose of a famil- 
iar and satiric nature. Tyler was "Spondee," 



96 



Tyl 



er 



Tyl 



er 



and the pieces so signed in the Eagle; or Dart- 
mouth Centincl, and later in The New Hamp- 
shire Journal; or The Farmers' Weekly Mu- 
seum, and probably in the Portfolio, are Tyler's. 
They are clever and to the historian are of value 
in their description of customs and in their rep- 
resentation of Federalist opinion. The best are 
probably contained in a collection, The Spirit of 
the Farmers' Museum (1801). In more seri- 
ous vein his long- reflective poem, The Chestnut 
Tree, written in 1824 but not published until 
1931, is of importance not only for its picture 
of the village life of his time, but also for its 
prophecies of the results of the machine age. 

More important than Tyler's fugitive verse 
was his novel The Algerine Captive, published 
in 1797 and republished in London in 1802. 
Through the career of the hero of this picaresque 
story, Dr. Updike Underbill, Tyler satirizes col- 
lege education and medical quackery in the 
North, and slavery in the South ; then, through 
the capture of Underhill by the Algerines, he 
paints the miseries of prisoners in that country. 
One of his uncles had indeed been lost in that 
manner, and, though Tyler's picture is imagin- 
ary, it is vivid. In fact, his fancy was so fertile 
that his Yankcy in London (1809), a series of 
letters supposed to be written by an American 
living there, deceived some of the English critics. 

Tyler's literary work did not interrupt his 
professional career. It was disturbed, however, 
by that curious melancholy which had visited 
him earlier and which apparently caused him to 
retire from Boston in 1791 and begin his career 
again in Guildford, Vt. Perhaps some explana- 
tion may be found in the charming diary of 
Mary Palmer, who, against his mother's opposi- 
tion, became his wife in 1794. He held many 
professional positions of distinction, being state's 
attorney for Windham County, 1794-1801 ; side 
or assistant judge, 1801-07; and chief justice of 
the supreme court of Vermont, 1807-13. He 
was also professor of jurisprudence at the Uni- 
versity of Vermont from 181 1 to 1814, and trus- 
tee from 1802 to 1813. Indeed the only publi- 
cation in book form in which his name is print- 
ed is his two-volume Reports of Cases Argued 
and Determined in the Supreme Court of Judi- 
cature of Vermont 1800 to 1803 (1809-10). In 
his most important decision, rendered in 1802, he 
stated that since according to the constitution 
of Vermont no inhabitant could own a slave, the 
bill of sale could not operate in favor of any mas- 
ter who brought a slave within Vermont terri- 
tory, and that the question was not affected by 
the laws of the United States. 

Undaunted by suffering during his last few 



years through cancer of the face, which caused 
blindness and finally ended fatally, Royall Tyler 
died in Brattleboro, Vt., where he had been liv- 
ing since 1801. He left a tradition there of 
charm and high spirit, of energy and versatility. 
Up to two weeks before his death he had been 
writing a semi-autobiographical story, "The 
Bay Boy." His ultimate fame will rest upon 
The Contrast and The Algerine Captive, pio- 
neer achievements in drama and fiction, to nei- 
ther of which did he permit his name to be at- 
tached. 

[Biographical details are based on an unpublished 
manuscript memoir by Rev. Thomas P. Tyler, son of 
Royall Tyler, in the Vt. Hist. Soc. ; and on Grand- 
mother Tyler's Book (1925), the autobiography of 
Mary Palmer Tyler, ed. by Frederick Tupper and 
Helen Tyler Brown. The Tyler papers have been de- 
posited in the Vt. Hist. Soc. by Miss Brown, great- 
granddaughter of Tyler, who has in preparation a bi- 
ography with A. W. Peach and H. S. Wardner, to all 
of whom the present writer is indebted. A brief ac- 
count by Miss Brown is given as an introduction to the 
limited edition of The Contrast (1920). See also B. 
H. Hall, Hist, of Eastern Vt. (1858); M. R. Cabot, 
Annals of Brattleboro {2 vols., 1921); Henry Burn- 
ham, Brattleboro, Vt. (1S80) ; Frederick Tupper, 
"Royall Tyler, Man of Law and Man of Letters," 
Proc. Vt. Hist. Soc. (1928) ; H. M. Ellis, Joseph Dan- 
nie and His Circle (1915) ; A. H. Quinn, A Hist, of 
the Am. Drama from the Beginning to the Civil War 
( J 9^3).] A.H.Q. 

TYLER, SAMUEL (Oct. 22, 1809-Dec. 15, 
1877), lawyer, writer, the elder son of Grafton 
and Anne (Plummer) Tyler, was born in the 
Forest of Prince Georges County, Md., on the 
Patuxent River tobacco plantation which had 
been owned by his paternal ancestors since 1660. 
After a classical education in the academy of 
Dr. James Carnahan [q.v.] at Georgetown, 
D. C, he attended Middlebury College, Vt. 
(1826-28) and studied law in the office of John 
Nelson in Frederick, Md., where he was admit- 
ted to the bar in 183 1 and practised for thirty- 
five years. Though often in court in this period, 
he was more an office lawyer than an advocate. 
To the quiet of the office and the seclusion of 
the library his scholarly temperament inclined 
him, and from the boundless book-learning he 
acquired therein his principal achievements in 
the legal field resulted. On the ancient refine- 
ments of the adjective law he became an espe- 
cial authority, and in 1852 the Maryland legis- 
lature appointed him one of three commission- 
ers to simplify the practice and pleading in the 
various courts of the state. In the allotment of 
work among the commissioners his particular 
task was the reform of preliminary procedure; 
when his recommendations therefor were ac- 
cepted he drew up a statute incorporating them 
(Laws Made and Passed by the General As- 
sembly of . . . Maryland, 1856, ch. 112) and 



97 



Tyler 

subsequently published A Treatise on the Mary- 
land Simplified Preliminary Procedure and 
Pleading ( 1857), thus rendering invaluable serv- 
ice to the administration of justice and to the 
legal profession in the state. 

Meanwhile, through articles on logic and 
metaphysics which he contributed to the Prince- 
ton Review he gained the approval of Europe 
and the esteem and correspondence of Sir Wil- 
liam Hamilton, celebrated philosopher of the 
Scottish school of Realism. Several of these 
papers were collected under the titles A Dis- 
course of the Baconian Philosophy (1844) and 
The Progress of Philosophy in the Past and in 
the Future (1858), and brought him certain aca- 
demic honors, yet he contributed nothing orig- 
inal to the history of thought and his works on 
the subject have been long since consigned to 
the philosophic potter's field. 

Abandoning active practice, he lectured from 
1867 until his death as professor of law in Co- 
lumbian (now George Washington) Univer- 
sity in Washington, D. C, and during these years 
published the works that more than any others 
have caused the survival of his name. His 
American edition (1871) of H. J. Stephen's 
Treatise on the Principles of Pleading and his 
Commentary on the Lazv of Partnership (1877), 
both elementary works for students, are still in 
frequent use. His authorized Memoir of Roger 
Brooke Taney, LL.D. (1872), notwithstanding 
the fact that it is an undiluted panegyric of his 
most intimate friend and a partisan defense of 
the cause of the Confederacy, long remained the 
standard biography of the Chief Justice. In- 
deed, the fragment of Taney autobiography and 
the anecdotes contained therein would seem to 
assure its permanence as a source book. Other 
minor works' from his pen were Robert Burns 
as a Poet and as a Man ( 1848) and The Theory 
of the Beautiful (1873). Tyler was tall, lean, 
dark, bookish, something of a recluse, but jovial. 
He died at Georgetown, D. C, and was buried 
there in Oak Hill Cemetery. His wife, Cath- 
erine M. Bayly, whom he married at Frederick, 
Apr. 16, 1833, and two of their four children 
survived him. 

[Sources include records in the possession of a de- 
scendant, Miss Dorothy F. Williams, Chicago, 111. ; 
Frederick County Marriage Record, 1778-1865, Clerk's 
office, Frederick. Md. : Washington Post, Dec. 17, 18, 
19, 1877; The Sun (Baltimore), Dec. 17, 19, 1877; 
E. A. and G. L. Duyckinck, Cyc. of Am. Lit. (1875), 
II, 382 ; The Biblical Repertory and Princeton Rev. 
Index Vol. (1871): list of other periodical contribu- 
tions in S. A. Allibone, A Critical Diet, of Eng. Lit. 
and British and Am. Authors (1871) ; review by Moor- 
field Storey of Memoir of Roger Brooke Taney in 
North Am. Rev., Jan. 1873. The date of Tyler's death 
is often given erroneously as Dec. 15, 1878.] 

J.J.D. 



Tyl 



er 



TYLER, WILLIAM (June 5, 1806-June 18, 
1849), Roman Catholic prelate, son of Noah and 
Abigail (Barber) Tyler, was born at Derby, 
Vt., from which his parents soon removed to a 
small farm near Claremont, N. H. The family of 
the Rev. Daniel Barber (brother of Abigail Ty- 
ler) became famous in Catholic circles as the 
first family of Puritan stock to be converted to 
Catholicism, the Rev. Daniel and his wife enter- 
ing the church, their two sons becoming Jesuits, 
their four daughters Ursuline nuns, and their 
daughter-in-law a Visitation nun. About 1821 
the Tylers were also converted. William was 
educated in the classical school at Claremont con- 
ducted by his cousin, the Rev. Virgil H. Barber. 
As a convert, and a promising youth of sound 
training and musical ability, Tyler challenged the 
attention of Bishop Benedict J. Fenwick \_q.vJ], 
who took him into his household and instructed 
him in theology (1826), and apparently sent him 
to a seminary in Montreal for a brief sojourn. 
Ordained a priest by Fenwick (June 3, 1829), 
Father Tyler rejoiced in seeing four sisters join 
the Sisters of Charity, though his three brothers 
continued in the world. As perverts, the Tylers 
aroused some Protestant hostility, but, on the 
whole, Tyler found no unusual difficulties as a 
curate at the cathedral in Boston or as a mis- 
sionary at Canton and Sandwich, Mass., and at 
Aroostook and Benedicta, Fenwick's Catholic 
colony, in Maine. A tall, slender, delicate man, 
his quiet meekness, saintly zeal, methodical life, 
and humility disarmed criticism, and won the af- 
fection of Irish immigrants who were ordinarily 
suspicious of Yankee priests. As a priest at the 
cathedral, he made missionary tours of the coun- 
tryside and visits to the shanty-chapels on public 
works, and served as vicar-general of the diocese. 
At the Fifth Provincial Council of Baltimore, 
the bishops petitioned Rome to erect a new see 
at Hartford, Conn., with Tyler as bishop. Con- 
secrated by Fenwick (Mar. 17, 1844), Tyler 
found that southern New England was even less 
fertile soil for Catholicism than Massachusetts. 
As Hartford was a small town with only a wood- 
en church, lie moved his headquarters to Provi- 
dence, with a Catholic population of 2,000. There 
he lived in a wretched cottage, but, aided by 
gifts from the Leopoldine Society of Vienna and 
the Society for the Propagation of the Faith of 
Lyons, he managed to enlarge his Cathedral of 
SS. Peter and Paul into one of the best churches 
in New England (1847). With assistance from 
All Hallows Seminary, Dublin, and with the 
beginning of Irish immigration on a large scale, 
the little diocese of 10,000 doubled its population 
and increased the number of its priests from six 



98 



Tyler 

to fourteen. Constant crusading against liquor 
sellers and intemperance resulted in a reforma- 
tion of conduct, but made Tyler rather unpop- 
ular among wealthy Catholics of Providence 
(American Catholic Historical Researches, Jan. 
1895 ) . While he built only four primitive churches 
and made a contribution that seems intangible 
and undramatic, he quietly laid the foundations 
of the church in an unfriendly region with a 
minimum of nativist friction. In summary of his 
character, Bishop John Bernard Fitzpatrick 
\_q.v.~\ of Boston confided to his diary that though 
Tyler was neither learned nor brilliant, he was 
a model for young priests because he was a firm, 
diligent man of sound prudence, who squandered 
no time from his duty. 

[L. M. Wilson, Barber Gcncal. (1909) ; R. H. Clarke, 
Lives of the Deceased Bishops of the Catlu Church in 
the U. S., vol. II (1888) ; William Byrne, The Hist, of 
the Cath. Church in the New Eng. States (1899), vol. 
II, p. 122 ; Cat h. Encyc, vol. VII (i9io),p. 144 ; Louis 
de Goesbriand, Cath. Memoirs of Vt. and N. H. ( 1891 ) ; 
T. S. Duggan, The Cath. Church in Conn. (1930) ; Met- 
ropolitan Cath. Directory (1850), p. 216; Cath. Ob- 
server (Boston) and Pilot (Boston), June 1849; obitu- 
ary in Republican Herald (Providence, R. I.), June 20, 
1S49] R.J.P. 

TYLER, WILLIAM SEYMOUR (Sept. 2, 
1810-Nov. 19, 1897), college professor, was the 
eldest of three sons of Joab and Nabby (Sey- 
mour) Tyler, and a descendant of Job Tyler, an 
early settler of Andover, Mass. He was born in 
Harford, Pa., a pioneer village in the beechwood 
forests along the Susquehanna, where his father 
and grandfather, natives of Attleboro, Mass., had 
been among the earliest settlers. As a boy he 
learned the frugal, industrious habits, the sturdy 
self-reliance, and the intense aspirations of a New 
England community transplanted into the wilder- 
ness. His education, begun in the schoolroom 
under his father's roof, was intermittently con- 
tinued at various local academies and under the 
tutelage of neighboring ministers. He entered the 
junior class at Hamilton College in September 
1827, but left to teach school after completing one 
term. In February 1829 he joined the junior 
class at Amherst College, where he graduated as 
valedictorian in 1830. There followed one year 
of teaching at Amherst Academy, two years of 
theological study at Andover interrupted by two 
years as a tutor in Amherst College, and a final 
year of divinity under the Rev. Thomas H. Skin- 
ner of New York. Tyler was then ready to become 
a home missionary in the West, but was recalled 
to Amherst unexpectedly to fill a tutorship va- 
cated by his brother. At the end of his term 
(August 1836) he was appointed professor of 
Latin and Greek, and remained in the active serv- 
ice of the college — as Williston Professor of 



Tyler 

Greek from 1847 — for fifty-six years. In 1893 
he became professor emeritus. 

Within this exceptionally long term of active 
service, which was only twice interrupted by 
periods of travel in Europe and the Holy Land, 
Tyler taught every member of fifty-one succes- 
sive classes, until in 1888 Greek was made an 
optional study. His conception of Greek civili- 
zation as a dramatic moment in the unfolding of 
human nature's highest possibilities so vitalized 
his treatment of ancient literature that his stu- 
dents often felt that they were hearing the au- 
thentic voice of Demosthenes or Plato. Besides 
performing countless services for the college out- 
side the range of his classroom duties, Tyler was 
ceaselessly interested in the religious and edu- 
cational affairs of western Massachusetts. He 
was ordained to the Congregational ministry at 
North Amherst on Oct. 16, 1859, and frequently 
supplied pulpits in nearby towns. His activity 
at convocations was so great that he was play- 
fully called the bishop of Hampshire County. 
His sermons from the college pulpit were remem- 
bered by generations of undergraduates because 
of their pointed applications and robust fervor. 
Tyler was chiefly responsible for framing the 
constitution and policy of Williston Seminary, 
and was president of its board of trustees from 
its foundation. He was also a trustee of Mount 
Holyoke Seminary (later College) from 1862, 
and of Smith College from 1871, and president 
of the board of trustees of both institutions. He 
was a founder of the Amherst chapter of Phi 
Beta Kappa and its first president, and a mem- 
ber of many national societies concerned with 
the study of classical philology and archeology. 

Tyler was married on Sept. 4, 1839, to Amelia 
O. Whiting of Binghamton, N. Y. They had four 
sons, all graduates of Amherst ; one became a 
professor of Greek in Smith College and one re- 
turned to Amherst as professor of biology. The 
Tyler home inevitably became a center of pil- 
grimage for visiting dignitaries and alumni. In 
spite of the many calls upon his time, however, 
Tyler worked untiringly as a scholar, editing 
numerous Latin and Greek authors for classroom 
use, writing popular or learned articles for maga- 
zines and encyclopedias, and composing the ser- 
mons, occasional discourses, and memorial ad- 
dresses that were constantly demanded of him. 
His finest book was a labor of love, the History 
of Amherst College during its First Half Cen- 
tury (1873), later abridged and continued as A 
History of Amherst College during the Admin- 
istrations of its First Five Presidents ( 1895), to 
the writing of which the author brought both an 
intimate knowledge of personalities and events 



99 



Tyndale 



and the deep feeling of consecration character- 
istic of the founders of the college. More than 
any other one man Tyler had given himself to 
the making of Amherst College, and his history 
of its achievement is his best monument. 

[Autobiog. of William Seymour Tyler (1912), ed. by 
C. B. Tyler ; W. I. T. Brigham, The Tyler Geneal. ( 2 
vols., 1912) ; Obit. Record Grads. Amherst Coll., vol. 
IV ( 1898) ; Amherst Coll. Biog. Record (1927) ; Spring- 
field Republican, Nov. 20, 1897.] G.F.W. 

TYNDALE, HECTOR (Mar. 24, 1821-Mar. 
19, 1880), merchant, Union soldier, was the son 
of Robinson and Sarah (Thorn) Tyndale. His 
father, who was reputed to be a lineal descendant 
of William Tyndale the Bible translator and 
martyr, had emigrated from Ireland to Philadel- 
phia early in the nineteenth century and become 
a dealer in china and glass ; his mother was a 
Philadelphian by birth and a member of the So- 
ciety of Friends. Young Tyndale was educated 
at a Philadelphia school, upon leaving which he 
was offered an appointment to the United States 
Military Academy. Yielding to the wishes of 
his mother he declined the appointment, and went 
into business with his father. In August 1842 he 
married Julia Nowlen, and, at the death of his 
father in 1845, he and his brother-in-law, Ed- 
ward P. Mitchell, formed a partnership in the 
business of importing glass. He subsequently 
made numerous trips to Europe, visiting the lead- 
ing factories there, collecting many specimens 
of pottery, and becoming an authority in the field 
of ceramics. 

A Free-soiler in politics, he affiliated himself 
with the rising Republican party, and served as 
a member of the first Republican committee in 
Philadelphia. In 1859 the wife of John Brown 
stopped at Philadelphia on her way to Charles 
Town, Va. (nowW. Va.), to visit her imprisoned 
husband, and, after his execution, to bring his 
body North for burial. Tyndale believed her to 
be in such personal danger at that time that he 
voluntarily served as her escort. He was never 
an abolitionist, but years after this incident oc- 
curred his political enemies accused him of dis- 
loyalty to the Union because of his gallant ges- 
ture in behalf of a defenseless woman. 

Tyndale was in Paris at the outbreak of the 
Civil War. He immediately hastened home, and 
in June 1861 was commissioned major of the 
28th Regiment, Pennsylvania Volunteers. This 
regiment participated in a total of forty-three 
engagements during the war, Tyndale taking part 
in practically all of them. He commanded the 
forces near Harpers Ferry in August 1861, and 
at that time received several wounds. In April 
1862 he was promoted lieutenant-colonel. He 



Tyng 

next served in Banks's Corps in the Shenandoah 
Valley campaign, and under Pope in the battles 
of Chantilly and second Bull Run. At Antietam, 
where three horses were shot from under him, he 
was twice wounded and left on the field for dead. 
Because of his conspicuous bravery at that battle 
he was promoted brigadier-general, Nov. 29, 
1862. He subsequently went to the support of 
Thomas at Chattanooga ; led a bayonet charge to 
relieve Geary at Wauhatchie, Tenn. ; distin- 
guished himself at Missionary Ridge ; and, with 
Sherman, participated in the campaign to relieve 
Knoxville. With health seriously impaired by 
disease and strenuous campaigning, he resigned 
from the service in August 1864. He was bre- 
vetted major-general the following March for 
gallant and meritorious service during the war. 
As a civilian, Tyndale was highly esteemed. 
He was a successful merchant ; a member of 
many patriotic and scientific societies ; and, as 
the Republican candidate for mayor of Philadel- 
phia in 1868, was defeated by a narrow margin. 
He was trustee of a fund which provided a num- 
ber of university scholarships in physics, and one 
of these, at the University of Pennsylvania, bears 
his name. He died in Philadelphia ; his wife, but 
no children, survived him. 

[John McLaughlin, A Memoir of Hector Tyndale 
(1882) ; Re-union of the 28th and 147th Regiments, Pa. 
Volunteers (1872) ; F. B. Heitman, Hist. Reg. and Diet. 
U. S. Army (1903) ; Public Ledger (Phila.) and Phila. 
Press, Mar. 20, 1880; Phila. Record, Mar. 22, 1880; 
N. Y. Tribune, Mar. 21, 1 880 ; Pa. Mag. of Hist, and 
Biog., Jan. 1916, pp. 1-3; Univ. of Pa. Cat., 1031-32 
(1931), p. 163.] R.W.I. 

TYNG, EDWARD (1683-Sept. 8, 1755), naval 
officer, was born in Boston, Mass., the grandson 
of Edward Tyng who came to Massachusetts 
from England about 1630 and died in Dunstable 
in 1681, and the son of Col. Edward Tyng, 
whose wife was a daughter of Ensign Thaddeus 
Clarke of Portland, Me. The father was appoint- 
ed governor of Annapolis Royal, Nova Scotia, 
and on his way to the colony was captured by the 
French and taken to France, where he died in 
prison. In 1736 in consideration of the suffer- 
ings and great expense of the father the Massa- 
chusetts General Court granted the son a tract 
of land (The Acts and Resolves of the Province 
of the Massachusetts Bay, vol. XII, 1904, pp. 
325, 462). As a youth Edward followed the sea 
and later was a merchant in Boston. His first 
wife, whom he married Jan. 8, 1725, was Eliza- 
beth, daughter of Capt. Cyprian Southack \q.v.~\ 
and widow of Francis Parnel ; his second, a sis- 
ter of Gen. Samuel Waldo [q.v.~\, Ann Waldo, 
to whom he was married Jan. 2y, 1731, and by 
whom he had seven children. 



IOO 



Tyng 

On Apr. 16, 1740, Governor Belcher appoint- 
ed Tyng captain of the batteries and fortifications 
in Boston and a few months later made him com- 
mander of the province snow Prince of Orange, 
recently built for the protection of the navigation 
and trade of the colony. During 1741-43 Tyng 
cruised after Spanish privateers chiefly off the 
New England coast, but on one cruise he went 
as far southward as St. Augustine, Fla. On the 
outbreak of King George's War in 1744, after a 
chase off Cape Cod of some twelve hours, he 
overtook a French privateer commanded by Cap- 
tain Delabroitz and forced her to strike her col- 
ors. Out of gratitude Boston voted him its thanks 
and the merchants of the town presented him 
with a silver cup. In July he was sent to An- 
napolis Royal with reinforcements. His arrival 
there proved most opportune, for the place was 
besieged by the Indians and French, who fled on 
his approach, to the great relief of the besieged. 
For the rest of the year he was employed in con- 
voy duty off the New England coast and to the 
eastward as far as the Grand Banks. Early in 
1745 he was promoted to the command of the 
frigate Massachusetts, in which vessel, alone or 
in company with provincial or Royal vessels, he 
cruised after French ships. He was also em- 
ployed in blockade and transport duties. As senior 
officer of the Massachusetts navy, he participated 
in the taking of the Vigilante, of 64 guns, the 
capture of Louisbourg, and the destruction of St. 
Ann. He was one of the leading American naval 
officers of the colonial period. His death occurred 
at Boston, after a stroke of paralysis. His resi- 
dence was on Milk Street and he also owned 
property on Fleet Street and near Windmill 
Point. 

[Mass. Hist. Soc. Colls., 1 ser. X (1809), 180-83; 
Timothy Alden, A Coll. of Am. Epitaphs (1814), II, 
97-101 ; Elias Nason. A Hist, of the Toum of Dunstable 
(1877); Waldo Lincoln, The Province Snow "Prince 
of Orange" (1901) ; S. G. Drake, A Particular Hist, 
of the Five Years' French and Indian War (1870) ; L. 
E. de Forest, Louisbourg Journals, 1745 (1932) ; H. M. 
Chapin, Privateering in King George's War (1928) ; A 
Report of the Record Commissioners of the City of 
Boston (1898), containing Boston marriages, 1700- 
i7Si I Justin Winsor, The Memorial Hist, of Boston, 
vol. II (1882).] CO. P. 

TYNG, STEPHEN HIGGINSON (Mar. i, 

1800-Sept. 3, 1885), Episcopal clergyman, born 
at Newburyport, Mass., was the fourth child of 
Dudley Atkins, who adopted the name of Tyng 
on inheriting the estate of his kinswoman, Sarah 
(Tyng) Winslow. He was a descendant of 
Joseph Atkins, who came to Newbury, Mass., in 
1728, and also of Edward Tyng, who died in 
Dunstable, Mass., in 1681. Stephen's mother, 
Sarah, was the eldest daughter of the Hon. Ste- 
phen Higginson of Salem, Mass., a descendant 



Tyng 

of Francis Higginson \_q.vJ], one of the founders 
of Salem in 1629. After attending private schools 
young Tyng entered Harvard College, where he 
was graduated at the age of seventeen. Two 
years later he abandoned an unusually promising 
business career to prepare for the ministry of the 
Episcopal Church and studied theology under the 
direction of the Rt. Rev. Alexander V. Griswold 
[q.v.]. He was ordered deacon on Mar. 4, 1821, 
by Bishop Griswold, whose daughter, Anne, he 
married on Aug. 5 of that year ; he was ordained 
priest in 1824 by Bishop Kemp of Maryland. 
His fifty-seven years of active ministry were 
spent at St. John's Church, Georgetown, D. 
C. (1821-23); Queen Anne's Parish, Prince 
Georges County, Md. (1823-29); St. Paul's 
Church, Philadelphia (1829-34); Church of 
the Epiphany, Philadelphia (1834-45) ar >d St. 
George's Church, New York (1845-78). 

Tyng was one of the outstanding figures in 
religious circles. He was a man of imperious 
temper — which he did not always control — and 
of commanding personality ; he did not take 
kindly to opposition and was at times autocratic. 
He was described as "the prince of platform ora- 
tors" and Henry Ward Beecher said of him, "He 
is the one man that I am afraid of. When he 
speaks first I do not care to follow him" (T. L. 
Cuyler, Recollections of a Long Life, 1902, p. 
200). He shared with the Rev. Dr. Francis Lis- 
ter Hawks [g.c 1 .] the distinction of being the 
greatest preacher in the Episcopal Church. Noted 
for his fearlessness in the pulpit, at times he rose 
to great heights of eloquence and moved his 
hearers like a wind-swept sea. Vast congrega- 
tions flocked to hear him ; St. Paul's Church in 
Philadelphia, when he was rector, was popularly 
known as "Tyng's Theatre." He was one of the 
first to recognize the importance of Sunday 
schools and his own school in Philadelphia had 
more than two thousand children. This work in 
religious education he continued in New York, 
and under his direction St. George's parish was 
the first to establish mission chapels for the poor 
on the East Side of the city. 

Tyng's ministry covered a period of great im- 
portance in the development of the Episcopal 
Church in the United States. At the outset the 
Evangelicals were dominant. That dominance 
was challenged by the high churchmen who were 
profoundly influenced by the Tractarian move- 
ment. The development of ritual in the services 
of the church followed. A few years after he 
went to St. George's, broad churchmanship be- 
came dominant under the leadership of men like 
Phillips Brooks and David H. Greer [qq.v.]. 
Against all these developments Tyng set his face 



IOI 



Tyson 



like steel ; he was a typical low churchman. 
Trained in the straitest school of the Evangeli- 
cals, he never faltered in his allegiance ; broad 
churchman was just as obnoxious to him as high 
churchman, and both he fought tooth and nail. 
He was content to walk in the old paths. In his 
early ministry in Maryland he crossed swords 
with Bishop James Kemp and in his later years 
in New York he entered the lists against Bishop 
Horatio Potter. Like Bishop Manton Eastburn 
of Massachusetts, Tyng never changed a theo- 
logical opinion, with the unhappy result that he 
never rose above the position of being the leader 
of a party in the church. 

Among his publications were Lectures on the 
Law and the Gospel (3rd ed., 1844), Recollec- 
tions of England (1847), The Israel of God 
(1849), Christ Is All (1849), Christian Titles 
(1853), Fellowship with Christ (1854), The 
Rich Kinsman; the History of Ruth the Mo- 
abitess (1855), The Captive Orphan; Esther, 
Queen of Persia (i860) ; Forty Years Experi- 
ence in Sunday Schools (i860) ; The Spencers, 
a Story of Home Influence (1869). He also 
served as an editor of the Episcopal Recorder 
(Philadelphia), and of the Protestant Church- 
man (New York). He resigned the rectorship 
of St. George's, New York, in 1878 and was 
made rector emeritus. The closing years of his 
life were marked by mental decline, and he died 
at Irvington-on-Hudson, N. Y. His first wife 
died in 1832, and in July 1833 he married Susan 
Mitchell. He had four children by his first wife, 
and five by his second. 

[F. H. Atkins, Joseph Atkins, the Story of a Family 
(1891) ; C. R. Tyng, Record of the Life and Work of 
the Rev. Stephen Higginson Tyng, D.D., and Hist, of 
St. George's Church, N. Y '., to the Close of His Rector- 
ship (1890); Henry Anstice, Hist, of St. George's 
Church in the City of N. Y. (1911) ; Churchman, Sept. 
12, 1885 ; N. Y. Tribune, Sept. 5, 1885.] E. C. C. 

TYSON, GEORGE EMORY (Dec. 15, 1829- 
Oct. 18, 1906), whaler, Arctic explorer, was born 
at Red Bank, N. J., son of Peter and Clarica 
Tyson. In his infancy his parents moved to New 
York City, where he attended the public schools 
and afterwards worked in an iron foundry. An 
early interest in Arctic adventure led him in 
February 1850 to ship from New London in the 
whaler M'Clellan, and he was one of twelve vol- 
unteers from the ship who wintered in 1851-52 
in Cumberland Sound. He rose to mate and mas- 
ter, and in 1860-70 was steadily engaged in com- 
mand of Arctic whalers, taking the Antelope in 
1864 to Repulse Bay, furthest north for whale- 
ships of the time. He had frequently met the 
explorer Charles Francis Hall [q.v. - ], and in 1870 
was invited bv Hall to be sailing-master and ice- 



Tyson 

pilot in his projected Arctic expedition in the 
Polaris. Though at first prevented by other en- 
gagements, he finally joined in a specially created 
post as assistant navigator. With seven officers, 
three scientists, and fifteen seamen, the Polaris 
left Brooklyn, June 29, 1871, and after making a 
furthest north record (82° 11') wintered in Hall 
Basin, North Greenland. Hall died in November. 
In the ensuing period, marked by much friction 
and indiscipline, Tyson, now second in command, 
was apparently a neutral and stabilizing influ- 
ence. In subsequent investigations his honesty 
and modesty were recognized, as well as his 
stamina and temperamental fitness for Arctic 
hardships. Capt. Edwin White, a fellow whaler, 
described him as "the best man to consult with 
that I have ever met . . . his power of endurance 
ahead of anyone I ever traveled with" (Arctic 
Experiences, post, p. 423). In the autumn of 
1872, on Oct. 15, the Polaris, endeavoring to 
work southward and leaking badly, was nearly 
crushed by ice. Having built a storehouse on 
the ice, Tyson and others were shifting supplies 
to it when the ship broke loose in the darkness, 
leaving nineteen of them — Tyson, the meteorolo- 
gist Meyers, eight seamen, and two Eskimos 
with their wives and five children — adrift on the 
floe. Their ensuing experience is among the 
most extraordinary in Arctic annals. For six and 
a half months they drifted southward through 
winter darkness, dependent for food chiefly on 
the desperate efforts of the Eskimo hunters, and 
forced toward the last to shift from floe to floe 
and cling to their boat to prevent its being washed 
away by stormy seas. Without a life lost, they 
were picked up, Apr. 30, 1873, by the sealer 
Tigress off Labrador. 

Later that year Tyson was made temporary 
lieutenant and ice-master in the Tigress, pur- 
chased by the United States Navy, and sent north 
to seek the remaining Polaris party, who, it was 
learned later, had left her and been rescued by 
a whaler. In 1877-78 he also commanded the 
Florence, sent to the Arctic to establish a pre- 
liminary base for the Howgate expedition, sub- 
sequently abandoned. During his later years he 
lived in Washington, D. C, where he had a po- 
sition as captain of the guard in the Navy De- 
partment. He was married, probably about 1870, 
to Helen (McElroy) Myers, a widow with three 
sons. 

[Arctic Experiences: Containing Capt. George E. 
Tyson's Wonderful Drift on the Ice-Floe, A History of 
the Polaris Expedition (1874), ed. by E. V. Blake; C. 
H. Davis, Narrative of the North Polar Expedition : U. 
S. Ship Polaris (1876) ; J. E. Nourse, Narrative of the 
Second Polar Expedition Made by Charles F. Hall 
(1879), being Sen. Exec. Doc. 27, 45 Cong., 3 Sess. ; 
The Cruise of the Florence (1879) ed. by H. W. How- 



t O? 



Tyson 

gate; Who's Who in America, 1903-05; obituary ar- 
ticles in Washington Post, Oct. 20, 21, 1906.] 

A. W— t. 

TYSON, JAMES (Oct. 26, 1841-Feb. 21, 
1919), physician and teacher, was born in Phila- 
delphia, Pa., the son of Dr. Henry Tyson and 
Gertrude (Haviland) Caswell Tyson. His fa- 
ther, who practised medicine in Reading, Pa., 
was a direct descendant of Cornelius Teisen of 
Germantown (born in Crefeld), one of the many 
Germans who emigrated to America from the 
Palatinate about the beginning of the eighteenth 
century. After getting his schooling at the 
Friends' Central School in Philadelphia, Tyson 
entered Haverford College, from which he re- 
ceived the degrees of A.B. (1861) and A.M. 
(1864). He studied medicine in the medical de- 
partment of the University of Pennsylvania and 
was graduated in 1863. During his last year in 
the medical school he was a medical cadet in the 
United States army hospital at Broad and Cherry 
Streets, Philadelphia. After his graduation he 
served as an acting assistant surgeon in the 
United States Army until July 1863, when he 
resigned to become resident physician in the 
Pennsylvania Hospital. Later he again became 
an acting assistant surgeon in the army, serving 
in that capacity until the close of the Civil War. 
He then entered into private practice in Phila- 
delphia. In 1868 began his long association with 
the University of Pennsylvania. He was lecturer 
on microscopy (1868), on urinary chemistry 
(1870), and on pathological anatomy and histol- 
ogy (1874), professor of general pathology and 
morbid anatomy (1876), and professor of clini- 
cal medicine (1889). In 1899 he succeeded the 
younger William Pepper [7.7'.] in the chair of 
medicine, which he held until 1910, when he was 
retired as emeritus professor of medicine. From 
1888 to 1892 he was dean of the medical faculty. 
He was on the staffs of many hospitals, includ- 
ing the Pennsylvania and the Philadelphia, and 
was one of the incorporators and very active 
in the affairs of the Rush Hospital for Consump- 
tives. He was consulting physician to St. Mary's 
Hospital, the Kensington Hospital for Women, 
and the Jewish Hospital. 

He was a frequent contributor to periodical 
medical literature and the author of a number of 
successful books : The Cell Doctrine, Its History 
and Present State (1870), A Guide to the Prac- 
tical Examination of Urine (1875), A Treatise 
on Bright 's Disease and Diabetes (1881), Man- 
ual of Physical Diagnosis (1891), and The 
Practice of Medicine (1896), all of which went 
through several editions. For some years he was 
an assistant editor of the Philadelphia Medical 



Tyson 

Times and a member of the editorial board of 
the Philadelphia Medical News; from 1871 to 
1877 he edited the Transactions of the Pathologi- 
cal Society of Philadelphia. Tyson served as presi- 
dent of the Philadelphia County Medical Society 
(1897), the Pathological Society of Philadelphia 
(1882-84), the College of Physicians of Phila- 
delphia (1907-10), and the Pennsylvania State 
Medical Society (1911). He was one of the 
founders of the Association of American Phy- 
sicians (1886), its first secretary, and in 1907 
its president. In 1887 he was elected a member 
of the American Philosophical Society. For 
some years he was recorder of the biological and 
microscopical section of the Academy of Natural 
Sciences of Philadelphia. In 1894 an undergrad- 
uate society, named in his honor the James 
Tyson Medical Society, was founded among the 
medical classes at the University of Pennsyl- 
vania. On Dec. 5, 1865, Tyson married Frances 
Bosdevex, of Belgian descent. They had a son, 
who became a physician, and a daughter. There 
are excellent oil paintings of Tyson at the Uni- 
versity of Pennsylvania and in the College of 
Physicians of Philadelphia. 

[J. W. Jordan, Colonial and Revolutionary Families 
of Pa. (1911), vol. I; Who's Who in America, 1918- 
19; M. H. Fussell, in Trans. Coll. of Physicians of 
Phila., 3 ser., vol. XLIII (1921) ; Jour. Am. Medic. 
Asso., Mar. 3, 1919 ; Medic. Record (N. Y.), and TV. Y. 
Medic. Jour., Mar. 1, 1919; obituary in Pub. Ledger 
(Phila.), Feb. 22, 1919; personal acquaintance; auto- 
biog. notes in MS. in the possession of Mrs. H. W. 
Stokes of Phila., Tyson's daughter ; information from 
Mrs. Stokes.] F. R. P. 

TYSON, JOB ROBERTS (Feb. 8, 1803-June 
27, 1858), lawyer, congressman, historical writ- 
er, was born in or near Philadelphia, the son of 
Joseph and Ann (Trump) Tyson and a de- 
scendant of Reynier Tyson who settled in what 
is now Germantown, Pa., in 1683. Joseph Tyson, 
a Philadelphia merchant, started his son on a 
business career, but the youth turned to school 
teaching and the study of law, and in 1827 was 
admitted to the bar. On Oct. 4, 1832, he married 
Eleanor, daughter of Thomas P. Cope [q.v.], a 
prominent Philadelphia merchant and philan- 
thropist. He was vice-provost of the Philadel- 
phia Law Academy, 1833-58; a solicitor of the 
Pennsylvania Railroad, 1847-55; an early direc- 
tor of the Philadelphia public schools ; a member 
of the Select Council of Philadelphia, 1846-49; 
and a Whig congressman for one inconspicuous 
term, 1855-57. He was an effective writer and 
an excellent speaker ; a score or more of his 
speeches were printed. Participating actively in 
the reforms of the thirties, he was a friend of 
temperance and a foe of lotteries. He hoped to 
solve the slavery problem by colonization, served 



IO3 



Ty 



son 

in the ranks of the Society for Alleviating the 
Miseries of Public Prisons, and drafted a report 
on the impropriety of capital punishment. He 
was a manager of the Apprentices' Library in 
Philadelphia, and a trustee of Girard College 
and of the Pennsylvania Female College. On 
Jan. 15, 1836, he was elected a member of the 
American Philosophical Society. 

His greatest interest was history. One of the 
early members of the Historical Society of Penn- 
sylvania and an officer from 1829 to 1848, he 
was among the first to grasp the importance of 
intensive study of Pennsylvania history. The 
Indians, the Revolution, the social and intellec- 
tual state of Penn's colony, the life of William 
Penn, the history of art in America, were ob- 
jects of his study. In his Discourse . . . on the 
Colonial History of the Eastern and Some of 
the Southern States (1842), also published in 
Memoirs of the Historical Society of Pennsyl- 
vania (vol. IV, pt. 2, 1850), he attacked New 
England historians for their claims, denying that 
enlarged social freedom owed its existence to 
the Puritans and maintaining rather that it 
triumphed in spite of their hostility, and that 
Penn's contribution to liberty was more signifi- 
cant. This paper marks him as a pioneer in re- 
adjusting the balance of historical interpretation. 
The most tangible results of his historical inter- 
est are the first volumes of the printed archives 
of Pennsylvania. As a member of a joint com- 
mittee of the Philosophical and Historical so- 
cieties he was instrumental in petitioning the 
legislature (1836) to provide for the printing of 
the archives, and his brother, J. Washington 
Tyson, as chairman of a committee of the legis- 
lature, reported favorably upon the project. Thus 
a beginning was made with three volumes ( 1838- 
40) containing the minutes of the Provincial 
Council, and the series has been continued in- 
termittently ever since. Tyson planned to write 
a history of the state, but died before he could 
make systematic use of his collected material. 

[F. W. Leach, "Old Philadelphia Families — The 
Tyson Family," North American (Phila.), July 21, 
1912; H. L. Carson, "A History of the Historical So- 
ciety of Pennsylvania" (MSS. in Hist. Soc. of Pa. and 
Free Library of Phila.) ; Biog. Dir. Am. Cong. (1928) ; 
Dollar Nezvspapcr ( Phila.), June 30, 1858 ; North Amer- 
ican and United States Gazette (Phila.), June 28, 1858.] 

R.F.N. 

TYSON, LAWRENCE DAVIS (July 4. 
1861-Aug. 24, 1929), soldier, newspaper pub- 
lisher, and senator from Tennessee, was born 
near Greenville, N. C, the son of Richard Law- 
rence and Margaret Louise (Turnage) Tyson. 
His ancestors had settled in Pitt County, N. C, 
about 1720; his father served with the Confed- 



Tyson 

erate forces throughout the Civil War. Tyson 
graduated from the United States Military Acad- 
emy in 1883, was commissioned lieutenant of 
the 9th Infantry, and took part in the campaign 
against the Apache Indians. On Feb. 10, 1886, 
he married Bettie Humes McGhee, daughter of 
Charles M. McGhee [q.v.~\, a leading railroad 
financier of the South. From 1891 to 1895, by 
appointment of the War Department, he was 
professor of military science in the University 
of Tennessee at Knoxville. While here he stud- 
ied law, receiving the degree of LL.B. in 1894 ; 
in April 1896 he resigned his commission in the 
army and entered on the practice of law in Knox- 
ville. Two years later, during the war with 
Spain, he was appointed colonel of the 6th 
United States Volunteer Infantry and served in 
Puerto Rico; in 1899, after peace was declared, 
he was for some months military governor of 
the north-central portion of that island. He was 
mustered out of the service, May 15, 1899. 

Resuming practice in Knoxville, he was elect- 
ed to the House of Representatives of the Ten- 
nessee General Assembly of 1903, and was chosen 
speaker ; he was delegate-at-large to the Demo- 
cratic National Convention of 1908; and in 1913 
was an unsuccessful candidate for the United 
States senatorship. He served for a number of 
years as brigadier-general and inspector-general 
of the Tennessee National Guard. When the 
United States entered the World War, he was 
placed by the governor in command of the Ten- 
nessee National Guard but in August 1917 was 
appointed by President Wilson brigadier-gen- 
eral, National Army, and assigned to the 59th 
Brigade of the 30th Division, at Camp Sevier, 
S. C. His brigade of 8,000 men, made up in 
large part of soldiers from Tennessee, embarked 
for France on May 10, 1918, and in July was 
sent to join the British forces in Belgium. It 
was in almost continuous action from July 5 to 
Oct. 20, 1918, suffering losses of some 3,000 in 
killed and wounded. Its signal achievement was 
its participation in the breaking of the Hinden- 
burg line: "The 59th brigade went through the 
line at St. Quentin tunnel, advancing further to 
Bellicourt and neighboring towns. This was ac- 
complished in three days of terrific fighting" 
(Official Records, quoted by Hamer, post, p. 23). 
Tyson subsequently received the Distinguished 
Service Medal. 

Returning to his home in Knoxville, he pur- 
chased and became publisher of the Knoxville 
Sentinel. In 1920 he was indorsed by the state 
Democratic convention for the vice-presidential 
nomination, but in the Democratic National 
Convention he withdrew his name and seconded 



IO4 



Tyson 

the nomination of Franklin D. Roosevelt. Nomi- 
nated by a primary election in 1924, he won elec- 
tion as United States senator for the term be- 
ginning in 1925. In the Senate he advocated 
adherence to the World Court and was joint au- 
thor of the Tyson-Fitzgerald bill which gave 
full retirement compensation to disabled emer- 
gency officers of the United States in the World 
War. In 1927 he was a delegate to the confer- 
ence of the Interparliamentary Union held in 
Paris. He was interested in the larger industrial 
concerns of his city and region, was president of 
coal companies and textile mills, and in 1923 
was president of the American Cotton Manu- 
facturers' Association. With his wife he gave 
Tyson Park to the city of Knoxville. He died 
in Philadelphia, survived by his wife and a 
daughter ; his only son died in the World War. 

[P. M. Hamer, Tcnn., A Hist. (1933), vol. Ill; W. 
T. Hale and D. L. Merritt, A Hist, of Tcnn. (191 3), 
vol. VII ; G. W. Cullum, Biog. Reg. Officers and Grads. 
U. S. Mil. Acad., vols. Ill (1891), VI (19^0), VII 
(1930) ; Who's Who in America, 1928-29 ; Biog. Dir. 
Am. Cong. (1928) ; Lawrence D. Tyson: Memorial Ad- 
dresses in the Senate and House of Representatives 
(1930); News-Sentinel (Knoxville), Aug. 25, 1929; 
Knoxville Jour., Aug. 24, 25, 1929.] S. C. W. 

TYSON, STUART LAWRENCE (Nov. 12, 
1873-Sept. 16, 1932), Protestant Episcopal cler- 
gyman, was born in Pennllyn, Pa., the son of 
Herbert Benezet and Mary ( Stuart) Tyson. His 
father was a nephew of Job Roberts Tyson [q.z>.~\ 
and a descendant of Reynier Tyson who emi- 
grated to Pennsylvania from Crefeld, Prussia, 
in 1683. Reynier was probably a brother of 
Cornelius, ancestor of James Tyson [<?.?'.]. Af- 
ter routine schooling, Stuart went to Nashota 
House, Wisconsin, the Anglo-Catholic seminary 
of the Episcopal Church, to prepare for the min- 
istry. He was graduated in 1895, and in this 
same year, Apr. 25, he married Katharine Emily 
Rosengarten of Philadelphia, who was killed in 
an accident in 191 5. In 1895, also, he was or- 
dained deacon, and two years later, priest. After 
a brief pastorate in Milwaukee, Wis., he went to 
Oxford, England, in 1899, where he remained 
eight years as student at St. John's College, spe- 
cial preacher at the University (1899-1903), 
assistant at St. Paul's Church (1904-07), and 
tutor (1903-05). He received three degrees 
from Oxford — M.A., B.D., and D.D., the last 
awarded in 1923 "in course." 

Tyson returned to America in 1907 to become 
professor of New Testament at the Western 
Theological Seminary, Chicago. From here he 
went in 1908 to the University of the South, 
where he served five years as professor of New 
Testament and liturgies. He resigned in 1913 to 
give his chief time and labor to lecturing under 



Tyson 

the auspices of the Tyson Lectureship Founda- 
tion for the Promotion of Christian Knowledge, 
an organization of Episcopalian clergymen, lay- 
men, and laywomen which he was instrumental 
in establishing for the popular interpretation of 
the Scriptures in the light of scientific truth. In 
1919 he accepted appointment as lecturer, special 
preacher, and honorary vicar at the Cathedral 
of St. John the Divine, New York. In 1924 he 
was transferred to the staff of St. George's 
Church. 

This last appointment may be said to mark the 
climax in the long process of his theological de- 
velopment. Educated in a conservative school, 
Tyson was led by his Biblical studies, continued 
through many years, into the liberal wing of 
contemporary religious thought. His preaching 
became a vigorous advocacy of liberalism. His 
lecturing, which long absorbed his best atten- 
tion, was devoted to expounding the modern 
significance of the Bible. In the controversies 
which broke out in the Episcopal Church in the 
decades before and after the World War, he was 
a consistent modernist. He sprang quickly to the 
defense of priests who fell under attack of their 
bishops for heresy. Thus, in 1914, he was chair- 
man of the Heaton Defense Committee, when 
the Rev. Lee W. Heaton, a Texas rector, was 
cited by Bishop Harry T. Moore for trial on 
charges that he "had denied the supernatural and 
the divinity of Jesus." Tyson also figured promi- 
nently in the cases of Bishop-elect Herbert Ship- 
man and of the Rev. Percy Stickney Grant [q.z>.]. 
It was his steadfast contention that clergymen 
should have full right to "think freely, and to 
use present-day knowledge in religion as well as 
in all other relations of life." As the New York 
diocese fell more and more into the hands of 
conservatives, it was natural that he should move 
from the Cathedral to St. George's. A year later 
(1925) his divorce of his second wife, Anna 
Gertrude W. Mullins — whom he married Mar. 

17, 1917 — on grounds of cruelty, created a situ- 
ation which led to his retirement from the Epis- 
copal ministry. Tyson declared that the resig- 
nation, thus precipitated by unhappy outward 
events, was in reality "the final result of a proc- 
ess" within himself which had begun long before. 
In 1925 he entered the Congregational ministry, 
and in his last years was pastor of the Com- 
munity Church, Summit, N. J., a society com- 
posed predominantly of Unitarians and Uni- 
versalists. 

Tyson died in New York after a week's illness 
from pneumonia. He was survived by his third 
wife, Margaretta Wentz, whom he married Apr. 

18, 1927, and by twelve of thirteen children by 



105 



Udd 



en 



Uhl 



er 



his first wife. He was the author of The Eucha- 
rist in St. Paid (1923), and numerous lectures, 
sermons, and articles. 

[Who's Who in America, 1918-19, 1932-33 ; jV. Y. 
Times, Sept. 17, 1932; N. Y. Herald Tribune, Sept. 
17, 1932; Churchman, Sept. 24, 1932; F. W. Leach, 
"Old Philadelphia Families — The Tyson Family," 
North American (Phila.), July 21, 1912.] J H H 

UDDEN, JOHAN AUGUST (Mar. 19, 1859- 
Jan. 5, 1932), geologist, was born in Uddabo, 
Lekasa parish, Vestergotland, Sweden, the son 
of Andrew Larsen and Inga Lena (Andersdot- 
ter) Udden. Two years after his birth his par- 
ents emigrated to America, and settled in Min- 
nesota, where Udden spent his early youth. He 
was graduated with the B.A. degree from Au- 
gustana College, Rock Island, 111., in 1881, stud- 
ied at the University of Minnesota in 1886, and 
received the M.A. degree from Augustana in 
1889. From 1881 to 1888 he taught natural sci- 
ence, German, and civics at Bethany College, 
Lindsborg, Kan., and from 1888 to 191 1 was pro- 
fessor of geology and natural history at Au- 
gustana College. He held membership in several 
scientific societies, and was a fellow of the Amer- 
ican Association for the Advancement of Sci- 
ence. His fields of investigation included strati- 
graphic and areal geology, work of the atmos- 
phere, till in the upper Mississippi Valley, clastic 
sediments, and related subjects. His published 
papers on these subjects number about one hun- 
dred titles. 

The geologic activities of Udden had far- 
reaching effects upon the development of both 
theoretical and economic geology. The qualities 
of his mind and the circumstances of his early 
scientific training combined to give him pre- 
eminent characteristics as a research geologist. 
Because of the slight development of specialized 
geological training in his early school days, he 
received relatively little professional guidance 
in the subject. He early determined to rely upon 
his own powers of observation and reasoning. 
The richness and originality of his work and the 
independence of his geological thought are at- 
tested by all his principal papers. His study on 
the "Mechanical Composition of Clastic Sedi- 
ments," published in the Bulletin of the Geologi- 
cal Society of America, Dec. 14, 1914, estab- 
lished an adequate quantitative method of treating 
the material, and outlined the major features of 
this early branch of sedimentology. 

His active mind was ever alert for the develop- 
ment of new geological methods. He was one of 
the first in America to point out and stress the 
value of seismograph observations for locating 
geologic structure. His work on the technique 
of examining subsurface material, now universal- 



ly followed, was purely pioneer research. In 
Texas he worked on a virgin field with an ob- 
servant, open, and critical mind, and his labors 
found their rich reward in the contributions 
made to the science of geology and to the eco- 
nomic development of the state. In grateful 
recognition of services that he gave, his many 
friends joined in establishing in his honor the 
Johan August Udden Publication and Research 
Fund of The University of Texas. 

Udden was geologist of the Bureau of Eco- 
nomic Geology and Technology of The Univer- 
sity of Texas from 191 1 to 1915, and director of 
the Bureau from that time until his death. He 
was a special assistant with the Iowa Geological 
Survey, 1897-1903, geologist for the University 
of Texas Mineral Survey, 1903-04, geologist for 
the Illinois Geological Survey, 1906-11, and spe- 
cial agent of the United States Geological Sur- 
vey, 1908-14. His distinguished services were 
recognized by his native country in 191 1, when 
he was decorated with the Order of the North 
Star by the king of Sweden. At his death he was 
survived by his widow, Johanna Kristina Davis, 
to whom he had been married in 1882, and one 
of their four children. 

[Who's Who in America, 1930-31 ; C. L. Baker. 
"Memorial of Johan August Udden," Bull. Geological 
Soc. of America, Apr. 30, 1933 (includes a bibliography 
of Udden's publications) ; E. H. Sellards, Bull. Am. 
Asso. Petroleum Geologists, Mar. 1932; Memorial to 
Dr. Johan August Udden: The Univ. of Tex. Bull.. 
No. 3201, Nov. 1932; Alcalde (Univ. of Tex.), Mar. 
1932; Dallas Morning News, Jan. 6, 1932.] 

E.H. S. 

UHLER, PHILIP REESE (June 3, 1835- 
Oct. 21, 1913), entomologist, librarian, was born, 
in Baltimore, Md., the son of George Washing- 
ton Uhler, a merchant of that city, and Anna 
Maria (Reese) Uhler. His great-grandfather, 
Erasmus Uhler, emigrated to America from Eng- 
land and served as a private in the Revolutionary 
War. Uhler was educated at the Latin School 
conducted by Daniel Jones and at Baltimore Col- 
lege. He began to collect insects after his father 
had bought a farm near Baltimore, and in this he 
was encouraged by the Rev. John Gottlieb Mor- 
ris [q.z>.~\, a well-known entomologist. One of 
Uhler's earliest published papers was his "De- 
scriptions of a Few Species of Coleoptcra Sup- 
posed to be New" {Proceedings of the Academy 
of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, vol. VII. 
1856) . In i860 he wrote his first paper on Heniip- 
tera (Ibid., vol. XII, 1861), and from that time 
on for the rest of his life his entomological pa- 
pers related almost entirely to this group. He 
described many new forms and had a broad, com- 
prehensive view of the whole complex. In 1861 
his Synopsis of the Neuroptcra of North Amer- 



106 



Ulloa 

ica, translated from the Latin of Hermann Au- 
gust Hagen, was published by the Smithsonian 
Institution. In 1863 he was appointed librarian of 
the Peabody Institute in Baltimore, and early in 
1864 was called to Cambridge by J. L. R. Agassiz 
[<;.<■.], for whom he worked as an assistant and 
as librarian in the Museum of Comparative 
Zoology. He taught entomology to some of the 
Harvard undergraduates and gave a series of 
lectures in the museum. At the same time he 
attended lectures at Harvard by Asa Gray, Jef- 
fries Wyman, Agassiz and his son, and Nathaniel 
Southgate Shaler. He returned to Baltimore in 
1867 to become assistant librarian of the Pea- 
body Institute, and in 1870 was made librarian, 
a position he held for the rest of his life. In ad- 
dition to his entomological work he wrote several 
geological papers, and with N. H. Morison he 
prepared an elaborate catalogue of the Peabody 
library (5 vols., 1883-92), which was a model of 
its kind. He was of much assistance in the early 
days of the Johns Hopkins University and was 
associate in natural history from 1876 until the 
last year of his life. He was married in 1869 to 
Sophia Werdebaugh, who died in 1883; on Apr. 
29, 1886, he married Pearl Daniels of Baltimore. 
He had a son by his first wife and a daughter by 
his second. 

His last entomological paper, "Recognition of 
Two North American Species of Cicada," pub- 
lished in Entomological News in March 1905, 
completed practically fifty years of active pub- 
lishing life. He built up a very large collection, 
which he presented before his death to the United 
States National Museum. He was a modest man 
but an excellent speaker, and, like nearly all great 
naturalists, he was always ready to help younger 
workers. Probably his last work was done on a 
monograph of the Capsidac, which, although an 
enormous manuscript accumulated, was never 
published as a whole. His eyesight failed him al- 
most completely in 1907, and at that time he vir- 
tually stopped work. His entomological writings 
in 1903 covered fifty-two titles. This is not a 
large number ; but his work was careful and sound 
and broad. For many years he was the leading 
American worker in a very important group and 
a world authority on entomology. 

TUhler's middle name appears in the Johns Hopkins 
official publications as Rhees. For biog. materials, see 
Who's Who in America, 1912-13; L. O. Howard, in 
Entomological News, Dec. 1913 ; Proc. Entomological 
Soc. of Washington, vol. XVI (1914) ; obituary in Sun 
(Baltimore), Oct. 22, 1913. A list of his writings ap- 
peared in Psyche, Feb., Apr. 1903.] L. 0. H. 

ULLOA, ANTONIO DE (Jan. 12, 1716-July 
5, 1705), first Spanish governor of Louisiana, 
was born in Seville, Spain, the second son of 



Ulloa 

Bernardo de Ulloa y Sousa, the economist, and 
his wife, Josefa de la Torre Guiral. He had a 
long and varied career in the service of the crown 
— in the navy, in the colonial administration, and 
on special missions. Several conspicuous failures 
marred his record, but later investigations al- 
ways showed that he was the victim either of 
circumstances beyond his control or of influential 
officials whose misconduct he tried to correct. 
Moreover, his failures as an administrator were 
outweighed by the success of his writings. His 
two most important works were the result of an 
expedition to South America (1735-44) which 
he and Jorge Juan y Santacilia made in com- 
pany with La Condamine and other French sci- 
entists. One of these works, Rclacion historica 
del viage a la America meridional (Madrid, 
1748), published in English as A Voyage to 
South America (1758), was translated into sev- 
eral other languages and won him an enviable 
reputation both at home and abroad. The other, 
a confidential report on conditions in the vice- 
royalty of Peru written about 1749 in collabo- 
ration with Jorge Juan, revealed grave abuses 
in the Spanish regime and probably stimulated 
the reform movement already in progress at 
court. Published with some alterations at Lon- 
don under the title Noticias Seer etas de America 
(1826), it is one of the best-known accounts of 
Spanish America. 

At the close of a disastrous administration as 
governor of Huancavelica (Peru) and superin- 
tendent of its important quicksilver mine (1758- 
64), Ulloa was appointed governor of Louisiana, 
which had just been ceded to Spain by France. 
Arriving at New Orleans in March 1766, he 
found that the resources at his command were 
utterly inadequate to his needs and throughout 
the period of his residence there he had to let the 
last French governor, Aubry, continue to govern 
the province in the name of the king of Spain. 
The situation was not only anomalous : it was 
impossible. In October 1768, the publication of a 
Spanish order altering the commercial regulations 
provoked a Creole uprising, and Ulloa was ex- 
pelled from the province. Though again he ap- 
pears to have been not wholly responsible for his 
failure — his government had not supported him 
properly, and Aubry wrote that the trouble had 
been brewing for a decade and that a storm was 
necessary to clear the air — the task of pacifying 
Louisiana was entrusted to another man, Ale- 
jandro O'Reilly [q.v.], and Ulloa returned to 
Spain. His conduct as commander of a squad- 
ron in the war with Great Britain (1779) re- 
sulted in his being court-martialed (1779-81), 
but he was vindicated, and during the last years 



I07 



Unangst 



of his life he held high office in the Spanish navy. 
By his wife, Francisca Ramirez de Laredo, 
daughter of the Conde de San Javier, he had 
nine children, one of whom — Francisco Javier 
de Ulloa — rose to the rank of admiral and secre- 
tary of the navy. 

[A. P. Whitaker, "Antonio de Ulloa," Hispanic 
American Hist. Rev,, May 1935, with bibliographical 
references, particularly to Spanish sources ; J. W. 
Caughey, Bernardo de G&lvez in La. (1934); J. E. 
Winston, "The Cause and Results of the Revolution of 
1768 in Louisiana," La. Hist. Quart., Apr. 1932 ; E. W. 
Lyon, Louisiana in French Diplomacy (1934).] 

A. P. W— r. 

UNANGST, ERIAS (Aug. 8, 1824-Oct. 12, 
1903), Lutheran missionary, was born in Easton, 
Pa., the son of Jacob and Eleanora Unangst. He 
attended the local schools for several years and 
in 1847 registered in the academy of Pennsyl- 
vania (now Gettysburg) College. In 1854 he 
received the B.A. degree from the college. He 
studied at the Lutheran Theological Seminary 
at Gettysburg thereafter and was ordained to the 
ministry by the Allegheny Synod in 1857. He 
then read medicine for several months in prepa- 
ration for his work as a foreign missionary. On 
Sept. 24, 1857, he was married to Phebe Ann 
Miliken, of Lewistown, Pa., and a month later 
they sailed from Boston for India, where they 
arrived in April 1858, during the Sepoy rebel- 
lion. After thirteen years in India he returned 
to America on a furlough in 1871, but was called 
back to the Guntur mission in less than a year. 
In 1882 he was again in America on a furlough, 
and again returned to India earlier than he had 
planned because of the death of a fellow mission- 
ary. In 1895, at the age of seventy-one, Unangst 
returned to America, after having labored in In- 
dia as a missionary more than thirty-five years. 
He spent the remainder of his life in Hollidays- 
burg, Pa., at the home of one of his eight chil- 
dren. His wife had died while engaged in active 
service in India in 1888. 

When Unangst arrived in the Guntur mission 
field of the General Synod of the Lutheran 
Church, it had scarcely emerged from the period 
of its beginnings. He was the connecting link 
between its founder, John C. F. Heyer \_q.vJ], 
and a later generation of missionaries. Accord- 
ingly, he had many of the hardships and perplex- 
ing responsibilities of the pioneer. At times he 
worked under great difficulties ; once for a peri- 
od of four years, 1866-70, he was the only mis- 
sionary in the field. But his patience and zeal, 
his tact and devotion triumphed, and under his 
leadership the Guntur mission prospered in spite 
of obstacles. He had the restless spirit of a cre- 
ator of new enterprises. He planned and urged 



Uncas 

the development of special work among the wom- 
en of the middle and upper classes, and a similar 
program for work among the men of these classes. 
He saw the need of a trained native ministry, 
and assisted in establishing an institution for 
that purpose. He excelled as a linguist, both in 
the original languages of the Bible and in Telugu. 
For a quarter of a century he was associated with 
other missionaries of the Telugu country in pre- 
paring for the revision of the Telugu translation 
of the Bible, and in completing the revision. This 
was done under the Madras Auxiliary Bible So- 
ciety and the British and Foreign Bible Society. 
He made several trips to London to meet with 
the group who were engaged in this enterprise. 
He published Historical Sketch of India Mis- 
sions in 1879. He also translated hymns into 
Telugu and wrote several original hymns. 

[L. B. Wolf, After Fifty Years; or, an Hist. Sketch 
of the Guntur Mission (1896) ; A. R. Wentz, Hist, of 
the Gettysburg Theological Seminary (ig2y) ; The 
Alumni Record of Gettysburg Coll. (1932) ; Luth. Mis- 
sionary Jour., Dec. 1903; Pittsburg Dispatch, Oct. 13, 
'903] S.G. H. 

UNCAS (c. 1588-c. 1683), sachem of the Mo- 
hegan Indians, was the son of Oweneco, a Pequot 
sachem, and of Meekunump, daughter of another 
Pequot sachem. In 1626 he married a daughter 
of Sassacus [q.v.], chief sachem of the Pequots, 
and later a daughter of Sebequanash, a Ham- 
monassett sachem. Rebelling against Sassacus, 
Uncas was defeated and banished. He fled to the 
Narragansetts, but later made his peace with his 
kinsmen and returned to the Pequots. It is said 
that he rebelled thus more than once. On his 
final revolt the Pequot territory was divided, and 
Uncas became ruler of the western part, called 
Moheag, his tribe becoming known as the Mo- 
hegans. He courted the favor of the English and 
in May 1637, with Miantonomo [q.?'.], chief 
sachem of the Narragansetts, joined them in war 
on the Pequots. He was not wholly trusted, how- 
ever, and was accused of harboring the enemy. 
In June 1638 he went to Boston with an escort 
of thirty-seven men and offered the Governor a 
present of wampum, which was refused until he 
had satisfied the government of his loyalty; he 
was then given "a fair, red coat" and food for his 
homeward journey, and "departed very joyful" 
(Winthrop's Journal, post, I, 271). Later that 
year he signed a treaty of peace with Miantonomo 
and with the English at Hartford. 

In 1643 he complained to the Commissioners 
of the United Colonies that Miantonomo had 
hired a Pequot to kill him, and that some of the 
followers of Sequasson, an undersachem of the 
Narragansetts, had shot at him as he was going 
down the Connecticut. An attempt by John 

08 



Uncas 

Haynes [#.?'.], governor at Hartford, to make 
peace between Uncas and Sequasson failed, and 
in the war which followed, through treachery, 
Uncas captured Miantonomo and delivered him 
to the English at Hartford. The Commissioners 
of the United Colonies at Boston now gave Uncas 
permission to kill the Narragansett chief, and 
agreed to assist him should the Narragansetts 
make war on him. Accordingly, Miantonomo 
was killed by a brother of Uncas, and when the 
Narragansetts demanded satisfaction the Eng- 
lish intervened. The peace agreement made in 
September 1644 was of short duration, however, 
and in the spring of 1645 Uncas was besieged in 
his stronghold on the Connecticut by the Nar- 
ragansett sachem Pessacus and almost forced to 
surrender, but was saved by the English under 
Thomas Leffingwell, to whom he gave a grant of 
the lands forming the site of the present Norwich. 
Another agreement between the hostile tribes 
was reached but soon Uncas undertook to chas- 
tise a Narragansett sachem for an alleged of- 
fense, and thus created further trouble. Ordered 
to appear before the English at New Haven to 
answer for his conduct, he acknowledged him- 
self guilty on some points and was released. In 
July 1647 many Indians brought complaints 
against him to the United Colonies ; one com- 
plained that Uncas had captured his wife, and 
the Commissioners made him give her up; but 
in answer to the Pequot complaint that he was 
unjust and had many times over collected the 
fines due the English, they merely reproved Un- 
cas. In 1661, however, when he made war with- 
out cause on Ousamequin or Massasoit [(7.7'.], 
the good friend of the Massachusetts colony, the 
English forced him to give up his captives and 
stolen goods, and in 1675 he was ordered to ap- 
pear in Boston to surrender his arms and to leave 
two of his younger sons as hostages to secure his 
neutrality or cooperation in King Philip's War. 
Uncas was tricky, untrustworthy, and disso- 
lute. Daniel Gookin \q.v.~\, governor of the 
"praying Indians," described him in his late years 
as "an old and wicked, wilful man, a drunkard, 
and otherwise very vicious ; who has always been 
an opposer and underminer of praying to God" 
{Collections of the Massachusetts Historical So- 
ciety, 1 ser. I, 1792, p. 208). The apparent for- 
bearance toward him displayed by the English 
of Connecticut and Massachusetts was probably 
owing to the fact that Uncas was neighbor to 
Connecticut whereas his enemies, the Narra- 
gansetts, lived in the much detested colony of 
Roger Williams. 

[Winthrop's Journal (2 vols., 1908), ed. by J. K. 
Hosmer ; "Acts of the Commissioners of the United 



Underhill 

Colonies of New England," Records of the Colony of 
New Plymouth, vols. IX-X (1859), ed. by David Pul- 
sifer ; F. M. Caulkins, Hist, of Norwich, Conn. (1866) ; 
S. G. Drake, The Book of the Indians (8th ed., 1841) ; 
F. W. Hodge, Handbook of Am. Indians (1910).] 

J.T.A. 

UNDERHILL, FRANK PELL (Dec. 21, 
1877-June 28, 1932), pharmacologist, toxicolo- 
gist, was born in Brooklyn, N. Y., the son of 
David Bonnett and Emma (Housie) Underhill, 
and a descendant of the ninth generation from 
John Underhill [q.z\]. After attending the pub- 
lic high school of Norwalk, Conn., his entire 
academic career was devoted to Yale University, 
where he received the degrees of Ph.B. in 1900, 
and Ph.D. in 1903. Until 1918 he was on the 
staff of the Sheffield Scientific School, where he 
was associated with Russell H. Chittenden and 
Lafayette B. Mendel. He was professor of 
pathological chemistry from 1912 to 1918, held 
the chair of experimental medicine from 1918 to 
1921, and that of pharmacology and toxicology 
from 1921 until his death. The most significant 
of his earlier researches pertained to the physio- 
logic action of proteins and tartrates, and to the 
effects of chemical substances upon the behavior 
of sugars, salts, and water within the body. With 
H. Gideon Wells, he was the co-discoverer of 
tartrate nephritis. 

Closely identified with the beginnings of the 
Chemical Warfare Service, Underhill attained 
therein the rank of lieutenant-colonel. He was 
appointed the United States representative to the 
Interallied Gas Warfare Conference at Paris, in 
October 1918, and became vice-president of the 
conference. With a staff of experts he investi- 
gated chlorine, phosgene, and chlorpicrin, and 
detailed their effects upon the animal body in his 
book, The Lethal War Gases: Physiology and 
Experimental Treatment (1920). These inves- 
tigations laid bare in striking fashion the sig- 
nificance of bodily water exchange in lethal gas 
poisoning. A method of treatment for war-gas 
victims was evolved, based upon blood-letting in 
the period of blood dilution, and the introduction 
of fluid during the period of blood concentration. 
The value of such treatment was fully demon- 
strated in animals, and Underhill arranged for 
extensive application on the western front just 
as the World War closed. 

Returning to the Yale University School of 
Medicine after the war, he next traced a close 
relationship between war-gas poisoning and the 
acute devastating form of influenza. In both he 
regarded water as of prime significance. Still 
another condition, that of extensive superficial 
burns, he attacked intensively from a like view- 
point, and discovered the effects of fluid admin- 



lOQ 



Underhill 



Underhill 



istration to be very beneficial. He described the 
successful treatment of twenty-one patients seri- 
ously burned in a New Haven theatre fire. Dur- 
ing his last years, he was deeply interested 
in pellagra. He investigated this disease in its 
possible relationships to vitamin deficiencies as 
well as to a canine condition known as "black 
tongue." 

In person, Underhill was of the scholarly type, 
reserved and quiet ; in action and speech, he was 
unhurried and certain. He was single in pur- 
pose; no compelling hobby distracted him. 
Throughout his career, he exhibited remarkable 
and careful industry, a discriminating intellect, 
and unquestionable scientific honesty. Many re- 
search associates and a still greater number of 
medical and chemical pupils profited by his guid- 
ance. The influence of his research contributions, 
numbering nearly two hundred, has extended 
throughout the world to benefit workers in wide- 
ly varying fields, both theoretical and clinical. 
Among his major works are : The Physiology of 
Amino Acids (1915), A Manual of Selected Bio- 
chemical Methods (1921), and Toxicology; Or 
the Effects of Poisons (1924, second edition, 
1928). He was frequently consulted on com- 
mercial questions, and was likewise a very effec- 
tive medico-legal expert. He was chairman of 
the committee on biological chemistry of the Na- 
tional Research Council, and an associate editor 
of Chemical Abstracts. His many memberships 
in medical and other scientific societies includ- 
ed Die Kaiserlich Leopoldinisch-Carolinisch 
Deutsche Akademie der Naturforscher zu Halle. 
At his death in New Haven, he was survived by 
his widow, Lavina Reed Chasmar, of Norwalk, 
Conn., to whom he had been married on Sept. 2, 
1903. Their two children died in infancy. 

[Who's Who in America, 1932-33 ; J- C. Frost, Un- 
derhill Genealogy (1932), vol. Ill ; H. G. Barbour, "The 
Scientific Activities of Frank Pell Underhill," Yale 
Jour, of Biology and Med., Mar. 1933 (contains com- 
plete bibliography) ; Bull, of Yale Univ., Oct. 15, 1933 ; 
Nczv Haven J our. -Courier, June 29, i93 2 l H. G. B. 

UNDERHILL, JOHN (c. 1597-Sept. 21, 
1672), colonial military leader and magistrate, 
was a son of John and Honor (Pawley) Under- 
hill originally of Kenilworth, Warwickshire. His 
father was a military adventurer in the Dutch 
service, and John, "bred to arms" in the Nether- 
lands, evidently received little education. Influ- 
enced by English refugees, he adopted the out- 
ward forms of Puritanism, but he displayed little 
of the moral stamina which characterized the 
Puritan fathers. When, on Dec. 12, 1628, he mar- 
ried Helena de Hooch he was "a Cadet in the 
guard" of the Prince of Orange. He was an apt 
pupil in a great military school. 



In 1630 he moved to Boston to help organize 
the militia of the Massachusetts Bay. The Bos- 
ton church accepted him (Aug. 27, 1630) ; the 
colony appointed him, with Daniel Patrick, cap- 
tain of the militia, voted him supplies and money, 
and allotted him land ; and, in 1634, the town 
chose him one of its first selectmen. In colonial 
military affairs he encountered popular apathy 
and insufficient supplies, and in an effort to en- 
large the military stores he went to England in 
the winter of 1634-35. 

When Indian troubles arose, Underhill helped 
in avenging Oldham's death at Block Island (Au- 
gust 1636). Lent to Saybrook Plantation in April 
1637, be cooperated with Mason's Connecticut 
forces in destroying Mystic Fort and scattering 
the Pequots. He might have returned to Massa- 
chusetts a hero, had it not been for the bitter 
theological controversy going on there. Under- 
hill had allied himself with the Antinomians and 
signed the petition in behalf of the Rev. John 
Wheelwright [q.2'.'] ; the orthodox party was 
now in control, and Underhill was received as a 
seditious person. He made the situation worse 
for himself by imprudent words (Massachusetts 
Historical Society Collections, 4 ser., vol. VII, 
1865, pp. 170-74), and was disfranchised, dis- 
charged from military service (Nov. 15, 1637), 
and disarmed (Nov. 20, 1637). Humiliated, he 
spent the winter of 1637-38 in England and pub- 
lished in 1638 Nez>ves from America (reprinted 
Ibid., 3 ser., vol. VI, 1837), now a classical ac- 
count of the Pequot troubles. Returning to Bos- 
ton, he was accused of making contemptuous 
speeches and was brought before the General 
Court which, for "his gross & palpable dissimu- 
lation & equivocation," banished him (Sept. 6, 
1638). He fled to Dover (N. H.) just in time to 
escape a church trial for adultery. 

At Dover, he organized a church of which 
Hanserd Knollys became pastor, secured the gov- 
ernorship, and scorned Massachusetts' claims 
upon the region and Boston's summons for a 
church trial. By publishing their accusations, 
however, Massachusetts officials so reduced Un- 
derbill's Dover adherents that, by October 1639, 
he begged forgiveness and thereafter, in expi- 
ation, supported Massachusetts claims to New 
Hampshire (Ibid.. 4 ser., VII, 178-79). Before 
the Boston church (Mar. 5, 1640), he confessed 
to adultery (Records of the First Church of Bos- 
ton, post, p. 13) ; but his repentance was judged 
insincere, and he was excommunicated. Subse- 
quently, however, he satisfied the church and on 
Sept. 3, 1640, he was reinstated (Ibid., p. 15) ; 
shortly afterwards (Oct. 7, 1640) the General 



I IO 



Underwood 



Underwood 



Court suspended his sentence of banishment and 
on June 2, 1641, repealed it. 

Offers from New Amsterdam tempted him, 
but he yielded temporarily to pleas to move to 
Stamford, Conn., which in 1643 he represented 
in the New Haven Court. Soon afterwards, be- 
ing employed by the Dutch to fight Indians, he 
acquitted himself well, moved to Long Island, and 
later became member of the Council for New 
Amsterdam and sellout of Flushing. After the 
Anglo-Dutch war began, he narrowly escaped 
imprisonment for sedition, because in May 1653 
he denounced Stuyvesant's "iniquitous govern- 
ment" for its dealings with the Indians, unjust 
taxation, and other oppressive measures toward 
the English. He offered his services to the 
United Colonies, was refused, secured commis- 
sion as a privateer at Providence (May 19, 1653), 
and endangered the United Colonies' unpatriotic 
neutrality by seizing the Dutch West Indies 
Company's property at Hartford (June 27, 1653), 
precipitating a ten-year dispute with the Hart- 
ford government. After his wife's death in 1658, 
he married Elizabeth Feake, probably became a 
Quaker, and moved to Oyster Bay, establishing 
an estate (Killingworth) on land given by the 
Indians. He helped reduce the New Amsterdam 
Dutch to English control ( 1664-65), was a mem- 
ber of the Hempstead Convention (Mar. I, 
1664/5), surveyor of customs for Long Island 
(Apr. 22, 1665), and, later, high constable and 
under sheriff of North Riding, Yorkshire, Long 
Island. Retiring from public life, Mar. 14, 
1666/7, he died at Killingworth, survived by at 
least two daughters and one son by his first wife 
and three daughters and two sons by the second. 

[The Underbill Soc. of America, sponsored by M. C. 
Taylor, has pub. valuable material concerning Under- 
bill in J. C. Frost, Underbill Gcncal. (4 vols., 1932) 
and H. C. Shelley, John Underbill (1932) ; these are 
decidedly favorable to Underbill and should be read in 
connection with J. K. Hosmer, Winthrop's Jour. (2 
vols., 1908), "Records of the First Church of Boston" 
(manuscript in Mass. Hist. Soc. Lib.), Nathaniel 
Shurtleff, Records of the Gov. and Company of the 
Mass. Bay, vol. I (1853), and L. E. and A. L. de Forest, 
Capt. John Underbill (19^4). See also Docs. Rcl. to the 
Colonial Hist, of ... N. Y ., vols. II (1858), XIV 
O883).] R.P.S. 

UNDERWOOD, BENJAMIN FRANKLIN 

(July 6, 1839-Nov. 10, 1914), freethinker, lec- 
turer, editor, the son of Raymond C. and Har- 
riet (Booth) Underwood, was born in the city 
of New York. He received a slender education 
in the common schools and at Westerly Academy 
in Westerly, R. I., which he supplemented by 
wide reading in philosophy, science, and litera- 
ture. Having enlisted at the outbreak of the 
Civil War in the 15th Massachusetts Volunteer 
Infantry, he was wounded and captured at the 



battle of Ball's Bluff, Oct. 21, 1861, and was con- 
fined for some months in Libby Prison. Re- 
leased through an exchange of prisoners, he re- 
turned to Massachusetts, where he married Sara 
A. Francis, a young suffragist leader, on Sept. 
6, 1862. Reenlisting, in the 5th Rhode Island 
Heavy Artillery, he served with it for the dura- 
tion of the war, being promoted to first lieutenant 
and commended for bravery in action. 

After the war he took up platform work as a 
freethinker. Unlike Robert Green Ingersoll 
[q.v.], he possessed a logical rather than rhetori- 
cal type of mind and had considerable philosophic 
acumen. During the seventies and eighties he 
terrorized the churches of the East by his cus- 
tom of issuing a public challenge to the clergy 
of the large cities to meet him in a series of de- 
bates, these series running from three to as many 
as thirty meetings. It was an unusual clergyman 
who was able to rival him in forensic ability, and 
gradually ministers became so wary of accept- 
ing his challenges that only the boldest ventured 
to enter the lists against him. The issue usually 
turned upon the acceptance or interpretation of 
the theory of evolution, of which he was one of 
the earliest and most zealous American support- 
ers. The most notable of these intellectual com- 
bats was one in which Prof. Asa Gray [<j.z\] of 
Harvard participated, in a symposium organized 
by Underwood in Boston (1873). Although in- 
fluenced by the deism of Thomas Paine as well 
as by the agnosticism of Herbert Spencer, Un- 
derwood's own position approached that of ortho- 
dox materialism. During his earlier, more ag- 
gressive years he published a number of lectures 
and pamphlets on such topics as Darwinism 
(1875), The Crimes and Cruelties of Christiani- 
ty O877), Christianity and Materialism, Will 
the Coming Man Worship God?, Modern Sci- 
entific Materialism, Naturalism vs: Supernatu- 
ralism. Spiritualism from a Materialistic Stand- 
point, Paine, the Religious and Political Re- 
former, Woman: Her Past and Present, Her 
Rights and Wrongs — little materialistic tracts 
containing much trenchant argument. From 
1880 to 1886 he edited the Boston Index ; then, 
moving to Chicago, he edited the Open Court in 
1887 and the Illustrated Graphic News in 1888; 
from 1893 to 1895 he was editorial writer for the 
Philosophical Journal ; in 1893 he acted as chair- 
man of the Congress of Evolution held in con- 
nection with the World's Columbian Exposition. 
He moved to Quincy, 111., in 1897 to assume the 
editorship of the Quincy Journal, a position which 
he held until within a year of his death. In spite 
of his penchant for debate, he was of a genial, 
kindly disposition, and during his later life he 



I I I 



Underwood 

became much more reserved in the expression 
of his anti-religious views and seems to have 
modified them to a considerable extent. In 1913 
he retired from active work and returned to his 
boyhood's home in Westerly, R. I., where he died. 

[L. M. Underwood, The Underwood Families of 
America (2 vols., 1913) ; Who's Who in America, 
1914-15; editorial by H. N. Wheeler and obituary in 
Quincy Jour., Nov. 12, 1914; manuscript copy of de- 
bate with the Rev. C. S. Bates of Cleveland, Mar. 21, 
22, 23, 1889.] E. S. B— s. 

UNDERWOOD, FRANCIS HENRY (Jan. 
12, 1825-Aug. 7, 1894), author, lawyer, and 
United States consul, was the son of Roswell Un- 
derwood, a farmer of Enfield, Mass., and Phoebe 
(Hall) Underwood. He was probably a descend- 
ant of Joseph Underwood who emigrated from 
England to Massachusetts in 1637. In spite of 
extreme poverty he managed to prepare himself 
for college and entered Amherst with the class of 
1847. After one year, however, he left college to 
teach school in Kentucky, declining the offer of 
an uncle to pay the expenses of his education on 
condition that he become a minister. In the South 
he studied law, was admitted to the bar (1847), 
and married, in Taylorsville, Ky., May 18, 1848, 
Louisa Maria Wood. His original antipathy to 
slavery was increased by what he saw of the 
institution, and he returned to Massachusetts in 
1850 an ardent advocate of Free Soil principles. 
After twelve months of private law practice in 
Webster, Mass., he was appointed clerk of the 
state Senate for the session of 1852. Political 
feeling in the North had been roused by the pas- 
sage of the Fugitive Slave Law, but had not yet 
taken form. Underwood succeeded in interesting 
John Punchard Jewett [q.vJ], the publisher of 
Uncle Tom's Cabin, in a scheme for establishing 
a magazine which should enlist the literary forces 
of New England in a crusade against slavery. 
He secured the cooperation of a distinguished 
list of contributors and was ready to launch the 
new venture in December 1853. But at the last 
moment the publishers declined to proceed and the 
whole scheme had to be temporarily abandoned. 
Underwood next entered the publishing house 
of Phillips, Sampson & Company, Boston, as 
literary editor, and for some time devoted him- 
self to extending his acquaintance among Boston 
and Cambridge authors. He then revived the 
project of a magazine. The cautious Phillips 
was slow to accept the proposal, but Underwood's 
efforts were warmly seconded by William Lee, 
a junior member of the firm, and by Harriet 
Beecher Stowe. Their united persuasions at 
length overcame the publisher's reluctance. On 
May 5, 1857, occurred the memorable dinner at 
the Parker House when Emerson, Lowell, 



Underwood 

Holmes, Longfellow, John Lothrop Motley, and 
James E. Cabot joined Phillips and Underwood 
in discussing plans for the yet unnamed maga- 
zine. In consequence of this and several succeed- 
ing dinners Underwood, who naturally expected 
to act as editor, was sent abroad to solicit con- 
tributions from British authors. He returned in 
midsummer to find the success of the project im- 
periled by the financial panic of 1857. Realizing 
at once that the prestige of James Russell Lowell 
[q.v.] as editor would strengthen the undertaking, 
Underwood, "without a suggestion from any per- 
son," nominated his friend for the position, and 
Lowell accepted. At the same time Holmes chris- 
tened the new publication the Atlantic Monthly. 
The first number appeared under the date of 
November 1857, and almost at once the maga- 
zine assumed the lead among American peri- 
odicals. Underwood's connection with the enter- 
prise that he had projected and brought into 
being lasted only two years, during which time 
he loyally performed the routine work of assistant 
editor, sifting all contributions and making up 
numbers subject to Lowell's approval. In 1859 
both Phillips and Sampson died, their firm was 
dissolved, and the Atlantic became the property 
of Ticknor & Fields. Underwood, to his deep 
regret, was not retained by the new proprietors. 
After leaving the Atlantic he was elected 
(1859) clerk of the Superior Criminal Court of 
Boston. Social, literary, and civic affairs oc- 
cupied much of his time. He was an original 
member and second president of the Papyrus 
Club, and for ten years served on the Boston 
school committee. To secure leisure for more 
sustained literary work he resigned his clerk- 
ship in 1866 and engaged in private business 
ventures, some of which proved to be unfortunate. 
Meanwhile he wrote manuals of English and 
American literature; Cloud-Pictures (1872), a 
volume of short stories ; Lord of Himself ( 1874) , 
Man Proposes (1885), and Doctor Gray's Quest 
(1895), novels; and biographies of Longfellow, 
Lowell, and Whittier. His wife, by whom he had 
had five children, died in 1882. By appointment 
of President Cleveland (confirmed, Apr. 28, 
1886) Underwood succeeded Francis Brett Harte 
[q.i>.~\ as United States consul at Glasgow. He 
was recalled when the Democrats went out of 
office, but returned to Scotland (appointment 
confirmed, Sept. 2, 1893) at the beginning of 
Cleveland's second term, this time to be consul 
at Leith. He died in Edinburgh. Underwood's 
life abroad brought him many friendships and 
new distinctions, including an honorary LL.D. 
from the University of Glasgow. He also found 
consolation in a young Scotch wife, Frances 



I 12 



Underwood 



Underwood 



Findlay of Callendar, near Glasgow. In the in- 
terval between his consulships he wrote his best 
book, Quabbin, the Story of a Small Town 
(1893), a pleasantly discursive account of En- 
field as he remembered it from his boyhood. 
Nevertheless, his last years were not entirely 
happy. He was painfully conscious that he had 
not won the recognition that his industry, talent, 
and genial nature deserved. Always it had been 
his fate to play a secondary role, contributing 
much to the fame of others but gaining little 
credit for himself. As Francis Parkman lucidly 
pointed out to him, he was "neither a Harvard 
man nor a humbug" and so, being both unassum- 
ing and unsupported, a victim of his own merit. 

[L. M. Underwood, The Underwood Families of 
America (2 vols., 1913) ; Amherst Coll. Biog. Record 
(1927) ; J. T. Trowbridge, "The Author of Quabbin," 
Atlantic Monthly, Jan. 1895 ; Bliss Perry, "The Editor 
Who Was Never the Editor,'* Park-Street Papers 
(1908) ; M. A. DeW. Howe, The Atlantic Monthly and 
Its Makers (1919) ; obituary in Times (London), Aug. 
9, 1894 ; scrapbook of newspaper clippings relating to 
Underwood's years in Scotland in the Jones Lib., Am- 
herst.] G. F. W. 

UNDERWOOD, HORACE GRANT (July 
19, 1859-Oct. 12, 1916), missionary, was born 
in London, England, the fourth of six children 
of John and Elizabeth Grant (Maire) Under- 
wood. His father, whose inventive work as a 
manufacturing chemist had won him recognition 
from the Royal Society of Arts, emigrated to New 
Durham, N. J., in 1872, and engaged in the man- 
ufacture of inks and special papers, a business 
which developed into the Underwood Typewriter 
Company. At ten Horace was sent to a Catholic 
school in France ; he continued his studies in 
America at Hasbrouck Institute, Jersey City ; at 
the University of the City of New York (later 
New York University), from which he grad- 
uated in 1 88 1 ; and at the New Brunswick Theo- 
logical Seminary, where he completed his course 
in 1884. 

Having had a missionary career in view from 
childhood, he was ordained in November 1884 
to the Dutch Reformed ministry and commis- 
sioned missionary to Korea by the Presbyterian 
Board. He arrived at Chemulpo, Apr. 5, 1885, 
and, though missionaries were not welcomed in 
that newly opened land, he was given duties at 
the government hospital just established. He 
soon acquired the language, and in 1890 pub- 
lished A Concise Dictionary of the Korean Lan- 
guage. He began the translation of the Scrip- 
tures into Korean, and was chairman of the 
board of translators until his death. In 1886 he 
opened an orphanage at Seoul, which became 
the John D. Wells Academy. In 1889 he or- 
ganized the Sai Mun An Church, of which he 



was still the pastor when he died. At Seoul he 
married, Mar. 13, 1889, Dr. Lillias Stirling Hor- 
ton, then serving as physician to the queen. On 
their wedding trip to the northern border, Un- 
derwood crossed over into Manchuria with thirty 
Koreans, whom he there baptized, thus conform- 
ing with the letter of his promise not to engage 
in such work while so traveling in Korea. This 
promise was exacted because of a proselyting trip 
he had made with the Rev. Henry Gerhard Ap- 
penzeller [g.f.] in 1888, which resulted in the 
issuance of a decree, later recalled, forbidding 
the teaching of Christianity in Korea. Under- 
wood's work, with that of his associate mission- 
aries, raised Korea to the foremost place among 
mission fields. From 1897 to 1901 he published 
at his own expense a native paper, the Christian 
News. He was instrumental in organizing the 
Seoul branch of the Young Men's Christian As- 
sociation, and aided in establishing the Sever- 
ance Hospital and the Chosen Union Christian 
College (Presbyterian-Methodist). After the 
assassination of the queen in 1895, he became 
the trusted intermediary of the king, even con- 
veying his food from his own table to avoid the 
danger of poisoning. This activity was criti- 
cised, certain publications calling him "Under- 
wood the schemer" ( Undcrzvood of Korea, post, 
p. 154). He died at Atlantic City and was buried 
at New Durham, N. J. He was the author of 
An Introduction to the Korean Spoken Lan- 
guage (1890), The Call of Korea (1908), and 
The Religions of Eastern Asia (1910). He was 
a member of the Royal Asiatic Society and the 
British Foreign Bible Society. He lectured on 
missions at Princeton in 1908 and at New York 
University in 1909. His wife died in Seoul, Oct. 
20, 1 92 1. She was the author of Fifteen Years 
among the Topknots (1904), Tommy Tompkins 
in Korea (1905), and Underwood of Korea 
(1918). Their only son became an author and a 
missionary in Korea. 

[L. M. Underwood, The Underwood Families of 
America (1913), vol. II; Who's Who in America, 
1 91 6-1 7; Biog. Record, Theological Seminary, New 
Brunswick (1912) ; Lillias H. Underwood, Underwood 
of Korea (1918) ; W. E. Griffis, A Modern Pioneer in 
Korea (1912); H. H. Underwood, Modern Educ. in 
Korea (1926) ; H. N. Allen, A Chronological Index of 
Korea (1901), and Things Korean ( 1908) ; J. S. Gale, 
The Vanguard (1904) ; Lillias H. Underwood, and A. 
J. Brown, in Missionary Review of the World, Dec. 
1916; obituary in N. Y. Times, Oct. 13, 1916 ; per- 
sonal recollections ; information from Underwood's 
family.] H.N. A. 

UNDERWOOD, JOHN CURTISS (Mar. 14, 
1809-Dec. 7, 1873), jurist, was the son of John 
and Mary (Curtiss) Underwood of Litchfield, 
Herkimer County, N. Y. On his father's side he 



IT 3 



Underwood 



Underwood 



was a direct descendant of William Underwood, 
who came from England to Concord, Mass., 
probably prior to 1640, and in 1652 moved to 
Chelmsford. One of William's descendants, 
Parker Underwood, removed from Chelmsford 
to Litchfield, where his grandson, John Cur- 
tiss Underwood, was subsequently born and 
reared. He was graduated from Hamilton Col- 
lege in 1832. While there he became one of the 
founders of the Alpha Delta Phi fraternity. Af- 
ter his graduation he went to Virginia ; obtained 
employment as a tutor; began the study of law; 
and later returned to Herkimer County to begin 
practice. On Oct. 24, 1839, he married Maria 
Gloria Jackson of Clarksburg, Va. (now W. 
Va.) — a double cousin of "Stonewall" Jackson, 
and a member of the family in which Underwood 
had formerly served as tutor. The couple soon 
acquired about eight hundred acres of land in 
Clarke County, established their home there, and 
sought to introduce dairying into that portion 
of Virginia (Underwood Families, post, I, 364- 
77). Three children were born to them. 

A Free-soiler in politics, Underwood was a 
delegate to the Republican National Convention 
of 1856, and during the ensuing campaign in- 
curred such unpopularity by his utterances on 
the subject of slavery that he removed from Vir- 
ginia. In i860 he was a delegate to the conven- 
tion which nominated Lincoln, in behalf of 
whose candidacy he stumped New England and 
the Middle States. After the election he was 
nominated as United States consul to Callao, 
Peru, the nomination being confirmed July 26, 
1861. On July 25, however, Lincoln nominated 
him fifth auditor of the Treasury and the ap- 
pointment was confirmed on Aug. 1. On Jan. 
25, 1864, he was appointed judge of the district 
court of Virginia, in which capacity he asserted 
the right of the United States to confiscate prop- 
erty of "persons in rebellion," and advocated ex- 
tension and protection of negro civic rights. 
The most noteworthy case with which he was 
connected was that of Jefferson Davis. At the 
session of the grand jury held at Norfolk in May 
1866, at which Davis was indicted for treason, 
Underwood delivered a charge of some length 
and severity. The session adjourned to meet in 
Richmond on June 5, and local feeling was run- 
ning so high that there was speculation as to 
whether Underwood would risk assassination by 
appearing. He was present at the appointed time, 
however, and in another charge to the grand jury 
scathingly denounced the press and many resi- 
dents of Richmond. Later, he refused to admit 
Davis to bail, on the ground that he was a mili- 
tary prisoner, and not, in consequence, within 



the power of the civil authorities [New York 
Herald, May 12, June 6, 7, 12, 1866). 

When the drastic Reconstruction acts of 
March 1867 were applied to Virginia, Under- 
wood was chosen delegate to, and president of, 
the constitutional convention which assembled 
at Richmond, Dec. 3, 1867. This convention 
drew up what came to be known as the "Under- 
wood Constitution" ( Underwood Families, I, 
376). Certain of its provisions, subsequently 
eliminated by popular vote on ratification in 
1869, would have placed the government "based 
on such a constitution, in the hands of negroes, 
'scalawags' and 'carpet-bag' adventurers" (Bur- 
gess, post, p. 227). With its proscriptive fea- 
tures removed, however, the constitution proved 
to be satisfactory, and remained the organic law 
of Virginia from 1869 until 1902. 

Underwood eventually acquired several thou- 
sand acres of land. To a portion of this he ob- 
tained title at the close of the war by methods 
which evoked widespread criticism, involved him 
in litigation, and even caused him to be subject- 
ed to physical assault. His death from apoplexy 
occurred at his residence in Washington, D. C. 

TL. M. Underwood. The Underwood Families of 
America (1913) ; N. Y. Herald, May 12, June 6, 7, 12, 
1866, Dec. 9, 1873 ; N. Y. Times, May 12, June 6. 8, 
1866, Nov. 12, Dec. 9, 1873 ; The Debates and Pro- 
ceedings of the Constitutional Convention of the State 
of Va. (1868); J. W. Burgess, Reconstruction and 
the Constitution (1902); H. J. Eckenrode, The Pol. 
Hist, of Va. During the Reconstruction (1904) ; R. F. 
Nichols, "U. S. vs. Jefferson Davis," Am* Hist. Rev., 
Jan. 1926.] R.W.I. 

UNDERWOOD, JOSEPH ROGERS (Oct. 
24, 1791-Aug. 23, 1876), jurist, representative 
and senator from Kentucky, was born in Gooch- 
land County, Va., the eldest of eight children of 
John and Frances (Rogers) Underwood. He 
was a descendant of Thomas William (or Wil- 
liam Thomas) Underwood, who was born about 
1675 an d came to Virginia from England as a 
boy. Joseph's father was a person of standing 
in his community and often represented the 
county in the legislature. His resources were so 
meager, however, that he found it impossible 
properly to educate all his children. Hence, 
when twelve years old, Joseph was sent to his 
uncle, Edmund Rogers, in Barren County, Ky., 
who gave him the attention of a parent. He was 
instructed for a year by Rev. John Howe, near 
Glasgow, spent a term under Samuel Findley at 
Danville, and later attended a school at Lancas- 
ter. He entered Transylvania University and 
was graduated in 181 1. He immediately began 
the study of law in Lexington under the instruc- 
tion of Robert Wickliffe, but before he had se- 
cured a license to practise he volunteered in a 



114 



Underwood 

regiment recruited to avenge the massacre at 
the River Raisin. Elected lieutenant in the 13th 
Kentucky Regiment, he became a part of the 
army commanded by Gen. William Henry Har- 
rison [q.r.]. On May 5, 1813, his company was 
defeated and captured at Fort Meigs, and he 
was imprisoned at Fort Wayne. 

In July he returned to Kentucky, received his 
license to practise law, and before the end of 
the year settled at Glasgow. He was town trus- 
tee and county auditor until 1823, when he re- 
moved to Bowling Green, where he maintained 
a residence for the rest of his life. In 1816, when 
everybody in the state was a Jeffersonian Dem- 
ocrat, he entered politics and secured member- 
ship in the lower house of the legislature, repre- 
senting Barren County. After serving four 
years, he decided to retire from politics ; but in 
1825, during the excitement of the "Old Court, 
New Court" parties, he returned to the legisla- 
ture as a representative of the former. He was 
reelected the next year, and in 1828 he ran for 
lieutenant-governor as an anti-Jackson man, but 
was defeated. The same year Gov. Thomas Met- 
calfe appointed him associate justice of the 
court of appeals, in which capacity he served 
until his resignation in 1835. 

Immediately thereafter he was elected to the 
lower house of Congress as a Whig, where he 
served four successive terms (Mar. 4, 1835- 
Mar. 3, 1843). He declined another term, and 
in 1845 was elected to the state legislature and 
chosen speaker. In 1847 he was elected to the 
United States Senate, of which he was a mem- 
ber until Mar. 3, 1853. As a national legislator 
he favored the distribution of the surplus rev- 
enues among the states, and in 1837, even when 
the panic was upon the country, demanded of 
Congress the completion of the payments prom- 
ised. He opposed the famous rule of the House 
excluding slavery petitions, on the ground that 
the abolitionists would wax strong as the result 
of the agitation which would be raised if it 
were passed. He took the Whig position of 
opposition to the Mexican War and the acqui- 
sition of territory. Being a strong believer in 
liberty for all, he applauded the revolutionary 
movement in Europe in 1848, though he op- 
posed the reception of Kossuth by Congress as 
meddling. In the troubles of 1850 he took a calm 
attitude and supported the compromise meas- 
ures. Though he strongly supported the South 
on slavery, he never mentioned secession. He 
thoroughly believed in the colonization move- 
ment, and sought federal aid in returning free 
negroes to Africa. He was a consistent advocate 
of national economy, opposing large armies and 



Underwood 

navies, the extension of pensions, the padding of 
mileage accounts, and various petty expenditures 
by public officials. A great admirer of Henry 
Clay, he served as a presidential elector on his 
ticket in 1824 and in 1844. 

Underwood remained a Unionist throughout 
the Civil War, though he had a son in the Con- 
federate army. In i860 he again entered the Ken- 
tucky legislature and served until 1863, when he 
finally relinquished public office for the practice 
of law and agriculture. The war made him a 
Democrat; he attended the national convention 
in Chicago in 1864, and the next year he was in- 
strumental in reorganizing the party in Ken- 
tucky. He was a large man physically, benevo- 
lent, public-spirited, and truly a man of the peo- 
ple. He accumulated a considerable fortune. 
On Mar. 26, 1817, he married Eliza M. Trotter; 
she died in 1835, and on Feb. 27, 1839, he mar- 
ried Elizabeth Cox, a daughter of the mayor of 
Georgetown, D. C. ; by each marriage he had 
eight children. A son by his second wife, John 
C. Underwood, became lieutenant-governor of 
Kentucky, and a grandson, Oscar W. Under- 
wood [q.v.], became a senator from Alabama; 
a brother, Warner Lewis Underwood, was a 
Kentucky congressman and United States con- 
sul at Glasgow, Scotland. 

[For sources, see L. M. Underwood, The Under- 
wood Families of America (1013) ; Lewis and R. H. 
Collins, Hist, of Ky. (1882); The Biog. Encyc. of 
Ky. (1878) ; Biog. Dir. Am. Cong. (1928) ; Am. Rev., 
June 1848; Louisville Commercial, Aug. 25, 1876. A 
few letters from Underwood to J. J. Crittenden are in 
the Crittenden MSS. in the Lib. of Cong.] E. M. C. 

UNDERWOOD, LORING (Feb. 15, 1874- 
Jan. 13, 1930), landscape architect, was born at 
Belmont, Mass., the youngest of three children 
of William James and Esther Crafts (Mead) 
Underwood. His grandfather, William Under- 
wood, emigrated to Boston from England in 
1817. Having completed his preparatory work 
at the Noble & Greenough School, Boston, Un- 
derwood entered Harvard College, from which 
he received the degree of A.B. in 1897. On Oct. 
14, 1897, he married Emily Walton of Newark, 
N. J., who with three daughters survived him. 
The year 1898-99 he spent in study at the Bus- 
sey Institution at Harvard, and the following 
year he spent in travel and study abroad. In 
Paris he attended the ficole d'Horticulture, 
studying under Edouard Andre, the celebrated 
French landscape architect. Thus was laid the 
educational foundation which, coupled with his 
sensitiveness to beauty and his intense love of 
nature, made him one of the outstanding land- 
scape architects of his day. On his return from 
abroad in 1900 he established his home in Bel- 



"5 



Underwood 

mont and soon afterwards began the practice of 
his profession in Boston, where he maintained 
an office until his death. During the World 
War he rendered notable service as landscape 
architect of the housing development at Bath, 
Me., one of the United States Housing Corpo- 
ration's villages for war workers. He was also 
a member of the Fuel Administration. In 1919 
Laurence S. Caldwell joined him as partner. 

Although he was landscape architect for the 
Mother Church, the First Church of Christ, Sci- 
entist, Boston, and other New England insti- 
tutions, designed several subdivisions, and was 
for many years consulting landscape architect 
for Vassar College, it is not so much for these 
as for the many smaller home gardens which he 
designed that he will be long remembered. His 
field was largely New England. He was much 
sought after as a lecturer upon old New Eng- 
land gardens, and upon village and landscape 
improvement. His lectures were illustrated by 
lantern slides made by a direct color process, 
in the use of which he was a pioneer. For the 
display of these lantern slides he invented an in- 
geniously devised five-sided standard with in- 
terior illumination. His book, The Garden and 
Its Accessories (1906), remains after thirty 
years the outstanding American work on the 
subject. He was also the author of A Garden 
Diary and Country Home Guide (copyright 
1908). Of a generous nature and keenly inter- 
ested in all that pertained to his chosen profes- 
sion, he gave freely of his time and abilities in 
many positions of responsibility. He was at one 
time president of the Boston Society of Land- 
scape Architects ; at the time of his death he was 
a member of the visiting committee of the School 
of Landscape Architecture of Harvard Univer- 
sity, a director of the Massachusetts Horticul- 
tural Society, and a trustee of the Lowthorpe 
School. 

[See L. M. Underwood, The Underwood Families of 
America (1913), vol. II; Who's Who in America, 
1930-31 ; Harvard Coll. Class of 1897, Twenty-fifth 
Anniversary Report (n.d.) ; Harvard Grads.' Mag., 
Mar. 1930 ; obituary notice in Landscape Architecture, 
Apr. 1930 ; obituaries in Boston Transcript, Jan. 13, 
and Boston Herald, Jan. 14, 1930; unpublished data in 
the possession of L. S. Caldwell, Boston. A large part 
of Underwood's collection of lantern slides is in the 
lib. of the School of Landscape Architecture, Harvard 
Univ -1 K. McN. 

UNDERWOOD, LUCIEN MARCUS (Oct. 
26, 1853-Nov. 16, 1907), botanist, was born in 
New Woodstock, N. Y., the son of John Linck- 
laen and Hannah Jane (Smith) Underwood. 
He was descended probably from Joseph Un- 
derwood (1614-1677) of Hingham and later of 
Watertown, Mass, Farm duties greatly ham- 



Underwood 

pered Underwood's early education. Having 
prepared for college intermittently at near-by 
Cazenovia Seminary, he entered Syracuse Uni- 
versity (1873), where he became greatly inter- 
ested in geology and entomology, and, self-in- 
structed, began his lifelong study of ferns. 
Upon graduation (1877) he taught school for 
a year and obtained the degree Ph.M. from 
Syracuse. In July 1878 he published in L. B. 
Case's Botanical Index an enumeration of the 
ferns growing near Syracuse, his first paper. 
During the following school year he taught nat- 
ural sciences at Cazenovia and completed grad- 
uate studies in geology at Syracuse, receiving 
the degree Ph.D. (1879). He taught in Hed- 
ding College, Abingdon, 111., the next year, and 
in 1880 became professor of geology and botany 
at Illinois Wesleyan University, where he re- 
mained three years. Here he published his first 
book, Our Native Ferns and How to Study 
Them (1881), a synoptical work which (under 
a slightly changed title) passed through six edi- 
tions in twenty years, serving more than any 
other agency to stimulate the study of ferns in 
the United States. Here began also his special 
interest in the Hepaticae, a group upon which 
he published subsequently more than a score of 
important papers, the most widely known being 
his Descriptive Catalogue of the North Ameri- 
can Hepaticae North of Mexico (1884). His 
keen zoological interest at this time is shown 
by several papers, mainly bibliographical, on 
spiders, myriapods, and crustaceans. The or- 
ganization of the Indiana Academy of Sciences 
(1885) resulted largely through his efforts. 

In 1883 Underwood was called to Syracuse 
University as instructor in geology, zoology, and 
botany, and in 1886 became professor. He taught 
here seven years, meanwhile gradually giving 
up zoology for cryptogamic botany and con- 
tributing the text on the Hepaticae to the sixth 
edition (1890) of Asa Gray's Manual of the 
Botany of the Northern United States. There 
followed a year given to study as Morgan Fel- 
low at Harvard and to botanical work in Flor- 
ida. In 1891 he accepted the professorship of 
botany at De Pauw University, transferring af- 
ter four years to the Alabama Polytechnic In- 
stitute as professor of biology. He became pro- 
fessor of botany at Columbia University in July 
1896, and remained in this position until his 
death. In 1899 he published Moulds, Mildews, 
and Mushrooms, an introduction to the study 
of fungi. This and the two synoptical works on 
ferns and hepatics afford the clew to much of 
Underwood's effort — an impelling desire to pop- 
ularize botanical knowledge. From early boy- 

16 



Underwood 

hood he exhibited genius in classifying not only 
objects of natural history but historical data of 
all sorts. He compiled an elaborate genealogy, 
The Underwood Families of America (2 vols., 
I 9 I 3)> which appeared posthumously. 

Underwood's eleven years at Columbia Uni- 
versity, the botanical department of which is af- 
filiated with the New York Botanical Garden, 
left a notable impress. They were given not 
only to botanical exploration in the West In- 
dies, the examination of fern "types" in Euro- 
pean herbaria, and the publication of numerous 
papers on ferns (chiefly American), but also 
to the trenchant advocacy of sounder methods 
in taxonomy and of radical reform in botanical 
nomenclature. From 1901 he served as chair- 
man of the board of scientific directors of the 
Botanical Garden, and in this capacity took a 
leading part in initiating, in 1905, publication of 
the North American Flora, a project he had long 
cherished. Temporarily deranged by overwork 
and worry, he died by his own hand at his home 
in Redding, Conn. He was married, Aug. 10, 
1881, to Marie Annette Spurr, of Oakland, Cal., 
descended in the seventh generation from Jan 
Wybesse Spoor of Albany, N. Y. 

In personality Underwood was uncommonly 
genial and forthright, keen, sympathetic, and 
imbued with a spirit of unselfish helpfulness. 
His professional accomplishment was essentially 
that of an inspiring pioneer and exceptionally 
energetic organizer. 

[Biographical and memorial sketches by C. C. Cur- 
tis, M. A. Howe, J. H. Barnhart, and N. L. Britton, in 
Bull. Torrey Botanical Club, vol. XXXV, pp. 1-40 
(Jan. 1908) ; N. L. Britton, in Columbia Univ. Quart., 
Dec. 1907 ; H. H. Rusby, in Jour. N. Y. Botanical Gar- 
den, vol. VIII, pp. 263-69, portr. (Dec. 1907) ; obitu- 
ary in Hartford Times, Nov. 18, 1907; private infor- 
mation.] W. R. M. 

UNDERWOOD, OSCAR WILDER (May 
6, 1862-Jan. 25, 1929), representative and sen- 
ator from Alabama, was born in Louisville, 
Ky., the son of Eugene Underwood and the lat- 
ter's second wife, Frederica Virginia ( Smith) 
Wilder Underwood. His earliest paternal an- 
cestor in America, Thomas William (or Wil- 
liam Thomas) Underwood, born c. 1675 near 
Norfolk, England, came to Virginia as a boy ; 
and his grandfather, Joseph Rogers Underwood 
[q.v.~\, a native of Virginia, was representative 
and senator from Kentucky. When Oscar was 
three years old, his parents took him with them 
to St. Paul, Minn., and he spent the next decade 
at that frontier outpost. In 1875 his father and 
mother returned to Louisville, and he attended 
the common schools and the Rugby School 
there. He was a student at the University of 
Virginia from 1881 to 1884, and was elected to 



Underwood 

the presidency of the Jefferson Society, one of 
the highest honors within the gift of the student 
body. In 1884 he was admitted to the bar. After 
a brief period of practice in Minnesota, he re- 
moved to Birmingham, Ala., then a small but 
growing town. In 1894 he announced his candi- 
dacy for the House of Representatives from the 
Birmingham district. He took his seat in March 
of the following year and served until June 1896, 
when he was succeeded by Truman H. Aldrich, 
who had contested his' election. He was then 
elected to the nine succeeding Congresses, and 
served continuously from Mar. 4, 1897, until 
Mar. 3, 191 5. The following day he took his seat 
in the Senate, where he remained for two terms 
(1915-27). 

Early in his career as a congressman Under- 
wood proclaimed his belief in the principle of 
a tariff for revenue only enunciated by Presi- 
dent Grover Cleveland. The fact that he stood 
on this platform was evidence of his independ- 
ence of mind, for Birmingham was already a 
center of the iron and steel industry, an industry 
which believed in protection. In no sense a 
spectacular figure, Underwood forged to the 
front by virtue of his high character, his win- 
ning personality, and his unflagging industry. 
Those who knew him best respected him most, 
and after the Democrats captured control of 
the House in the elections of 1910, he was chosen 
by his party as floor leader (1911-15). At the 
same time he became chairman of the powerful 
ways and means committee. In the years imme- 
diately preceding, the Democrats had given lit- 
tle evidence of a coherent policy, and there was 
some uneasiness in the country as to whether 
Underwood, who was without great experience 
as a party helmsman, could mold them into a 
compact fighting force. Not only was he able to 
convince his party and the public of his ability 
to lead, but at the same time his detailed knowl- 
edge of the tariff, gained through years of close 
study, was an invaluable asset. The tariff was 
the issue of the hour. 

President Taft called Congress in special ses- 
sion in 191 1 to act on his Canadian reciprocity 
program. Putting aside narrow partisanship, 
Underwood gave unstinted support to reciproc- 
ity, since he felt it to be to a considerable degree 
compatible with the principles and purposes of 
the Democratic party. But at the same time he 
took the lead in revising many of the tariff 
schedules downward. This tariff legislation was 
all vetoed by President Taft. Thus was created 
an outstanding issue of the presidential cam- 
paign of 1912. Underwood's leadership at the 
special session of 191 1 met and overcame a se- 



II 7 



Underwood 



Underwood 



rious challenge from the powerful William Jen- 
nings Bryan. Bryan charged him publicly with 
protecting certain interests in his tariff sched- 
ules. Underwood abandoned his usual suavity 
as he lashed back at the Commoner in denial of 
the accusation (Congressional Record, 62 Cong., 
1 Sess., pp. 3510-12), and his colleagues of the 
ways and means committee came to the floor of 
the House and supported him. The episode was 
a boomerang for Bryan, for the applause that 
greeted the Underwood statement left no doubt 
as to the attitude of the House. 

Underwood conducted himself with such con- 
spicuous ability in Congress that by the time the 
Democrats convened at Baltimore in 1912 to 
nominate a candidate for the presidency, he 
was among the leading contenders. In fact Wil- 
liam F. McCombs, manager for Woodrow Wil- 
son, felt when the convention opened that Un- 
derwood had the greatest potential strength of 
any of the aspirants (McCombs, post, p. 138). 
He polled 117^ votes on the first ballot, but his 
candidacy was opposed bitterly by Bryan, and 
his potential strength was never realized. He 
declined to be considered for the nomination for 
vice-president after Wilson had been named to 
head the ticket. Following Wilson's election, 
Underwood cooperated to the fullest in carrying 
out the new President's legislative program. His 
work in framing the important tariff bill which 
bears his name and in holding the Democratic 
majority in line behind the Federal Reserve act 
was especially noteworthy. 

Taking his seat in the Senate in 1915, he was 
recognized as one of its most influential mem- 
bers. As a member of the appropriations com- 
mittee during the World War, he had charge of 
some highly important appropriation bills dur- 
ing the illness of Senator Thomas S. Martin 
[<?.r.]. In the Senate fight over the League of 
Nations, Underwood stood with Wilson, al- 
though he personally was of the opinion that the 
President ought to have agreed to certain mild 
reservations. He was strongly dissatisfied with 
the Senate rules, and in 1923, after two years 
as floor leader, he declined to offer for that po- 
sition again. His acceptance of President Hard- 
ing's appointment as one of the four represen- 
tatives of the United States at the conference 
on limitation of armament in 1921-22. and his 
work in securing the ratification of the treaties 
drafted there, was looked at askance by his more 
partisan colleagues. He would probably have 
had opposition if he had sought the post of 
floor leader again. 

In 1923 he announced that he was going to 
give the South a chance to select a Southerner 

I 



to carry the banner of Democracy in the presi- 
dential election of the following year. The Ku 
Klux Klan was sweeping the country, and was 
in control in many states, especially in the 
South, where much of Underwood's strength 
lay. He was strongly advised to say nothing to 
offend the Klan, but that organization seemed 
to him fundamentally un-American, and he felt 
in duty bound to denounce it in no uncertain 
terms. On the eve of the Democratic National 
Convention in New York City, he declared that 
the Klan would be the paramount issue, and 
when the convention met he and others failed 
by a margin of only one vote to have an anti- 
Klan plank included in the platform. After the 
prolonged deadlock between the forces of Wil- 
liam G. McAdoo and Alfred E. Smith had con- 
tinued for fifty ballots, it is said that Smith of- 
fered to throw all his strength to Underwood if 
he could get the support of two Southern states, 
in addition to Alabama (Kent, post, p. 494). 
However, Underwood's uncompromising hos- 
tility to the Klan and national prohibition had 
alienated the South, so there was slight chance 
of his becoming a real contender. 

Before the expiration of his second senatorial 
term in 1927, he announced that he would not 
be a candidate for reelection, and at the close 
of the term he retired to his handsome estate, 
"Woodlawn," near "Mount Vernon" in Vir- 
ginia. He was nearly sixty-five years of age 
and anxious to spend his remaining years in lit- 
erary and other congenial pursuits. During his 
retirement he wrote Drifting Sands of Party 
Politics (1928), in which he discussed govern- 
mental principles. In the pages of this book he 
revealed himself as a devout follower of Thomas 
Jefferson, an advocate of a minimum of gov- 
ernment and a maximum of personal liberty. 
He elaborated upon his oft-expressed opposition 
to sumptuary legislation, particularly the Eigh- 
teenth Amendment, as well as his objections to 
federal regulation of child labor. His strong 
aversion to all extensions of the federal author- 
ity caused him to be regarded by many as an 
ultra-conservative. While in the Senate he had 
taken a leading part in the fight against govern- 
ment operation of a power plant at Muscle 
Shoals, his position being that it should be used 
for the manufacture of nitrates, the purpose for 
which it was erected. He also opposed the wom- 
an's suffrage amendment. 

Underwood was offered an appointment to 
the United States Supreme Court by President 
Harding (New York Times, Jan. 26, 1929; in- 
formation from family), but such a position was 
not congenial to his temperament. He accepted 



18 



Upchurch 



Upchurch 



two appointments from President Coolidge, one 
in 1927 as a member of the international com- 
mission between the United States and France, 
under the treaty of Sept. 15, 1914, and the other 
in 1928 as a delegate to the sixth international 
conference of American states held in Havana, 
Cuba, in that year. He attended this conference, 
but his health was beginning to fail, and in De- 
cember he suffered a cerebral hemorrhage. 
This was followed by a paralytic stroke which 
proved fatal. Word of his death was received 
with unaffected and sincere expressions of sor- 
row in official Washington. His body was 
taken to Birmingham for burial, and the demon- 
strations which marked the obsequies there had 
seldom been equaled in the history of the state. 
He was married on Oct. 8, 1885, to Eugenia 
Massie of Charlottesville, Va., who died in 1900. 
On Sept. 10, 1904, he married Bertha Wood- 
ward of Birmingham. She and two sons by his 
first marriage survived him. 

[O. W. Underwood, Drifting Sands of Party Poli- 
tics (2 ed., 1931), with sketch of Underwood by C. G. 
Bowers; F. R. Kent, The Democratic Party (1928); 
W. F. McCombs, Making Woodrow Wilson President 
(1921) ; Biog. Directory of the Am. Congress: 1774- 
1927 (1928) ; Who's Who in America, 1928-29; T. M. 
Owen, Hist, of Alabama and Dictionary of Alabama 
Biography (1921), toI. IV; obituary compiled by the 
Associated Press and published in afternoon papers, 
such as Evening Star (Washington), Jan. 25, 1929; 
obituary and editorial, N. Y. Times, Jan. 26, 1929, and 
funeral notice, Jan. 29, 1929 ; L. M. Underwood, The 
Underwood Families of America (1913), vol. II ; news- 
paper clippings in possession of his widow relative to 
his fight against the Ku Klux Klan ; letters from his 
former colleagues in Congress ; correspondence with 
his family.] V. D. 

UPCHURCH, JOHN JORDAN (Mar. 26, 
1820-Jan. 18, 1887), founder of the Ancient Or- 
der of United Workmen, was born on a farm in 
Franklin County, N. C, one of four children of 
Ambrose and Elizabeth (Hill) Upchurch. Af- 
ter 1824, when the father was shot dead by his 
wife's brother-in-law, the family was extremely 
poor. In 1837 Upchurch left the farm to learn 
the trade of millwright. Four years later, June 
1, 1841, he married Angelina Green, a Pennsyl- 
vanian, who became the mother of his fifteen 
children. Soon afterward, with his wife's uncle, 
John Zeigenfuss, he opened a hotel in Raleigh, 
said to have been the first temperance house 
south of the Mason and Dixon line. When this 
venture failed, he worked briefly for the Raleigh 
& Gaston Railroad, attempted horse taming for 
a time, and in 1846 moved to Pennsylvania, 
where he entered the employ of the Mine Hill & 
Schuylkill Haven Railroad, in 1851 becoming 
master mechanic. 

In June 1864, train hands, seeking a raise, 
went on strike, and for two weeks, according to 



his own account, Upchurch operated the road in 
the interest of the government with men provid- 
ed by the War Department. The strike was 
broken, and Upchurch determined to unite em- 
ployers and employees "in one grand organiza- 
tion" opposed to trade unions ( Life, post, pp. 22, 
24). On Jan. 1, 1865, he resigned from the rail- 
road to engage in oil speculation, but with its 
collapse at the end of the Civil War, returned, 
off and on, to railroading. In 1868 he settled in 
Meadville, Pa., where he joined the League of 
Friendship, Supreme Mechanical Order of the 
Sun, one of the many secret workers' orders then 
springing up. The Meadville lodge soon split, 
and on Upchurch's initiative a section reor- 
ganized, Oct. 27, 1868, as Jefferson Lodge No. 
1 of the Ancient Order of United Workmen. 
One of the main objects of the new order was 
"To discountenance strikes" (Ibid., p. 57), but 
since the organization had the character of a 
lodge rather than a trade union, it proved impo- 
tent to affect strike movements seriously one way 
or the other. When, a year after its inception, it 
levied a dollar per capita assessment to pay sub- 
stantial death benefits, it began to transform itself 
into a fraternal benefit society, and became the 
model for a movement characteristic of the peri- 
od in America. 

The demand of a rising but propertyless work- 
ing class for a bulwark against sickness, old age, 
and funeral expenses underlay the rapid ex- 
pansion of mutual-benefit societies. Impetus was 
given by the policies of the oldline commercial 
insurance houses, whose rates were very high. 
Indirectly, the societies were influenced by the 
English friendly societies of the sixteenth cen- 
tury and directly, although subordinately, by the 
secrecy, ritualism, and sociability of Freema- 
sonry. Dozens of them went bankrupt until, late 
in the eighties, actuarial calculations were adopt- 
ed and reserves built up. The Ancient Order of 
United Workmen pioneered in this field under the 
direction of Upchurch, who in 1873 had been 
made Past Supreme Master Workman, and today 
he is generally regarded as the founder of the 
mutual-benefit system, which in 1919 numbered 
two hundred fraternal societies in the United 
States and Canada, with more than 120,000 sub- 
ordinate lodges and some 9,000,000 members. 

Upchurch continued to work as master me- 
chanic for various railroads until about 1881, 
after which time he had no regular employment. 
In 1885, at the solicitation of the Order he vis- 
ited California, where he was feted by many 
lodges, and the next year visited Boston and 
Philadelphia. He wrote an autobiography, The 
Life, Labors, and Travels of Father J. J. Up- 



119 



Updegraff 



church (1887), which was edited and published 
posthumously by his fraternal brother, Sam 
Booth. He died in Steelville, Mo., where he had 
settled, and was buried in Bellefontaine Ceme- 
tery, St. Louis. 

[Sources include M. W. Sackett, Early Hist, of Fra- 
ternal Beneficiary Societies in America (19 14) ; Walter 
Basye, Hist, and Operation of Fraternal Insurance 
(copr. 1919) ; F. H. Hankins, "Fraternal Orders," 
Encyc. of the Social Sciences, VI (1931), 423 ; Arthur 
Preuss, A Diet, of Secret and Other Societies (1924) ; 
A. C. Stevens, The Cyc. of Fraternities (1899); St. 
Louis Globe-Democrat, Jan. 19, 1887. In Upchurch's 
autobiog. (Life, p. 13), the year of his birth is given 
as 1822, but all other references to year of birth in the 
Life, including description of coffin plate (p. 228), give 
l820 -J ' H.S— w. 

UPDEGRAFF, DAVID BRAINARD (Aug. 
23, 1830-May 23, 1894), Quaker preacher, 
evangelist, editor, was descended from the fam- 
ily of Op den Graeff, German Mennonites with 
Dutch names who settled in Germantown, Pa., 
with Pastorius in 1683. He was born in Mount 
Pleasant, Ohio, the youngest son of David and 
Rebecca (Taylor) Updegraff. His mother was 
a preacher, and on both sides of his line of an- 
cestry there were prominent Quaker preachers, 
the most noted of whom was his maternal grand- 
mother, Ann Taylor. He was prepared for col- 
lege in the local schools of Ohio and in 185 1 en- 
tered Haverford College, where he remained for 
only one academic year. Returning to Mount 
Pleasant, he entered business. He was twice 
married, first, on Sept. 23, 1852, to Rebecca B. 
Price and, second, on Sept. 4, 1866, to Eliza J. C. 
Mitchell. There were four children by each 
marriage. 

Updegraff's main interest lay in religious in- 
terptetation, and he had marked gifts as an 
evangelist of the type which flourished in Amer- 
ica in the seventies and eighties of the nineteenth 
century. His successful career in this field dates 
from 1869, when .he began to have meetings for 
prayer in his own home. In the early stages of 
his public ministry he worked for the most part 
among his own Quaker fellowship in the Middle 
West, especially in Ohio. He soon, however, 
widened his range of service and became a noted 
leader in the popular -summer gatherings at 
Mountain Lake Park, Garrett County, Md., at 
Pitman Grove, N. J., and in the great interde- 
nominational camp-meetings then being held both 
in the East and the West. As his views took 
final shape in his preaching he became noted 
as the fervid exponent of a special type of re- 
ligious thought, which may fitly be called "Pen- 
tecostal Christianity." He advocated two stages 
of religious experience, which he called justifi- 
cation and sanctification. Justification for him 
meant the divine act by which a sinner is ab- 



Updike 

solved from the guilt and penalty of his sin; 
sanctification was represented as a state of bap- 
tism by the Holy Spirit, perfect peace, joy, love, 
and freedom from the power of sin. 

Within the Society of Friends itself to which 
he belonged, he was widely known as an innova- 
tor and as a leader of a transformed Quakerism. 
He represented an intense form of evangelical 
thought and a dramatic style of preaching. He 
advocated the introduction of singing and set 
pastoral leadership, believed in conversion at a 
definite moment, and had a critical attitude to- 
ward silence in worship and toward the Quaker 
doctrine of the inward light. Midway in his 
career he was baptized with water in the Berean 
Baptist Church of Philadelphia. This brought 
him into sharp conflict with the leaders of the 
Society of Friends in America, which throughout 
its history had been opposed to the practice of 
outward baptism on the part of its members. He 
carried many Ohio Friends with him, and many 
other Friends elsewhere, influenced by his pow- 
erful personality, remained loyal to him through 
the controversies which followed. From 1887 to 
1893 he edited a periodical entitled the Friends' 
Expositor, in which he vigorously interpreted 
his views and defended his position. In 1892 he 
published a volume of sermons and addresses 
with the title, Old Corn, which contains the sub- 
stance of his teaching. He defended his position 
on baptism in two printed booklets. The more 
important one was printed in Columbus, Ohio, 
in 1885, as An Address to the Ohio Yearly Meet- 
ing on the Ordinances; the other was The Or- 
dinances: an Interview (Richmond, Ind., 1886). 
He died at his home in Mount Pleasant, May 23, 
1894. 

[Dougan Clark and J. H. Smith, David B. Updegraff 
and His Work (1895) ; Biog. Cat. of the Matriculates 
of Haverford Coll., 1833-1922 (1922) ; files of Friends' 
Expositor, Christian Worker, and Friends' Review ; 
obituary in Wheeling Reg. (Wheeling, W. Va.), May 
25, 1894-] R.M.J. 

UPDIKE, DANIEL (c. 1693-May 15, 1757), 
attorney-general of Rhode Island, son of Ludo- 
wick and Catherine (Newton) Updike, was 
born in North Kingstown, R. I. His grandfather 
was Gilbert Updike (Gysbert Opdyck), who 
came to New Amsterdam from Wesel sometime 
before 1638. When New Amsterdam was taken 
over by the English, in 1664, he emigrated to 
Rhode Island, and there married the daughter of 
Richard Smith, who had purchased a very large 
tract of land from the Narragansett Indians. 
Daniel was instructed at home by a private tutor 
and supplemented his education by a period of 
travel. He then took up the study of law, and 
after his admission to the bar established him- 



I20 



Updike 

self at Newport. Natural ability and an attrac- 
tive personality quickly brought him to the front 
in the affairs of the colony. In 1722 he was 
elected attorney-general, which office he held 
continuously for the next ten years. One of his 
most important cases was the trial in 1723 of 
thirty-six pirates captured by an English vessel 
off the coast of Long Island. In 1724 he was ap- 
pointed one of the commissioners who, with rep- 
resentatives from Connecticut, sought to locate 
definitely the boundary line between that colony 
and Rhode Island. The settlement of this con- 
troversy was protracted until 1726 when, since 
no agreement could be reached, the final de- 
cision was made by the King in Council. 

Updike declined election as attorney-general 
in 1732 to accept nomination for governor; he 
was defeated, however, by his opponent, William 
Wanton. In 1740 he again represented his colony 
in a boundary line debate, this time with Mas- 
sachusetts. The case was discussed before com- 
missioners appointed by the King, Updike's 
speeches being described by a contemporary, 
Judge Lightfoot, as a brilliant performance 
( Wilkins Updike, Memoirs, post, p. 49). The 
decision reached by the commissioners proved 
unsatisfactory to the Massachusetts delegation, 
and the location of this boundary also was eventu- 
ally settled by the King in Council. 

Since Updike's retirement from the attorney- 
generalship, a law had been passed providing 
that each county of Rhode Island Colony should 
have its own attorney-general, and in 1741 Up- 
dike was elected to the office for Kings County, 
and held it until 1743 when the law was repealed. 
He was then again elected attorney-general for 
the whole colony, remaining as such until his 
death. In 1749, when the supreme court of 
Rhode Island ruled that no English statutes could 
be considered in force unless definitely adopted 
by the colony, Updike was one of the group of 
lawyers who selected the statutes to be proposed 
for adoption. 

Not only was he an outstanding leader in the 
political life of Rhode Island, he was active, also, 
in its literary and social interests. He was a 
charter member of the society for the promotion 
of knowledge and science which was founded in 
Newport in 1730, and out of which grew the 
Redwood Library. Dean Berkeley, during his 
stay in Newport, was the friendly counselor of 
this society, and Updike became intimately asso- 
ciated with him. Updike was married first, Dec. 
20, 1716, to Sarah, daughter of Gov. Benedict 
Arnold: she died in 1718. and on Dec. 22, 1722, 
he married Anstis Jenkins, whose inheritance 
added considerably to his own ample patrimony; 



Upham 

his third wife was Mary (Godfrey) Wanton, 

whom he married Mar. 14, 1745. In appearance 

he was a man slightly above the average height, 

with a dignified bearing, and a clear, pleasing 

voice, which contributed to his success as a 

speaker. 

[C. W. Opdyke, The Op Dyck Geneal. (1889) ; J. O. 
Austin, The Geneal. Diet, of R. I. (1887), p. 397 ; Wil- 
kins Updike, Memoirs of the R. I. Bar (1842) ; J. R. 
Cole, Hist, of Washington and Kent Counties, R. I. 
(1889) ; The Biog. Cyc. of Representative Men of R. I. 
(1881) ; J. R. Bartlett, Records of the Colony of R. I., 
vols. IV, V (1859-60) ; Wilkins Updike, A Hist, of the 
Episcopal Church in Narragansctt, R. I. (2nd ed., 3 
vols., 1907), ed. by Daniel Goodwin.] E.R. B. 

UPHAM, CHARLES WENTWORTH(Ma y 

4, 1802-June 15, 1875), Unitarian clergyman, 
congressman, and historian of the Salem witch- 
craft delusion, was born in St. John, New Bruns- 
wick, the son of Joshua and Mary (Chandler) 
Upham. He was a descendant of John Upham 
who emigrated from England to Weymouth, 
Mass., in 1635. Joshua Upham, a native of 
Brookfield, Mass., a graduate of Harvard, and 
a Loyalist during the American Revolution, had 
served in the British army during the war, and 
at its close had emigrated to New Brunswick, 
where he held the office of judge of the supreme 
court until his death in 1808. Charles attended 
school in St. John, and at the age of twelve he 
was apprenticed to an apothecary. In 18 16 he 
went to Boston to work for his cousin, Phineas 
Upham, a merchant ; but this benevolent kins- 
man, soon perceiving that the boy's inclination 
was for study rather th'an business, placed him 
under the tutelage of Deacon Samuel Greele, and 
in 1817 sent him to Harvard College. Upham 
amply justified his kinsman's aid by graduating 
in 1821, second in his class. He next spent three 
years in the Cambridge Divinity School, and on 
Dec. 8, 1824, was ordained as associate pastor 
of the First Church (Unitarian) of Salem. Here 
he served until 1844 — twelve years as the col- 
league of the Rev. John Prince — when, suffer- 
ing from a bronchial ailment, he resigned. 

During his career as clergyman, he distin- 
guished himself as a learned champion of Uni- 
tarianism. In his discourse Principles of the 
Reformation (1826), he urged the necessity of 
advancing beyond the religious beliefs of the 
Pilgrim fathers. In 1833-34 he engaged in an 
extended controversy with the Rev. George B. 
Cheever [q.v.~\ in the columns of the Salem Ga- 
zette on the subject of Unitarian versus Trini- 
tarian principles. Upham's chief proposition, in 
the support of which he displayed a formidable 
knowledge of the history and literature of the 
Reformation, was that Ralph Cudworth, who had 
been quoted by Cheever in defense of the Trini- 



T 21 



Up ham 

tarian doctrine, was in reality a Unitarian. By 
1840, in The Scripture Doctrine of Regeneration, 
he could rejoice in the "abandonment of Calvin- 
ism" and the "general diffusion of rational 
Christianity." 

Having partially recovered his health, in 1848 
Upham turned to politics, aligning himself with 
the Whig party. In 1849-50 he was a member of 
the state House of Representatives and in 1850- 
51, of the state Senate. He warmly supported 
the presidential candidacy of Zachary Taylor, and 
at the request of the city authorities of Salem he 
delivered a eulogy, July 18, 1850, on the late 
President's life and character. He was a dele- 
gate to the state constitutional convention of 
1853, and was a member of the Thirty-third Con- 
gress (1853-55). As a congressman he opposed 
the Kansas-Nebraska Act, approaching the sub- 
ject not as an abolitionist or moral reformer, but 
as a historian, insisting upon the validity of the 
principles involved in the ordinance of 1787 and 
the Missouri Compromise. An active supporter 
in 1856 of the newly organized Republican party, 
he wrote a campaign biography of John C. Fre- 
mont. He was a member of the state Senate from 
1857 to 1859 and served as its presiding officer. 
From 1859 to 1861 he was again a member of the 
state House of Representatives. 

Retiring from political life in i860, Upham 
devoted his energies to historical research. He 
is remembered chiefly as the author of Salem 
Witchcraft (2 vols., 1867). To furnish a back- 
ground for the events of 1692, he reconstructed 
in admirable detail the local family history of 
Salem Village. His account of the witch trials 
is still of use to historians. A controversy arose 
as to the part taken by Cotton Mather [q.v.~\ in 
the persecution of the witches : Upham had 
argued that Mather fomented the delusion to in- 
crease his power in the community; William F. 
Poole \_q.v.~\ defended Mather in the North Amer- 
ican Rcziew (April 1869) ; Upham, with char- 
acteristic love of debate, replied in a spirited 
brochure of ninety finely printed pages ( Salem 
Witchcraft and Cotton Mather, 1869). Although 
the question is still a disputed one, recent schol- 
arly opinion seems inclined to exculpate Mather 
(K. B. Murdock, Selections from Cotton Mather, 
1926, p. xv ). 

It seems likely that Upham's reputation as a 
man will suffer as a result of his having incurred 
the ill will of Nathaniel Hawthorne. Because of 
Upham's activity in securing the removal of 
Hawthorne as surveyor of customs at Salem, 
the novelist is believed to have drawn, in the 
character of Judge Pyncheon, a satirical portrait 
of his political opponent (see W. S. Nevins, 



Uph 



am 

"Nathaniel Hawthorne's Removal from the Sa- 
lem Custom House," Historical Collections of 
the Essex Institute, April 1917; Julian Haw- 
thorne, Nathaniel Hawthorne and His Wife, 
1885, I, 339, 438). Pyncheon, in the words of 
Henry James, is "a superb, full-blown hypocrite, 
a large-based, full-nurtured Pharisee" (Haw- 
thorne, 1879, p. 124). This portrait, however, 
contains elements of caricature, and, like many 
other famous satirical sketches, it is doubtless 
unfair to its prototype. Upham was apparently 
held in high esteem by many of his contempo- 
raries. He numbered Edward Everett among his 
friends, and Emerson, his classmate at Harvard, 
referred to his "frank and attractive" manners, 
and his large "repertory of men and events" 
(Ellis, Memoir, post, p. 12). He died in Salem. 
On Mar. 29, 1826, he married Ann Susan, daugh- 
ter of the Rev. Abiel Holmes [q.v.~] of Cam- 
bridge, and sister of Oliver Wendell Holmes ; 
they had fourteen children, all but three of whom 
died either in infancy or in early life. 

[F. K. Upham, The Descendants of John Upham of 
Mass. (1892); G. E. Ellis, An Address . . . at the 
Funeral Services of Charles W . Upham (1875), an d 
Memoir of Charles IVentworth Upham (1877) ; Biog. 
Dir. Am. Cong. (1928) ; S. A. Eliot, Heralds of a 
Liberal Faith (1910), vols. I, II; Salem Gazette, June 
18, 1875 ; Boston Transcript, June 15, 1875.] r 5 

UPHAM, SAMUEL FOSTER (May 19, 

1834-Oct. 5, 1904), Methodist Episcopal clergy- 
man, for many years professor in Drew Theo- 
logical Seminary, was born in Duxbury, Mass. 
His father, Frederick Upham, also a Methodist 
minister, was descended from John Upham who 
emigrated from England to Weymouth, Mass., 
in 1635 ; his mother, Deborah Bourne of Sand- 
wich, Mass., was a descendant of Richard 
Bourne, missionary to the Indians, who died in 
Sandwich in 1682. Samuel prepared for college 
at East Greenwich (R. I.) Academy, and grad- 
uated from Wesleyan University in 1856. He 
was immediately admitted to the Providence Con- 
ference of the Methodist Episcopal Church on 
trial, was ordained deacon in 1858, and elder 
in i860. From the beginning of his ministry he 
was a popular preacher, and his advancement 
was rapid. From 1856 to 1864 he served churches 
in Taunton, Mass., Pawtucket, R. I., New Bed- 
ford, Mass., and Bristol, R. I. In 1864 he trans- 
ferred to the New England Conference, where 
at different times he was pastor of three Boston 
churches, and also of churches in Lowell, Lynn, 
and Springfield, Mass. In 1865 he was chaplain 
of the Massachusetts House of Representatives. 
Appointed professor of practical theology at 
Drew Theological Seminary, Madison, N. J., in 
1880, he began his duties there on Mar. 13, 1881, 



122 



Uph 



am 

and continued in the performance of them until 
his death some twenty-three years later. 

Samuel, or "Sammy" Upham, as he was affec- 
tionately called, was one of the best known and 
most highly esteemed of the Methodist ministers 
of his day. If some excelled him in learning and 
scholarly productivity, not many surpassed him 
in personal attractiveness, shrewd wisdom and 
sound judgment, ability and disposition to be 
helpful to individuals, and power to interest and 
influence an audience. He was a kindly, com- 
panionable, sagacious person with whom young 
and old felt at home, and at Drew he was the 
friend, counsellor, and prophet of many. He was 
blessed with wit and humor, was fond of his 
cronies, and "loved a joke no matter what its 
age" (Tipple, post, p. 108). He was an adept 
in the use of ridicule and could be merciless in 
exposing error. His preaching was trenchant; 
practical, and arousing, and few were called upon 
more often for sermons and addresses on special 
occasions. In the councils of the Church and in 
the management of its institutions his influence 
was strong and lasting. From 187 1 until his 
death he was a trustee of Wesleyan University 
and from 1880 till his death, of the Methodist 
preparatory school, Wilbraham Academy, Wil- 
braham, Mass. He was a member of all the Gen- 
eral Conferences from 1880 to 1904 inclusive ; 
one of the board of managers of the Missionary 
Society and for sixteen years its representative 
on the General Missionary Committee; member 
and secretary of the committee on constitutional 
law; and chairman of the hymnal commission, 
which prepared the official Methodist hymnal. 
As a member of the committee on itinerancy in 
the General Conference of 1900, he was instru- 
mental in having the time limit to pastorates re- 
moved. On several occasions he received votes 
for the office of bishop. He was married, Apr. 
15, 1857, to Lucy Graves Smith of Middletown, 
Conn. ; they had five sons. 

[F. K. Upham, The Descendants of John Upham of 
Mass. (1892) ; Alumni Record of Wesleyan Univ. (4th 
ed., 191 1) ; Official Minutes of the . . . New Eng. Conf. 
of the M. E. Ch., 1905 (n.d.) ; E. S. Tipple, Drew 
Theological Sent., 1867-1917 (copr. 1917) ; Who's Who 
in America, 1903-05 ; Christian Advocate (N. Y.), Oct. 
13, 1904; Zion's Herald (Boston), Oct. 12, 1904.] 

H. E. S. 

UPHAM, THOMAS COGSWELL (Jan. 30, 
1799-Apr. 2, 1872), teacher, metaphysician, and 
author, was born at Deerfield, N. H., a member 
of a distinguished family descended from John 
Upham who settled in Weymouth, Mass., in 1635. 
His father, Nathaniel Upham, served in Con- 
gress ; one brother, Nathaniel, was a judge of 
the supreme court of New Hampshire ; another, 



Upl 



1am 

Francis, a well-known professor of mental phi- 
losophy at Rutgers Female College, New York. 
His mother was Judith Cogswell, daughter of 
Thomas Cogswell, of Gilmanton, N. H. Upham 
graduated from Dartmouth College in 1818, and 
from Andover Theological Seminary in 182 1. 
He made there such an outstanding record for 
indefatigable study and scholarship that he be- 
came tutor in Hebrew under Prof. Moses Stuart 
[q.v.] ; and in 1823 he published an excellent 
translation, Jahn's Biblical Archaeology, from 
the Latin of Johann Jahn, with additions and 
corrections. From 1823 to 1824 he served as as- 
sociate pastor of the Congregational Church at 
Rochester, N. H. In 1824 he was chosen pro- 
fessor of mental and moral philosophy at Bow- 
doin College, which chair he held until his re- 
tirement in 1867. His remaining years were 
spent in study and writing at Kennebunkport, 
Me., and later in New York City, where he died. 
At Bowdoin he was one of the best known 
teachers in a rather distinguished faculty. Al- 
though he came to his professorship from a pas- 
torate, he soon gave up preaching and public 
speaking, and made his strong religious influence 
felt in the classroom, in small groups of students, 
and with individuals. He was actively interested 
in the social reforms of the day, was an earnest 
and liberal patron of the colonization of negroes, 
a strong supporter of the temperance movement, 
and one of the earliest American advocates of 
international peace, collaborating with William 
Ladd \_q.v.~\ and writing one of the essays pub- 
lished in Prize Essays on a Congress of Nations 
(1840). In 1852 he spent a year in European 
and Eastern travel, publishing in 1855 Letters 
Aesthetic, Social, and Moral, Written from Eu- 
rope, Egypt, and Palestine. He also served Bow- 
doin well in practical affairs, at one time raising 
by his own efforts the then surprisingly large 
sum of nearly $70,000. Yet it is as an author 
in his chosen field of mental philosophy that 
Upham was best known. Brought to Bowdoin 
to oppose the doctrines of Kant and his school, 
he found himself after long effort unable to re- 
fute the teachings of the German metaphysician, 
and was on the point of resigning his professor- 
ship when suddenly he conceived a distinction 
between the intellect, the sensibilities, and the 
will which he embodied in his A Philosophical 
and Practical Treatise on the Will (1834), his 
outstanding work. This has been called "one of 
the first original and comprehensive contribu- 
tions of American scholarship to modern psychol- 
ogy" (Foster, post, p. 249). This work and x 
succeeding volume, Outlines of Imperfect ami 
Disordered Mental Action (1840), made him tft 



123 



Upham 

be regarded more as a psychologist than a theo- 
logian, and did much to liberate American phi- 
losophy and theology from the thraldom of the 
elder Jonathan Edwards [q.v.~\. A bibliography 
of Upham's works contains more than sixty 
items, and includes, in addition to philosophical 
treatises, a religious classic, Principles of the in- 
terior or Hidden Life (1843), and some books 
of verse, notably American Cottage Life ( 1851 ), 
first published anonymously about 1828 as Do- 
mestic and Religious Offering. 

In character and appearance, Upham was dis- 
tinctly of the academic type of the early nine- 
teenth century. Modest, retiring, very reserved, 
almost secretive, absent-minded, kindly, with re- 
markable self-control, he was "in the best sense 
a quietest [sic], and seemed ... to have attained 
to a high state of repose in God" (Packard, post, 
p. 21). Having no children, he and his wife, 
Phebe Lord, whom he married on May 18, 1825, 
and whose portrait by Gilbert Stuart in the Bow- 
doin Art Museum reveals an unusual loveliness 
of person and character, adopted several children, 
and made their home, in the words of Harriet 
Beecher Stowe, who was received there on her 
arrival in Brunswick, "delightful ... a beautiful 
pattern of a Christian family, a beautiful ex- 
emplification of religion" (Hatch, post, p. 60). 

[F. K. Upham, The Descendants of John Upham 
(1892) ; A. S. Packard, Address on the Life and Char- 
acter of Thomas C. Upham, D.D. (1873) ; L. C. Hatch, 
The Hist, of Bowdoin Coll. (1927) ; F. H. Foster, A 
Genetic Hist, of New England Theology (1907) ; death 
notice in N. Y. Times, Apr. 3, 1872; letters and news- 
paper articles in Bowdoin Coll. lib.] K. C. M.S. 

UPHAM, WARREN (Mar. 8, 1850-Jan. 29, 

IO -34)> geologist, archeologist, writer on his- 
torical subjects, was born at Amherst, N. H., 
the son of Jacob and Sarah (Hay ward) Upham, 
and a descendant of John Upham who emigrated 
from England to Weymouth, Mass., in 1635. Af- 
ter his graduation from Dartmouth College in 
1 87 1, he was engaged on the geological survey 
of New Hampshire (1874-78), and on the geo- 
logical survey of Minnesota and the United 
States Geological Survey (1879-95). He went 
to Minnesota in 1879. On Oct. 22, 1885, he mar- 
ried Addie M. Bixby of Aurora, Minn.; there 
was one child, who died at birth. From 1895 to 
1914 he was secretary and librarian of the Min- 
nesota Historical Society, and from 1914 to 1933 
archeologist of the society. 

Upham's life affords the unusual example of a 
diligent scholar at the height of his career in 
one science changing his major field after the 
age of fifty. Before 1905 most of his work was 
in geology ; after 1905, in archeology and his- 
tory. An indefatigable and patient worker, he 



Uph 



am 

published almost two hundred papers on geology. 
Of these all but about twenty are on glacial 
geology and nearly related subjects, which were 
his principal fields of work. His greatest con- 
tribution to geology probably is contained in the 
fine series of county reports issued by the Min- 
nesota Geological Survey, but his best known 
paper is "The Glacial Lake Agassiz," United 
States Geological Survey Monographs, vol. 
XXV (1896), which includes many of the prin- 
cipal results of his studies in Minnesota, North 
Dakota, and Manitoba. This monograph, a clas- 
sic on the subject of post-glacial physiography, 
describes an ancient lake vastly greater than the 
present Lake Superior, its beaches, deltas, and 
other shore features that became wonderfully 
well exposed when the lake shrank to become the 
present Lake Winnipeg. In 1896 Upham issued, 
jointly with G. F. Wright, a volume entitled 
Greenland Ice Fields and Life in the North At- 
lantic. 

His most important historical publications ap- 
peared in the Collections of the Minnesota His- 
torical Society, among them "Groseilliers and 
Radisson, the First White Men in Minnesota" 
(vol. X, pt. 2, 1905), "Minnesota Biographies" 
(vol. XIV, 1912), which he compiled with Rose 
B. Dunlap, and "Minnesota Geographic Names" 
(vol. XVII, 1920). He was one of the editors of 
Minnesota in Three Centuries (1908). He was 
particularly interested in the history of man be- 
fore the period of the graphic arts, and pub- 
lished two noteworthy contributions on the sub- 
ject: "Man in the Ice Age at Lansing, Kan., and 
Little Falls, Minn." (American Geologist, Sept. 
1902), and "Valley Loess and the Fossil Man of 
Lansing, Kan." (Ibid., Jan. 1903). Although the 
conclusions of these discourses were not general- 
ly accepted as indisputable proof of the presence 
of man in North America during the Ice Age, 
Upham died with the conviction that man in- 
habited the region beyond the ice edge during at 
least a part of that period, and recent discoveries 
in Minnesota lend strong support to that theory. 
Upham was courtly, modest, unobtrusive, al- 
most retiring until his own field was mentioned; 
he then became alert, authoritative, and enter- 
taining. He was endeared to all his associates by 
his modesty regarding his own attainments, his 
thoughtfulness for others, and his willingness 
to give without stint both his time and his knowl- 
edge. He died at St. Paul, Minn., where he had 
lived for many years. 

[See F. K. Upham, The Descendants of John Upham 
(1892); Mary U. Kelly and Warren Upham, Upham 
and Amherst, N. H. (1897) ; Who's Who in America, 
1932-33 : Am. Men of Sci. (5th ed., 1933), ed. by J. M. 
and Jaques Cattell ; "Minn. Biogs.," Minn. Hist. Soc. 



124 



Upjohn 



Upjohn 



Colls., vol. XIV Oqi-0 ; obituary in Minneapolis Jour., 
Jan. 30, 1934. A bibliog. of Upham's articles on geol- 
ogy appears in U. S. Geological Survey Bull. 746 
(1923)-] W.H.E. 

UPJOHN, RICHARD (Jan. 22, 1802-Aug. 17, 
1878), architect, born in Shaftesbury, Dorset- 
shire, England, was the son of James Upjohn, 
surveyor and master in the grammar school, 
and of Elizabeth Plantagenet Dryden Michell, 
daughter of the rector of Holy Trinity Church, 
Shaftesbury. His parents had planned that he 
should enter one of the learned professions, but 
he insisted on becoming a draftsman and was 
accordingly apprenticed to a cabinetmaker. A 
master craftsman at twenty-two, he established 
his own business in Shaftesbury, and on Nov. 
14, 1826, he married in London Elizabeth Parry, 
daughter of the Rev. John Parry of Denbigh, 
North Wales. He prospered, but, ambitious, 
headstrong, and incautious, he became entangled 
in grandiose schemes and was soon hopelessly in 
debt. During his early childhood, the Upjohn 
family had spent some time in St. John's, New- 
foundland, where James Upjohn had established 
a business. Now, refusing to let an uncle shoul- 
der his debts, Richard set out for America with 
his wife and young son, Richard Michell \_q.v.~\, 
and landed in New York on June 1, 1829 (diary 
in the possession of his grandson, Hobart Up- 
john). In the fall of 1830 he finally settled in 
New Bedford, Mass., became a draftsman for 
Samuel Leonard, builder and sperm-oil merchant, 
and opened an evening school of drawing. Upon 
seeing some drawings for the Boston Custom 
House, he exclaimed, according to a family story, 
"If that is architecture, I am an architect," and 
forthwith opened his office and advertised for 
work. 

In February 1834 he moved to Boston, and for 
four years worked spasmodically for Alexander 
Parris [q.v.~\. He also did considerable work of 
his own, including numerous Greek villas, and a 
Gothic iron fence for Boston Common. In 1837 
he completed St. John's Church, Bangor, Me., 
his first Gothic Church, and the first of much 
Maine work, which culminated in the large stone 
mansion for R. H. Gardiner at Gardiner, Me. In 
the spring of 1839 he was chosen draftsman for 
repairs and alterations in Trinity Church, New 
York, and when a new building was decided upon 
he was retained officially as architect. In August 
he moved to New York. The new Trinity 
Church, begun in 1841 and consecrated in 1846, 
of unprecedented richness and purity of style, 
won immediate fame, equalling, if not surpass- 
ing, that of Grace Church, New York, by the 
younger James Renwick [q.v.~\. From that time 



on, work flowed into Upjohn's office faster than 
he could handle it. He designed not only Gothic 
churches, but houses and civil buildings as well. 
Many of his houses were in the Italian or 
"bracketed" styles, and the Trinity Building 
(1852) — at the time New York's finest office 
building — was called Italian Renaissance. 

The long list of Upjohn's important work in- 
cludes an "Italian villa" for Edward King, New- 
port (see A. J. Downing, The Architecture of 
Country Houses, 1850, pp. 317-21) ; the altera- 
tions of the Van Rensselaer Manor-house, Al- 
bany, N. Y., in a kind of pseudo-Colonial ; of the 
Van Buren house, Kinderhook, N. Y. ; and of the 
Pierrepont house, Brooklyn, N. Y., all done be- 
tween 1840 and 1850. Other buildings, designed 
between 1840 and 1855, include the city hall and 
Taunton Academy, Taunton, Mass., and the 
much praised Corn Exchange Bank Building, 
New York ; the Church of the Ascension, New 
York ; Bowdoin College Chapel ; the Church of 
the Pilgrims, Brooklyn, a building of marked 
originality ; Grace Church, Newark, N. J. ; St. 
James', New London, Conn. ; the Church of 
the Holy Communion, Twentieth Street and 
Sixth Avenue, New York ; St. Paul's Church. 
Buffalo, N. Y. ; St. Mark's, Augusta, Me.; St. 
Paul's, Brookline, Mass. ; and Grace Church, 
Utica, N. Y. During the period of the growing 
influence of Richard Michell Upjohn upon the 
office work, the best works were the Central Con- 
gregational Church, Boston, Mass., and St. 
Thomas's, New York. Upjohn's favorite work, 
and in many ways his best, is Trinity Chapel, 
West Twenty-fifth Street, New York (1853), 
with unusual direct simplicity of design and 
unusual height. The delicate detail of the monu- 
ment to unknown Revolutionary soldiers, Trin- 
ity Churchyard, is also an achievement rare for 
the time. Upjohn's careful and sensitive use of 
the precedent of English Gothic was widely imi- 
tated but rarely equalled ; his influence in the 
United States was in many ways similar to the 
influence in England of A. W. N. Pugin. Like 
most early Gothic Revival architects, Upjohn 
was more interested in effect than in structure 
and used lath-and-plaster vaults frequently, ap- 
parently without compunction. Yet in Trinity 
Chapel there is an honest use of materials every- 
where, and in Upjohn's Rural Architecture 
(1852) the designs show a simple and functional 
use of wood. 

Upjohn is important as the chief instrumen- 
tality in the founding of the American Institute 
of Architects, of which he was president from 
its beginning (1857) until his resignation in 
1876. At the first meeting, in his office and at 



125 



Upjohn 



Upj ohn 



his invitation, the group took the name "New 
York Society of Architects," but soon adopted 
the present name, and the new society became the 
successor to the short-lived American Insti- 
tution of Architects, founded in 1837. As presi- 
dent Upjohn supported the highest possible 
professional standards. The foundations of the 
present competition code and the present stand- 
ards of professional ethics were laid during his 
administration, and largely at his instigation. 
The same high ethical standards controlled his 
personal life. He refused to design the Arling- 
ton Street Unitarian Church, Boston, since it 
seemed to him an anti-Christian, because Uni- 
tarian, enterprise ; his attitude in this probably 
caused the loss to him of the Harvard College 
Chapel, designs for which he had prepared the 
same year. He made it a practice to do at least 
one mission church a year free. His influence 
was spread indirectly by many architects who 
were trained in his office or worked for him, 
among them Leopold Eidlitz [q.v.~\, Alpheus 
Morse, Charles Babcock ( later professor of 
architecture at Cornell), Joseph C. Wells, and 
Charles Clinton, of Clinton and Russell. His 
great hobby was painting, and he brought back 
from a European trip in 1850 many landscapes 
of high merit. He was an honorary member of 
both the Royal Institute of British Architects and 
the Institute of Portuguese Architects. He died 
at Garrison, N. Y., survived by his wife and five 
children. 

[I. N. P. Stokes, The Iconography of Manhattan 
Island, vols. Ill (1018), V-VI (1926-28); Glenn 
Brown, The Am. Institute of Architects, 1857-1907 
(n.d.) ; obituaries in Am. Architect and Building News, 
Aug. 24, N. Y. Times, Aug. 18, and N. Y. Tribune, Aug. 
19, 1878; biog. in MS. by Upjohn's grandson, Hobart 
B. Upjohn ; office records and drawings in the possesr 
sion of H. B. Upjohn of New York.] T. F. H. 

UPJOHN, RICHARD MICHELL (Mar. 7, 
1828-Mar. 3, 1903), architect, the son of Rich- 
ard Upjohn [q.v.'j and Elizabeth (Parry) Up- 
john, was born in Shaftesbury, England, and was 
brought to America in his second year. He 
received a good education in private schools, and 
in 1846 entered his father's office, where during 
his father's extended European trip in 1850 he 
had full charge. In 1851-52 he studied in Eu- 
rope. On his return he opened his own office but 
soon returned to his father's as a full partner 
(1853) and exercised a growing influence on the 
design. During the sixties and seventies, it is 
sometimes difficult to determine which was the 
controlling mind. St. Thomas's Church, New 
York, is typical of the work of this period; its 
towers probably indicate the son's taste. 

I 



Upjohn's work was less dominantly ecclesiasti- 
cal than his father's. He was the architect of the 
Mechanics' Bank, New York (1858), one of the 
early buildings to use rolled-iron beams and 
brick floor arches; the building of the Newark 
Banking and Insurance Company, Newark, N. J. ; 
a large school in Hartford, Conn., and the first 
building for Trinity School, New York. Among 
his noteworthy churches were the old Madison 
Square Presbyterian Church, New York; Park 
Church, Hartford, Conn. ; the Presbyterian 
Church and manse, Rye, N. Y. ; the De Lancey 
Memorial, Geneva, N. Y. ; St. Mark's Pro- 
Cathedral, San Antonio, Tex. ; and St. Paul's 
Cathedral at Fond du Lac, Wis. One of his best 
churches was the American church, St. John's, 
in Dresden, Germany. The main entrance gate- 
way of Greenwood Cemetery, Brooklyn, is his 
design (1861) ; and it is probable that the Cen- 
tral Congregational Church, Boston, with its 
simple and exquisite 235-foot stone tower and 
spire is his also. His most famous work was 
the state capitol at Hartford, Conn. (1885), for 
which drawings were begun in 1872. The only 
such building in America to combine a dome 
with wings in a Gothic style, it presented prob- 
lems of exceptional difficulty. Upjohn had in- 
tended to use a square tower, but the state au- 
thorities were unable to conceive of a capitol 
without a dome and forced him to design one ; 
the resulting dome is, nevertheless, a brilliant 
adaptation. Under the influence of Ruskin, Up- 
john's work is often full of such "Victorian 
Gothic" mannerisms as polychromy and the 
dominance of the horizontal line. The Trinity 
school building, with its erratic detail and its 
rich plate tracery over flat-headed windows, is 
typical, and the lavish color and carving of the 
Hartford capitol, in which the modern eye often 
sees only the bizarre, is an excellent example of 
Ruskinian principles conscientiously applied. 

Upjohn was a fellow of the American Insti- 
tute of Architects from its beginning, and for two 
years a president of its New York chapter; he 
was also a member of the Institute's important 
committee for examining unsafe buildings. He 
lived in Brooklyn for most of his later life. Much 
interested in local history, he was one of the 
founders of the Long Island Historical Society. 
In character he was reserved, in his later years 
almost a recluse. Strong-willed, impulsive, at 
times hot-tempered, he was an indomitable work- 
er, making many of the office drawings himself. 
He retired gradually from the practice of archi- 
tecture during the nineties, his interests becom- 
ing more and more financial ; by 1895 his archi- 
tectural career had ceased. On Oct. 1, 1856, he 

26 



Upshur 



Upsh 



married Emma Degen Tyng, daughter of the 
Rev. James H. Tyng, in Morristown, N. J. 
There were nine children, of whom the youngest 
became an architect. Upjohn died in Brooklyn, 
survived by five sons and three daughters. 

[Who's Who in America, 1901-02; Proc. . . . Am. 
Institute of Architects . . . 1903, vol. XXXVII (1904) ; 
Am. Architect and Building News, Mar. 14, 1903 ; Am. 
Art Ann., 1903; R. M. Upjohn, The State Capitol, 
Hartford, Conn. (1886) ; obituaries in Brooklyn Daily 
Eagle, Mar. 3, and Evening Post (N. Y.), Mar. 4, 
1903 ; family records, office drawings and records in 
the possession of Upjohn, 's son, Hobart B. Upjohn of 
New York.] T. F. H. 

UPSHUR, ABEL PARKER (June 17, 1791- 
Feb. 28, 1844), jurist, cabinet officer, publicist, 
one of twelve children of Littleton Upshur and 
Ann (Parker) Upshur, and a descendant of 
Arthur Upshur who settled on the Eastern Shore 
of Virginia in the seventeenth century, was 
born in Northampton County, Va. His father, a 
Federalist member of the Virginia legislature of 
1809, voted against the resolutions thanking Jef- 
ferson for his services to the country and later 
served as a captain in the War of 1812. Abel 
Upshur studied at the College of New Jersey 
(Princeton) until his expulsion as a participant 
in a student rebellion in 1807 and then continued 
his studies at Yale, but did not graduate. After 
reading law in the office of William Wirt of 
Richmond, he began practice in that city. In 
1812-13 he was a member of the House of Dele- 
gates from his native county, and served again 
in that capacity, 1825-27. He was also a mem- 
ber of the Virginia constitutional convention of 
1829-30, in which he was an opponent of the 
proposed democratic changes in the constitution. 
He denied the existence of any original princi- 
ples of government, insisting instead that the in- 
terests and necessities of the people determined 
the principles of government (Proceedings and 
Debates, post, p. 69). He rejected the theory of 
"natural law," maintaining that the only natural 
law was "the law of force . . . the only rule of 
right" (Ibid., p. 67). From 1826 to 1841, he was 
a member of the supreme court of Virginia, and 
in politics he was associated with the extreme 
state-rights, proslavery group. 

In September 1841, Upshur was appointed 
secretary of the navy by President Tyler, and 
in 1843 ne succeeded Webster as secretary of 
state. An ardent advocate of the annexation of 
Texas as vital to the security of the South, he 
reopened negotiations with that republic, but 
they were interrupted by his death in the explo- 
sion of a gun on board the battleship Princeton. 
and were completed by his successor, Calhoun. 

A particularistic jurist and planter-philoso- 
pher of Tidewater Virginia, Upshur often ex- 



ur 

pressed his views upon slavery, government, 
and banks. The South constituted, in his opin- 
ion, the only bulwark of conservatism in Amer- 
ica against the rising tide of agrarianism, level- 
ing democracy, and all the is)ns of the free North 
"It is clear," he wrote pessimistically, "that in 
this country Liberty is destined to perish a sui- 
cide. . . . And perish when she may, I am 
much deceived if her last entrenchment, her lat- 
est abiding place, will not be found in the slave 
holding states" ("Domestic Slavery," Southern 
Literary Messenger, October 1839). Law, and 
not the principle of numerical majority, he held 
to be the basis of liberty — a juridical conception. 
In a letter to his intimate friend, Judge Beverley 
Tucker, commenting upon Dorr's Rebellion, 
Upshur wrote : "This is the very madness of 
democracy, and a fine illustration of the work- 
ings of the majority principle" (Tyler, post, II, 
198). His pamphlet, A Brief Enquiry into the 
True Nature and Character of our Federal Gov- 
ernment (1840), a review of Story's Commen- 
taries, was regarded by his friends as a complete 
refutation of the nationalistic theory of the 
Constitution. It was reprinted in 1863 by 
Northern Democrats as a means of setting forth 
the political philosophy of the Confederacy 
(Adams, post, p. yy). In an address (1841) 
before the literary societies of the College of 
William and Mary upon "The True Theory of 
Government," Upshur rejected almost in toto 
the natural rights philosophy, characterizing it 
as one that "overlooks all social obligations, de- 
nies the inheritable quality of property, unfrocks 
the priest, and laughs at the marriage tie" 
(Southern Literary Messenger, June 1856, p. 
410). A supporter of banks, he opposed the re- 
quirement of specie as the basis of credit and 
also opposed laws which declared banks insol- 
vent when unable to redeem their notes in specie. 
"A bank," he wrote, "without a single dollar 
in specie, yet having good notes of others, equal 
to its own notes outstanding, and its other in- 
debtedness, is perfectly solvent, and entitled to 
credit" ( A Brief Enquiry into the True Basis 
of the Credit System. 1840, p. 11). He further- 
more urged the minimum regulation of banks, 
believing that the "general law of the land, the 
common law . . . affords ample means ... of 
keeping them within proper limits" ( Ibid., p. 20) . 
Upshur was married twice: first, to Elizabeth 
Dennis, and second, in 1826, to his cousin, Eliz- 
abeth Upshur; she, with their daughter, sur- 
vived him. 

TC. H. Ambler. Thomas Ritchie. A Study in \'ir 
ginia Politics (1913) : T. H. Benton, Thirty Years' 

Vine, vol. TT (1856) . J. P. Kennedy, Memoirs of the 
life of William Wirl (iS|ij), I, 399; Niles' National 



127 



Upsh 



ur 



Register, Sept. 18, 1841, Feb. 12, 26, 1842. Mar. 2, 
1844 ; L. G. Tyler, The Letters and Times of the Tylers 
(2 vols., 18S4-85) ; Proc. and Debates of the Va. State 
Convention of 1829-30 (1830) ; Wm. and Mary Coll. 
Quart., Apr. 1895, Oct. 1907, Jan. 1928, Jan. 1931 ; H. 
A. Wise, Seven Decades of the Union (1872), pp. 197- 
200 ; Mary Upshur Sturges, "Abel Parker Upshur," 
Mag. of Am. Hist., Sept. 1877; R. G. Adams, "Abel 
Parker Upshur," in S. F. Bemis, The Am. Secretaries 
of State, vol. V (1928); Daily Nat. Intelligencer 
(Washington), Feb. 29, 1844.] W. G. B. 

UPSHUR, JOHN HENRY (Dec. 5, 1S23- 
May 30, 1917), naval officer, was born at East- 
ville, Northampton County, Va., and had orig- 
inally the surname Nottingham, being the son of 
Elizabeth Parker (Upshur) and John Evans 
Nottingham. He was a nephew of Abel Parker 
Upshur [q.v.] and of Capt. George P. Upshur, 
U. S. N., and perhaps because of these relation- 
ships both he and his brother, Dr. George L. 
Upshur, were given in childhood their mother's 
family name, upon authorization of the Virginia 
legislature. After attending the grammar school 
connected with the College of William and Mary 
(1834-41), he entered the navy, Nov. 4, 1841, 
as a midshipman. A Mediterranean cruise in the 
Congress (1842-43) was followed by service 
throughout the Mexican War in the sloop St. 
Mary's, including duty ashore, Mar. 10-25, J 847, 
with the naval battery at the siege of Vera Cruz. 
During the next year he attended the United 
States Naval Academy, then under the superin- 
tendency of his uncle, George P. Upshur, and 
graduated as passed midshipman, Aug. 10, 1848, 
ranking 17 in his class of 235 members. During 
the next decade his chief assignments were in 
the Mediterranean Squadron (1849-50), in the 
storeship Supply with Perry's mission to Japan 
(1852-55), as flag lieutenant in the Cumberland, 
African Squadron (1857-59), ar >d as an instruc- 
tor at the Naval Academy (1859-61). In the 
Civil War he served in the Wabash at the cap- 
ture of Hatteras Inlet, in subsequent operations 
in the North Carolina sounds, and at the cap- 
ture of Port Royal, Nov. 7, 1861. As senior lieu- 
tenant of the Wabash and one of the officers 
commanding gundeck divisions, he could share 
considerably in Commander C. R. P. Rodgers' 
praise of these officers for handling their divi- 
sions at Port Royal "in a manner which illus- 
trated the highest power both of men and guns" 
{War of the Rebellion: Official Records, Navy, 
vol. XII, p. 267). Made lieutenant commander, 
July 16, 1862, he subsequently commanded the 
side-wheeler Flambeau in the Charleston block- 
ade. In November 1863 Rear Admiral Samuel 
Phillips Lee selected him as chief of staff and 
commander of the flagship Minnesota, North At- 
lantic Blockading Squadron, a position he held 

I 



Upton 



until September 1864. He was then assigned to 
the fast side-wheeler A. D. Vance, and command- 
ed her in both attacks on Fort Fisher, Dec. 23- 
25, 1864, and Jan. 13-15, 1865. After the second 
action, in which he had charge of the reserve 
division, Admiral David Dixon Porter recom- 
mended his advancement, stating that he "was 
employed night and day in landing army stores 
and guns, and covering the troops" (Ibid., vol. 
XI, p. 455). He was made commander, July 25, 
1866; captain, Jan. 31, 1872; commodore, July 
11, 1880; and rear admiral, Oct. I, 1884. In 
1870 he incurred a court martial and reprimand 
for having paid money to an appointee to the 
Naval Academy to induce the latter's with- 
drawal in favor of his son. There were, how- 
ever, many extenuating circumstances, and it 
was testified at his trial that he was "in all mat- 
ters of duty even fastidiously particular" (House 
Executive Document, post, p. 15). His later sea 
commands included the Frolic in the Mediter- 
ranean (1865-67), the Pensacola and afterwards 
the Brooklyn in South American waters ( 1873- 
76), and the Pacific Squadron (1884-85). He 
was a member of the Board of Inspectors ( 1877- 
80) and, after a year's leave in Europe, com- 
mandant of the Brooklyn navy yard (1882-84). 
On June 1, 1885, he retired, and made his sub- 
sequent home in Washington, D. C. Here he 
lived until his ninety-fourth year, a well-known 
figure at the Metropolitan Club, in full posses- 
sion of his faculties to the last, and highly re- 
spected not only for his long and notable serv- 
ice but for his southern charm of manner (he 
was called "the Chesterfield of the Navy"), his 
keen mind, and his strict standards of conduct. 
His burial was in Arlington. By his first mar- 
riage in 185 1 to Kate, daughter of Capt. Wil- 
liam G. and America (Peter) Williams, and 
great-grand-daughter of Martha Washington, he 
had two sons and two daughters. He was mar- 
ried, second, to Agnes (Maxwell), widow of 
Philip Kearny [q.v."], who died July 2, 1917. 

[L. G. Tyler, in William and Mary Coll. Quart. ; 
Apr. 1895 ; Who's Who in America, 1916-17 ; L. R. 
Hamersly, The Records of Living Officers of the U. S. 
Navy and Marine Corps (1902 ed.) ; Memoir and Cor- 
respondence of Charles Stcedman (1912), ed. by A. L. 
Mason; War of the Rebellion: Official Records 
(Navy) ; House Exec. Doc. 308, 41 Cong., 2 Sess., 
which contains the proceedings at Upshur's court mar- 
tial ; Personnel Files, Navy Dept. Lib. ; Sea Power, 
July 1917 ; Army and Navy Jour.. June 2, 1917 ; obit- 
uary in Evening Star (Washington, D. C.), May 31, 
19 1 7-1 A. W— t. 

UPTON, EMORY (Aug. 27, 1839-Mar. 15, 
1881), soldier, tactician, author, was born on a 
farm west of Batavia, N. Y., the tenth child and 

28 



Upton 



sixth son of Daniel and Electra (Randall) Up- 
ton. He was a descendant of John Upton, who 
seems to have been in Massachusetts as early as 
1639, bought land in Salem in 1658, and later 
moved to North Reading. During the winter of 
1855—56, Emory Upton was a student at Oberlin 
College. Interested from early youth in military 
history, he secured appointment to the United 
States Military Academy, which he entered on 
July 1, 1856. He was an excellent student, and 
was notably outspoken on controversial sub- 
jects. As personal feelings grew tense over the 
issues that provoked the Civil War, he had the 
most celebrated physical encounter — with Wade 
Hampton Gibbes of South Carolina — in the his- 
tory of West Point (Schaff, post, pp. 143-48). 
Graduating number eight on the list of forty-five 
with the first (May 6) class of 1861, he was at 
once appointed second lieutenant, 4th Artillery, 
and sent to help drill Federal volunteers then 
assembling about Washington. On May 14 he 
was advanced to first lieutenant in the newly or- 
ganized 5th Artillery (field batteries), and con- 
tinued to drill volunteers until assigned to active 
field service under Gen. Daniel Tyler \_q.v.~\ in 
the 1st Division of McDowell's army in north- 
ern Virginia. From that time to the close of 
the Civil War, Upton's career was one of the 
most notable in the annals of the army, compris- 
ing as it did varied service (artillery, infantry, 
and cavalry) and participation in a large num- 
ber of engagements ; it also brought him by suc- 
cessive promotions to the rank of brevet major- 
general, United States Army. 

Four of the many actions in which he com- 
manded troops brought advanced rank "for gal- 
lant and meritorious services" : at Rappahan- 
nock Station, Va., Nov. 7, 1863 ; at Spotsylvania, 
Va., May 10, 1864, where Upton, wounded in 
the charge, was promoted to brigadier-general 
on the spot by Grant ; at the Opequon (or Win- 
chester, Va.), Sept. 19, 1864, where after the 
death of Gen. D. A. Russell, Upton succeeded to 
command of the 1st Division, VI Army Corps, 
and though soon dangerously wounded, con- 
tinued in active command while being carried 
about the field on a stretcher until the battle had 
been won (Wilson, post, I, 554) ; and at Selma, 
Ala., Apr. 2, 1865, where dismounted Federal 
cavalry, of which he led a detachment, broke 
through and surmounted stockaded fortifications 
defended by sheltered infantry and superior ar- 
tillery, capturing the city and arsenal. For near- 
ly three months after the Opequon engagement, 
Upton was disabled and on sick leave; mean- 
while, J. H. Wilson \q.v.~\, assigned to command 
the cavalry in the farther South, requested and 



Upton 

secured his services for the latter part of the 
Tennessee-Alabama-Georgia campaign. Upton 
also participated in the Antietam and Fredericks- 
burg campaigns, the thirty-five-mile march by 
the VI Corps from Manchester, Md., to Gettys- 
burg, Pa., mostly through the night of July 1-2, 
1863, and in the battles of the Wilderness and 
Cold Harbor, and about Petersburg. The time- 
liness, good judgment, and precision with which 
he executed orders were frequently commended 
in the reports of his superiors. 

After the Civil War, Upton continued in the 
Regular Army, with much lower rank because 
of the reduction of the military establishment. 
For short periods he was stationed in Tennessee 
and Colorado; then transferred to West Point 
as a member of the board of officers appointed 
to consider the system of infantry tactics which 
he had prepared. That system, with which his 
name has since been associated, was adopted in 
1867. After a short station in Kentucky, he se- 
cured leave of absence and with his wife spent 
several months in Europe. Returning in the late 
summer of 1868, he was again assigned to regu- 
lar duties for short periods. From July 1, 1870, 
to June 30, 1875, ne was commandant of cadets 
and instructor in artillery, infantry, and cavalry 
tactics at West Point. Those five years were the 
height of Upton's career in time of peace, and 
his influence upon the corps of cadets was par- 
ticularly marked ; meanwhile, he served on the 
board appointed to assimilate the tactics adopted 
in 1873. In the summer of 1875 he was relieved 
at the Military Academy and assigned to profes- 
sional duty on a trip around the world via San 
Francisco and the Orient, and for the greater 
part of two years studied the army organiza- 
tions of Asia and Europe. At Shanghai, October 
1876, he wrote out an elaborate plan for a mili- 
tary academy in China on the model of West 
Point. Returning, he was appointed superin- 
tendent of theoretical instruction in the Artil- 
lery School, Fort Monroe, Va., where he was 
stationed nearly three years and during two pe- 
riods commanded the post. After service as 
member of the board to codify army regulations, 
he was assigned to command the 4th Artillery 
and the Presidio of San Francisco. 

There, before reaching the age of forty-two, 
he died by a shot from his own hand, an act ex- 
plained in brief by "an incurable malady of the 
head and its passages that ultimately became un- 
bearable" (Wilson, II, 368; Michie, post, pp. 
474-97). His resignation as colonel of the 4th 
Artillery was written out and signed on the day 
before. Upton's tragic death was a shock to the 
nation, and particularly to the army, which had 



I 2Q 



Upton 

looked to him as a model of life and conduct as 
well as its leading tactician. Known always as a 
strict disciplinarian who drilled his men in all 
weathers and occasionally put them through 
new evolutions, he won and held their confi- 
dence and loyalty to a remarkable degree. His 
face, somewhat "pointed," was habitually in an 
attitude of concentration, "with force and deter- 
mination in every line." In the field he took 
nothing for granted ; was enterprising, resource- 
ful, and energetic; acted upon personally ascer- 
tained or well-assimilated facts; and carried 
military books on campaigns which he studied 
in connection with situations developing from 
day to day. He was of strong religious nature 
and was in the habit of saying his prayers every 
night. On occasions he was excitable and angry, 
and after the great sacrifices at Cold Harbor, 
Va., in June 1864, he severely criticized the 
chief command (Michie, pp. 108-09). He rose 
to his greatest heights in the excitement and 
turmoil of battle. On Feb. 19, 1868, he married 
Emily Norwood Martin, who died Mar. 30, 
1870, after much illness. His funeral was at Au- 
burn, N. Y-. Mar. 29, 1881, and he was buried in 
Fort Hill Cemetery there. 

Upton wrote more on tactics and critical mili- 
tary history than any other officer of his day. 
Two books were published in his lifetime — A 
New System of Infantry Tactics, Double and 
Single Rank, Adapted to American Topography 
and Improved Firearms (1867, rev. ed., 1874) ; 
and The Armies of Asia and Europe (1878). 
A monumental work, "The Military Policy of 
the United States from 1775," upon which he 
had been engaged for several years, he was able 
to complete only down to the second year of the 
Civil War. In 1903-04 the manuscript was re- 
examined by Elihu Root, who was then secretary 
of war, and in 1904 The Military Policy of the 
United States was published, under the editor- 
ship of J. P. Sanger; in 1914 a separate reprint 
of the Mexican War section was made. Some 
of the recommendations contained in Upton's 
treatise have been adopted ; others no longer ap- 
ply to changed conditions of warfare ; yet it re- 
mains the most important work on a subject no- 
where else treated on the same scale and in 
equal detail. Its outstanding features are search- 
ing analyses of the American national military 
policy and fearless comments upon its results. 
Intense application to those engrossing subjects, 
usually in connection with the full discharge of 
routine military duties, may have been a con- 
tributing factor to Upton's breakdown in the 
prime of life. 



Upton 



[G. W. Cullum, Biog. Reg. Officers and Grads., 
U. S. Mil. Acad. (1891), vol. II; Twelfth Ann. Re- 
union, Asso. Grads., U. S. Mil. Acad. (1881) ; Morris 
Schaff, The Spirit of Old West Point, 1858-1862 
(1907); War of the Rebellion: Official Records 
(Army); U. S. Grant, Personal Memoirs, II (1886), 
223-25, 234-36; J. H. Wilson, Under the Old Flag 
(19 1 2) ; W. F. Scott, The Story of a Cavalry Regi- 
ment (1893); I. O. Best, Hist, of the 121st N. Y. 
State Infantry (1921) ; E. N. Gilpin, "The Last Cam- 
paign," Jour. U. S. Cavalry Asso., Apr. 1908; Army 
and Navy Jour., Mar. 19 and 26, 1881 ; Harper's Week- 
ly, Apr. 9, 1881 ; Morning Call (San Francisco), Mar. 
16, 1881 ; P. S. Michie, The Life and Letters of Emory 
Upton (1885); W. H. Upton, Gencal. Colls, for an 
Upton Family Hist. (1893) : J- A. Vinton, The Upton 
Memorial (1874) ; information from various army of- 
ficers, from E. S. Martin, New York, and from the 
Seymour Library, Auburn, N. Y.] r 3 

UPTON, GEORGE BRUCE (Oct. 11, 1804- 
July 1, 1874), merchant, capitalist, was born in 
Eastport, in the District of Maine, the second 
of the two sons of Daniel Putnam and Hannah 
(Bruce) Upton. He was descended from John 
Upton who seems to have been in Salisbury, 
Mass., as early as 1639, and later owned land 
in Salem. George's father died in 1805, and his 
mother moved to Billerica, Mass., where she 
lived with her brother. Her sons were pre- 
pared for college in the local school, but the 
elder elected to go to sea, and the younger to 
enter business. After an apprenticeship of about 
three years with several retail merchants in 
Boston, George, in 182 1, became confidential 
clerk' in the dry goods firm of Baker & Barrett 
on Nantucket Island. When the senior member 
retired in 1825, Upton formed a partnership 
with Barrett. In addition to retail business, the 
firm engaged in sperm whaling, shipbuilding, 
and the manufacture of candles on a large scale. 
Upton became active, also, in public affairs, 
serving as representative in the Massachusetts 
legislature in 1837 and 1841, and as senator from 
Nantucket and Dukes County in the state Sen- 
ate in 1839, 1840, and 1843. I' 1 J 844 he was a 
delegate to the Whig convention that nominated 
Henry Clay for the presidency. 

Foreseeing the decline of business in Nan- 
tucket, in 1845 Upton moved to Manchester, 
N. H., where he acted as agent for a print works 
then being established. In 1846, however, he 
went to Boston, where he became a merchant 
and capitalist. From 1846 to 1854 he was treas- 
urer of the Michigan Central Railroad, and was 
associated with other important business and 
financial organizations. On his own account, 
he engaged in shipping, and managed some fa- 
mous clippers. Again he became active in pub- 
lic affairs, serving as a member of the executive 
council in 1853 and in the state constitutional 
convention of the same year. He was best known 
for the position he took on the question of com- 



I30 



Up 



ton 

merce in time of war, and for his interest in the 
welfare of seamen. In protest against the ratifi- 
cation of the Clarendon-Johnson treaty in con- 
nection with the Alabama claims, he made rep- 
resentations to the United States government 
relative to the capture of his vessel Nora. Re- 
garding these Lord John Russell made disparag- 
ing remarks (see Selections from Speeches of 
Earl Russell, 1870, II, 244-45). Whereupon 
Upton in a public letter, dated Mar. 23, 1870, 
charged the British people with being responsible 
for Confederate commerce raiders, and with hav- 
ing operated them. Through these charges, he 
attracted international attention. In the interest 
of seamen he promoted the Sailors' Snug Har- 
bor, at Quincy, Mass., and in an article, "Ship- 
wreck and Life-Saving, " published in Old and 
New, a Boston periodical, in May 1874, he made 
some radical suggestions about life-saving equip- 
ment on ships. On May 2, 1826, he married Ann 
Coffin Hussey in Nantucket, by whom he had 
eight children; his widow, one son, and three 
daughters survived him. He died in Boston. 

[Vital Records of Nantucket, Mass., to the Year 
1850, vol. IV (1927); W. H. Upton, Upton Family 
Records (1893); J. A. Vinton, The Upton Memorial 
(1874); New England Hist, and Geneal. Reg., Jan. 
1875 ; Boston Past and Present (1874) ; Boston Tran- 
script and Boston Post, July 2, 1874.] S. G. 

UPTON, GEORGE PUTNAM (Oct. 25, 
1834-May 19, 1919), journalist, music critic, 
and author, was born at Roxbury, Mass., the 
eldest of three children of Daniel Putnam and 
Lydia (Noyes) Upton. His father, a first cousin 
of George Bruce Upton [q.z'.], was a descend- 
ant of John Upton who purchased land in Sa- 
lem in 1658. George Putnam Upton was edu- 
cated at the Roxbury Latin School and at Brown 
University, from which he was graduated in 
1854 with the A.M. degree. During the follow- 
ing winter he taught school at Plymouth, Mass. 
In October 1855, he went to Chicago where he 
immediately secured a position on the staff of 
the Native Citizen. Six months later he became 
city editor of the Chicago Evening Journal. The 
meager musical life of the young growing city 
soon drew his attention, and he started the first 
musical column to appear in a Chicago news- 
paper, reviewing all the earliest important mu- 
sical events in the history of the city. In 1862 
he joined the staff of the Chicago Daily Tribune 
and continued to serve this paper for fifty-seven 
years in various capacities — first as city editor 
and war-correspondent at the front (1862-63), 
then as music critic (1863-81), associate ed- 
itor (1872-1905), and editorial writer from 
1870 until his death. After 1909 he compiled 
the Tribune's annual review. He was one of the 



Upton 

founders of the Chicago Apollo Musical Club in 
September 1872 and served as its first president. 
The first concert of the Club, on Jan. 21, 1873, 
aroused much enthusiasm and lent new impetus 
to the musical life of Chicago after the great 
fire. Starting as a male chorus, it expanded into 
a mixed chorus, and later developed into one of 
the leading choral organizations in the West. 

Upton's local reputation was established by 
his writings as a music critic, usually under 
the nom de plume "Peregrine Pickle." In the 
earlier years of his journalistic experience he 
was frequently called upon to combine the du- 
ties of literary, art, dramatic, and music critic. 
His work as such coincided with the formative 
period of Chicago's civic and art life. As he 
was for some time the only local critic able to 
speak with authority, his influence was very 
great. His position as a music critic was un- 
usual. He had no real background of musical 
education, played no instrument well, and did not 
sing, but his natural fondness for music, his lit- 
erary training, his clear judgment and keen ana- 
lytical and critical abilities well fitted him for 
his task. His attitude towards performing art- 
ists was a singularly kindly one ; he took pains 
to understand what he was called upon to write 
about and was unusually free from harshness 
when he could not praise. His autobiographic 
Musical Memories (1908) is a valuable and en- 
tertaining record of musical events and person- 
alities, principally in Chicago, extending over a 
period of a half-century. From the beginning 
he was a warm friend and enthusiastic supporter 
of Theodore Thomas [q.v.], and after the great 
conductor's death he edited Theodore Thomas. 
A Musical Autobiography (2 volumes, 1905). 

Upton's first published work as an author was 
Letters of Peregrine Pickle (1869). Soon there- 
after he began a notable series of works in the 
field of musicology, all marked by accuracy of 
statement and a genial style of expression. It 
includes Woman in Music (1880, revised edi- 
tions, 1886, 1909), Standard Operas (1886, and 
five later revised editions), Standard Oratorios 
(1887), Standard Cantatas (1888), Standard 
Symphonies (1889), Standard Light Operas 
(1902), Musical Pastels (1902), Standard Con- 
cert Guide (1908, three later revisions), Stand- 
ard Concert Repertory (1909), Standard Mu- 
sical Biographies ( 1910) , In Music Land ( 1913) , 
and The Song, Its Birth, Evolution, and Func- 
tions (1915). In collaboration with Mrs. G. K. 
Hack, he published Edouard Remenyi (1906). 
He also found time to translate for American 
music-lovers Max Muller's Deutsche Liebe with 
the English title Memories, Theodor Storm's 



J3 1 



Upt 



on 

hnmcnsce, and Ludwig Nohl's biographies of 
Haydn, Liszt, and Wagner. In Life Stories for 
Young People (1904-12), a series of thirty-six 
small volumes, he published translations of Ger- 
man studies of great historical characters. He 
was twice married. His first wife, Sarah E. 
Bliss, of Worcester, Mass., to whom he was 
married on Nov. 15, 1862, died on May 2, 1876. 
Of their two children one died at birth, the other 
in 1917. His second wife, Georgiana S. Wood, 
of Adrian, Mich., to whom he was married on 
Sept. 22, 1880, died on Oct. 1, 1927. In his per- 
sonal contacts he was affable, modest, and pos- 
sessed of a quiet humor. He died in Chicago. 
His remains were cremated and his ashes buried 
at Danvers, Mass. 

[Information from Upton's personal friends and 
from the family records ; Who's Who in America, 
1918-19; J. A. Vinton, The Upton Memorial (1874); 
Grove's Diet, of Music and Musicians, Am. Supp. 
(!93o) ; A Hundred Years of Music in America (1889), 
G. L. Howe, publisher, W. S. B. Mathews, associate 
ed. ; Florence French, Music and Musicians in Chi- 
cago (copr. 1899) ; L. C. Elson, The Hist, of Am. Mu- 
sic (rev. edition, 1925) ; Chicago Daily Tribune, May 
20 < J9I9-1 R.G. C. 

UPTON, WINSLOW (Oct. 12, 1853-Jan. 8, 
1 9 14), astronomer and meteorologist, was born 
at Salem, Mass., and was the third son and fifth 
child of James Upton and his second wife, Sarah 
Sophia (Ropes) Upton. His father was a busi- 
ness man with musical talent, whose Musical 
Miscellanea, a collection of original musical 
compositions, was printed for private circula- 
tion in 1872. He was descended from John Up- 
ton who purchased land in Salem in 1658 and 
later moved to North Reading. Winslow Upton 
entered Brown University and graduated as val- 
edictorian of his class in 1875. While he at- 
tained to equal excellence in his studies of an- 
cient classics and of science, he felt that his 
forte lay rather in scientific investigation. He 
went to the University of Cincinnati for grad- 
uate work in astronomy, and was there award- 
ed the degree of A.M. in 1877. After two years 
as assistant at the Harvard Observatory, a year 
as assistant in the United States Lake Survey at 
Detroit, a year as computer in the United States 
Naval Observatory at Washington, and two 
years as computer and assistant in the United 
States Signal Office, he was appointed professor 
of astronomy at Brown University in 1883, and 
he held this position until his death. He was 
secretary of the faculty (1884-91), director of 
the Ladd Observatory (1890-1914), and dean 
of the university (1900-01). He was a member 
of the American Philosophical Society, of the 
Deutsche Meteorologische Gesellschaft, and of 
the United States astronomical expeditions to 



Urban 

observe the total eclipses at Denver, Colo., in 
1878 and at the Caroline Islands in 1883. He 1 
also observed solar eclipses in Russia (1887), 
in California (1889), in Virginia (1900), and 
in Manitoba, Canada (1905). During a sabbat- 
ical year (1896-97) he was a research assistant 
at the observatory of Harvard University in 
Arequipa, Peru ; and during part of a later sab- 
batical leave (1904-05) he was connected with 
the observatory on Mount Wilson. 

Shortly after his advent at Brown University 
Upton taught classes in mathematics, meteor- 
ology, and logic, as well as astronomy. At the 
Ladd Observatory for many years he conducted 
meteorological and other observations, in part 
for the federal government. His published papers 
included a number on meteorological topics in 
the Annals of the Astronomical Observatory of 
Harvard College, Zeitschrift fur Meteorologie, 
and the American Meteorological Journal. Other 
notes and articles were published in the Bulletin 
of the Essex Institute, the Memoirs of the 
National Academy of Science, Astronomische 
Nachrichten, the Sidereal Messenger, and the 
Astronomical Journal. His small Star Atlas 
was published at Boston in 1896. For over twen- 
ty years (1893-1914) he wrote monthly letters 
on astronomical topics for the Providence Jour- 
nal, and he was editor of the astronomical parts 
of the Providence Journal Almanac ( 1894- 
1910). He had unusual scientific ability cou- 
pled with rare clarity of thought and power of 
lucid exposition. In the class room he aroused 
enthusiasm, and he was in constant demand as a 
lecturer. He was an active church worker, and 
endowed with great kindliness of spirit and 
charm of personality. At different times he was 
glee-club and choir leader, and church organ- 
ist. On Feb. 8, 1882, he married Cornelia Au- 
gusta, daughter of William H. Babcock of Leb- 
anon Springs, N. Y., who with two daughters 
survived him. 

[Sources include J. A. Vinton, The Upton Memorial 
(1874) ; W. H. Upton, Upton Family Records (1893) ; 
Who's Who in America, 1912-13 ; Hist. Cat. of Brown 
Univ., 1764-1914 (1914) ; R. C. Archibald, in Sci., 
Feb. 1914, with bibliog. ; Brown Alumni Monthly, June 
1900, p. 2, July 1901, p. 22, Feb. 1914. PP- 169-71, with 
portraits ; resolutions adopted by faculty and Sigma 
Xi, Brown Univ., in Popular Astronomy, Apr. 1914. 
with portrait ; obituary in Providence Jour., Jan. 9, 
1914; personal reminiscences. A poem on Upton's_ 
death by H. L. Koopman appeared in Brown Alumni 
Monthly, Feb. 1914; another, by V. E. Atwell, in 
Popular Astronomy, May 1915-] R. C. A. 

URBAN, JOSEPH (May 26, 1872-July 10, 
1933), architect and stage designer, was born in 
Vienna, Austria, son of Joseph and Helen 
(Weber) Urban. His father, a supervising of- 
ficial in the Viennese school system, intended 



I32 



Urb 



an 



Urb 



an 



him for the law, but his artistic bent was too 
strong. He studied at the Staatsgewerbeschule 
and the art academy in Vienna, became a pupil 
of Baron Karl von Hasenauer, and was well 
grounded in architecture, at the same time prac- 
tising illustration and studying interior decora- 
tion. One of his earliest commissions was to 
decorate the Abdin palace in Cairo. He also 
did the interior of the new town hall in Vienna 
and designed the "Tzar's Bridge" in St. Peters- 
burg. He was prominent in the Secessionist 
movement and arranged its exhibition in Vi- 
enna. In 1900 he won the grand prize for deco- 
ration at the Paris exposition, and in 1901 came 
to America to decorate the Austrian building at 
the Louisiana Purchase Exposition (St. Louis), 
for which he won the grand prize in 1904. Re- 
turning to Vienna, he became interested in stage 
sets for the Hofburg Theatre, and in 1911-12, 
when the Boston Opera Company was started, 
he was invited to that city as art director. For 
the Boston company he made several sets, nota- 
bly one for Pcllcas and Melisandc, which were 
revelations in America of the new stage art. 
He was introduced to New York by his set for 
The Garden of Paradise (1914), and in that 
year he left Boston for New York to design first 
the Ziegfeld Follies of 1915 (which owed much 
of their fame to him), and then sets for the 
Metropolitan Opera and for James K. Hackett's 
productions of Macbeth and The Merry Wives 
of Windsor. By this time "Urban blue" had 
become famous, and he was in great demand for 
all sorts of decorative projects. In addition to 
his office in New York he established a large 
studio and shop near his residence in Yonkers, 
and worked day and night on his various proj- 
ects, even returning to architecture in the 1920's. 
He designed furniture, motor cars, modernistic 
interiors, stage sets, theatres, clubs, houses, and 
public buildings. Among his buildings and in- 
teriors are the Ziegfeld Theatre on Sixth Ave- 
nue, New York, with an interior shaped like an 
egg; the New School for Social Research, New 
York ; the Tennis and Oasis clubs at Palm Beach, 
and certain residences there ; the interior of the 
Central Park Casino ; the St. Regis roof garden 
(gilt flowers on sapphire walls) ; and a vast de- 
sign, never carried out, for a new opera house in 
New York. Urban had always advocated the use 
of clear colors in exterior as well as interior 
architecture, and had popularized tints of his 
own. He was, accordingly, chosen to devise the 
color chart for the Century of Progress expo- 
sition at Chicago in 1933. 

A man so prodigiously fecund and versatile as 
Urban is often looked upon with some suspicion 



by his fellow craftsmen. It is perhaps true that 
Urban was not, as artist, an originator. His 
decorative style owed much to the Secessionists 
and Vart nouveau of the late nineties. In stage 
design he was not a great pioneer like Adolphe 
Appia or Gordon Craig. In architecture his name 
cannot be written large. But all modern deco- 
rators, scene designers, and architects in Amer- 
ica none the less owe him a debt of gratitude, 
because by popularizing the new styles he made 
their task so much the easier. Urban's sets for 
the Boston Opera House, for example, were the 
first large-scale examples of the new stagecraft 
in America, and their popularity was important. 
Subsequently, his use of broad masses of color, 
his employment of broken pigmentation in scene 
painting to take various light effects, his per- 
vasive beauty of costume under the play of light, 
in the Ziegfeld Follies, spread the gospel to 
thousands of people ordinarily little affected by 
new art movements. It is perhaps not far-fetched 
to say that Urban's sets for the Follies made 
possible the public acceptance of the architec- 
tural scheme of the Century of Progress. In 
architecture, the egg-shaped interior of the Zieg- 
feld Theatre, purely functional, may be destined 
to influence American theatre building in the 
future. In the decorative arts, his frequent use 
of metal had an almost immediate influence, as 
did his use of large spaces of clear color. How 
far that influence will extend to exterior archi- 
tecture remains to be seen. But, at any rate, as 
a popularizer of artistic innovations Urban was 
an important figure. 

He was a large, florid, genial, witty man, with 
a cascade of chins and an enormous capacity for 
work. He often worked from 9 a.m. till 2 the 
next morning, designing sets (built in his stu- 
dios) for five operas and ten or twelve plays and 
musical comedies a year, in addition to his deco- 
rative jobs and architectural projects. This work 
entailed reading scripts, attendance at rehearsals, 
the supervision of lighting and of practical con- 
struction. He smoked a hundred Turkish ciga- 
rettes a day, and had a pot of coffee always on 
his desk. His one recreation was attending prize 
fights. He died in New York, from a not sur- 
prising heart ailment, July 10, 1933, after an 
illness which had to his bitter disappointment 
prevented him from going to Chicago to see his 
colors applied on the exposition buildings. He 
was admitted to American citizenship in 1917. 
In 1918 he divorced his first wife, Mizzi Lefler, 
and on Jan. 23, 1919, married Mary Porter 
Beegle of New York. He was survived by his 
wife and a daughter of his first marriage, an 
artist. 



1 33 



Urso 

[Who's Who in America, 1932-33 ; "Urban, the Am- 
bidextrous," in N. Y. Times, June 17, 19 1 7 ; F. E. W. 
Freund, in Internal. Studio, Jan. 1923 ; Shepard Vogel- 
gesang, in Arch. Record, Feb. 1931 ; Theatre Arts Mag., 
Dec. 1932, p. 950, picture of an Urban stage set; Out- 
look, June 18, 1930 ; obituaries in N. Y. Times and N. 
Y. Herald Tribune, July 11, 1933; information from 
Gretl Urban, Urban 's daughter. J W. P. E. 

URSO, CAMILLA (June 13, 1842-Jan. 20, 
1902), violinist, was born in Nantes, France, the 
daughter of Salvator Urso, an organ and flute 
player born in Sicily, and his wife, Emilie 
(Girouard) Urso, a native of Portugal. Camilla 
began to play the violin at the time she was six 
years of age ; at the age of seven she gave her 
first recital in the town of her birth. Her father 
took her to Paris, where, after many difficulties, 
she was admitted to the Paris Conservatory of 
Music and became a pupil of Lambert-Joseph 
Massart. She studied and practised for eight, 
and sometimes ten, hours a day. In 1852 she came 
to America as a child prodigy, and played in 
concerts with such famous stars as Henriette 
Sontag and Marietta Alboni. She had been en- 
gaged under a very favorable contract to make a 
tour of the South, but the agent proved unre- 
liable and the child violinist was stranded for a 
time until the Germania Society asked her to ap- 
pear as soloist at several of its concerts. She 
later made tours with Sontag. About 1855 Urso's 
parents settled in Nashville, Tenn., and for seven 
years she made no more public appearances, but 
devoted all her time to practising. In 1862 she 
again resumed her concert work, playing first in 
New York as soloist with the New York Phil- 
harmonic Society. For the next thirty years she 
played continually both in America and in Eu- 
rope. She made two trips to Australia, in 1879 
and 1894, and one to South Africa, in 1895. Af- 
ter this she settled permanently in New York 
City, where she devoted her later years to teach- 
ing. Except for a tour in vaudeville houses, she 
thereafter seldom appeared in concert. 

According to those who knew her, and heard 
her play, Urso was a true artist, without affec- 
tation or conscious showmanship. George P. Up- 
ton [q.v.] described her in the early days as "a 
most serious child, with large dark eyes and with 
a manner and dignity that seemed strange in one 
so young. . . . Her face was so solemn and un- 
changing in its expression that it seemed as if a 
smile had never visited it" (Upton, post, p. 70). 
When she was about twenty-four years of age 
the same author said that she "still had that same 
pale, serious, inscrutable face, the same dark, 
lustrous melancholy eyes, and the same calm but 
gracious dignity of manner ; but with the ad- 
vancing years she had gained a more finished 
style, great individuality, and exquisitely grace- 



Usher 

ful motions of the arm in bowing" (Ibid., p. 71). 
In 1862 she was married in Paris to Frederic 
Lueres. She died in New York City almost in 
obscurity. 

[Grove's Diet, of Music and Musicians, Am. Supp. 
(1930); Charles Barnard, Camilla Urso, A Tribute 
(1885) ; G. P. Upton, Musical Memories (1908) ; Mu- 
sical Courier, Jan. 22, 29, 1902; N. Y. Times, Jan. 22, 
'902.] J.T.H. 

USHER, JOHN PALMER (Jan. 9, 1816-Apr. 

13, 1889), lawyer, secretary of the interior in 
Lincoln's cabinet, was descended from a young 
English Puritan, Hezekiah Usher, who settled in 
Boston, Mass., about the middle of the seven- 
teenth century, becoming a bookseller and later 
a selectman. Among his descendants were John 
Usher who became lieutenant-governor of New 
Hampshire in 1692 and Dr. Nathaniel Usher, 
who with his wife, Lucy (Palmer), lived in 
Brookfield, Madison County, N. Y., when their 
son, John Palmer, was born. After receiving a 
common-school education Usher studied law in 
the office of Henry Bennett of New Berlin, N. 
Y., and was admitted to the bar in 1839. A year 
later he moved to Terre Haute, Ind., and began 
the practice of his profession. He rode the 
circuit, and was sometimes engaged with Abra- 
ham Lincoln in the argument of cases. In 1850- 
51 he served in the Indiana legislature. 

When the Republican party was organized in 
1854, Usher became an active supporter of its 
principles and in 1856 was an unsuccessful can- 
didate for Congress. He was appointed attor- 
ney-general of Indiana in November 1861, but 
four months later resigned to accept the position 
of assistant secretary of the interior at Wash- 
ington. In January 1863 he was appointed head 
of that department, following the resignation of 
Caleb B. Smith [q.z'.]. In his first report he 
called special attention to the benefits of the new 
homestead law, remarking that in less than a 
year after it went into operation almost a million 
and a half acres had been taken up. He recom- 
mended a small tax on the net profits of gold and 
silver mines, larger Indian reservations, also 
larger appropriations — with a policy guided by 
justice and humanity — for these wards of the 
nation. His last report contained a comprehen- 
sive statement concerning public lands, which, 
he said, had included about one fifth of the entire 
country and had been the cause of about one 
fourth of all the laws passed by Congress to 
that date. 

When the Civil War closed Usher decided to 
retire from political life and resume the practice 
of law in one of the growing Western states. He 
accordingly resigned as secretary of the interior 
on May 15, 1865, and removed with his family 



J 34 



Usher 

to Lawrence, Kan., where he accepted appoint- 
ment as chief counsel for the Union Pacific Rail- 
road — a position which he held to the end of his 
life. He represented the company in much im- 
portant litigation in both state and federal courts. 
Usher's only writings were his two reports ( 1863, 
1864) as secretary of the interior (Executive 
Document No. 1, vol. Ill, 38 Cong., 1 Sess. ; and 
House Executive Document No. 1, pt. 5, 38 
Cong., 2 Sess.) and a chapter in Reminiscences 
of Abraham Lincoln (1886), edited by A. T. 
Rice; but in 1925 Nelson H. Loomis published 
President Lincoln's Cabinet, by Honorable John 
P. Usher, a pamphlet containing the substance of 
an after-dinner speech delivered in 1887 together 
with a newspaper interview. On Jan. 26, 1844, 
Usher married Margaret Patterson; they had 
four sons. He died in a hospital in Philadelphia. 
[Usher kept no diary and preserved no papers. 
President Lincoln's Cabinet (1925) contains an au- 
thoritative biog. by N. H. Loomis. See also Kan. State 
Hist. Soc. Colls., vol. XII (1912) ; C. W. Taylor, The 
Bench and Bar of hid. (1895) ; E. P. Usher, A Me- 
morial Sketch of Roland Greene Usher (1895), con- 
taining a genealogy; Lawrence Daily Jour., Apr. 14, 
1889; Lawrence Evening Tribune, Apr. 15, 1889; 
Topcka Capital-Commonwealth, Apr. 16, 1889. Im- 
portant facts have also been obtained from a son, the 
late Samuel C. Usher.] T. L. H. 

USHER, NATHANIEL REILLY (Apr. 7, 
1855-Jan. 9, 1931), naval officer, son of Na- 
thaniel and Pamela ( Woolverton) Usher and 
nephew of John Palmer Usher [q.v.~l, was born 
in Vincennes, Ind. He entered the Naval Acad- 
emy in 1871 and was graduated in 1875. After 
two years duty on the Asiatic Station, he was 
sent to the Paris Exposition of 1878 as a mem- 
ber of the American naval delegation. During 
the early gold rush days in Alaska, as an officer 
of the Jamcstoiun, he assisted in maintaining law 
and order in the Territory. In 1884 he was sent 
with Winfield Scott Schley [q.v.] to the Arctic 
on the Greely Relief Expedition, sailing as watch 
officer of the Bear but being transferred to the 
Alert, a ship donated by the British government. 
In the years 1886-89 ne made a cruise around 
the world in the Juniata. 

During the Spanish-American War Usher 
commanded the torpedo boat Ericsson and was 
at Key West with her when the Maine was blown 
up in Havana Harbor. He is credited with cap- 
turing the first Spanish prize taken in the war. 
While Cervera's fleet lay in Santiago Harbor, 
Usher volunteered to run in with the Ericsson 
and torpedo the hostile vessels, but his offer was 
not accepted. In the battle of Santiago his vessel 
took a prominent part and his report of the en- 
gagement is a model of concise, vivid narrative 
("Naval Operations of the War with Spain," 
House Document No. 3, 55 Cong., 3 Sess., pp. 



Vaca 

547-48). After the war he held a succession of 
important posts, including service on the Gen- 
eral Board and in the Bureau of Navigation, and 
the commands of the cruiser St. Louis and the 
battleship Michigan. He rose rapidly in the serv- 
ice, attaining the rank of rear admiral in 191 1. 

Usher commanded successively three different 
divisions of the Atlantic Fleet, and soon after the 
outbreak of the World War was made com- 
mandantof the Brooklyn Navy Yard. Recogniz- 
ing the fact that the United States would very 
likely be drawn into the war, he did his utmost 
to build up and modernize the ships under his 
command. When war was finally declared he 
was obliged to commandeer docks, outfit ships, 
and prepare convoys for the men, munitions, and 
food that must be rushed to France. Under his 
direction a secret service was organized known 
as the Commandant's Aide for Information, a 
mine-sweeping force was developed, and the 
scout-patrol system was instituted. It was chief- 
ly because of his monumental energy and organiz- 
ing ability that the Port of New York was able 
to ship the major part of all the supplies and 
eighty per cent, of all the men that America sent 
to the aid of her Allies. In 1918 Usher was given 
command of the Third Naval District. 

When he retired on Apr. 7, 1919, he was the 
guest of honor at a dinner at the Waldorf in New 
York, which was attended by 1,500 persons. 
Franklin D. Roosevelt, then assistant secretary 
of the navy, said of him : "No officer stands high- 
er in his appreciation of the broad needs of this 
great democratic country in the matter of de- 
fence, and no one more tactfully, more forcefully, 
and more skillfully welded the naval reserve, the 
civilian, into the trained machine of the regular 
Navy" (Sun, New York, Apr. 8, 1919). France, 
in recognition of his services to the cause of the 
Allies, bestowed upon him the ribbon of the 
French Legion of Honor, and he was awarded 
the Navy Cross by his own government. He was 
a man of commanding presence, the idol of his 
men, and held in high esteem in the service. Af- 
ter his retirement he lived on his farm at Pots- 
dam, N. Y. He married Anne Usher of Potsdam 
in 1891 ; he left no children. 

[Army and Na7<y Journal, Jan. 17, 1931 ; N. Y. Times, 
Jan. 10, 193 1 ; U. S. Navy Dept. Registers and Annual 
Reports ; Who's Who in America, 1928-29 ; Service 
Record in Bureau of Navigation, Navy Dept. ; L. R. 
Hamersly, The Records of Living Officers of the U. S. 
Navy (7th ed., 1902) ; E. P. Usher, A Memorial Sketch 
of Roland Greene Usher, to Which is Added a Geneal. 
of the Usher Family in New England (1895).] 

L. H. B. 

VACA, ALVAR NUNEZ CABEZA de [See 
Nunez Cabeza de Vaca, Alvar c. 1490-c. 

1557]. 



I 35 



Vail 



Vail 



VAIL, AARON (Oct. 24, 1796-Nov. 4, 1878), 
diplomat, was born in Lorient (Morbihan), 
France, the son of a New York merchant, Aaron 
Vail, and his wife, Elizabeth Dubois, who was 
born in Saint Servan (Ille et Vilaine), France. 
The father, who seems to have come of a Quaker 
family of Dutchess County, N. Y., was appoint- 
ed American commercial agent at Lorient in 
1803 and served there usefully during the Na- 
poleonic era, rearing a large family on a meager 
income. After his death in 181 5 his family came 
to the United States. Aaron obtained a clerk- 
ship in the American legation at Paris, traveled 
considerably in Europe, and served as clerk in 
the Department of State. On Aug. 1, 1831, he 
was appointed secretary of legation at London. 
After the refusal of the Senate to confirm Van 
Buren's appointment as minister to Great Brit- 
ain, Vail was appointed charge d'affaires at Lon- 
don and filled this important position from July 
13, 1832, until April 1836; he then became sec- 
retary of legation once more, and remained in 
London until December 1836 in that capacity. 
Completely at home in London society and on 
excellent terms with such British statesmen as 
Palmerston and Wellington, the bachelor charge 
received the approval of President Jackson, with 
whom he corresponded directly, as well as that 
of the Department of State, for his conduct of 
the business of the legation. Perhaps his most 
difficult task was handling the American protest 
and claims for compensation arising out of the 
release of slaves from American ships forced by 
circumstances to put in at British West Indian 
ports. Vail finally persuaded the British gov- 
ernment to refer the cases to the judicial com- 
mittee of the Privy Council, but no further sat- 
isfaction was obtained during his term as charge. 
After the Canadian rebellion of 1837 it was 
believed that many Americans imprisoned in 
Canada on suspicion of having been involved 
were being held arbitrarily and without the pros- 
pect of a trial. On Apr. 3, 1838, Vail was ap- 
pointed special agent to go to Canada to investi- 
gate. In his reports to the secretary of state, 
Apr. 21 and May 5, he stated his belief that 
Americans implicated in the revolt were being 
treated "in the mildest manner consistent with 
the demands of justice" (House Executive Docu- 
ment No. 39, 27 Cong., 1 Sess., p. 5). Appointed 
chief clerk of the Department of State June 26, 
1838, he served until July 15, 1840. During this 
period he acted on numerous occasions as sec- 
retary of state. In the latter capacity he received 
notice from the Republic of Texas of the with- 
drawal of its offer of annexation to the United 
States; he protested vigorously the seizure by 

I36 



British authorities of American fishing craft on 
the coast of Nova Scotia, and he attempted to 
prevent the outbreak of the "Aroostook war" 
on the border between Maine and Canada. From 
May 20, 1840, to Aug. 1, 1842, when Washing- 
ton Irving assumed the duties of minister, Vail 
served as charge d'affaires at Madrid. During 
the periods of his life when he was not in public 
service he seems to have lived in New York or 
in Europe. He died at Pau (Basses-Pyrenees), 
France. 

[Reg. of the Dept. of State, July 1, 1933 ; The Works 
of James Buchanan (12 vols., 1908—11), ed. by J. B. 
Moore ; H. M. Wriston, Exec. Agents in Am. Foreign 
Relations (1929); Sen. Doc. 174, 24 Cong., 2 Sess.; 
Sen. Doc. 1, 25 Cong., 3 Sess. ; Sen. Doc. 107, House 
Ex. Doc. 186, 26 Cong., 1 Sess. ; House Ex. Doc. 39, 
27 Cong., 1 Sess.; MSS. in Dept. of State; birth regis- 
ter of Lorient, France ; municipal records of Pau ; 
Beckles Willson, America's Ambassadors to England 
(1929), extensive but in part unreliable.] E. W. S. 

VAIL, ALFRED (Sept. 25, 1807-Jan. 18, 
1859), telegraph pioneer, the son of Stephen and 
Bethiah (Young) Vail, was born at Morris- 
town, N. ]., where his father was the owner and 
operator of the Speedwell Iron Works. The rec- 
ords of the Presbyterian Church in Morristown 
show that he was given a middle name, Lewis, 
which he apparently never used. Upon complet- 
ing a common-school education in his native 
town he entered his father's establishment. Pos- 
sessed of a considerable amount of native me- 
chanical skill, he soon became an expert me- 
chanician and by the time he was twenty he had 
complete charge of the machine shop, where he 
continued for a number of years. About 1830 
he decided to become a Presbyterian minister, 
and after taking some college preparatory work 
entered the University of the City of New York 
in 1832, graduating in 1836. Although his health 
was poor, he immediately began his theological 
studies. 

On Sept. 2, 1837, however, at the University, 
he saw Prof. Samuel F. B. Morse [q.v.] give 
one of his first exhibitions of the telegraph. Vail 
at once perceived the significance of Morse's in- 
vention and expressed a desire to become asso- 
ciated with him in perfecting and exploiting it. 
Morse, being greatly in need of mechanical as 
well as financial assistance, grasped this unex- 
pected opportunity, and on Sept. 23, 1837, a con- 
tract was drawn up between Vail and Morse, 
Vail binding himself to construct a complete set 
of instruments and to secure both United States 
and foreign patents at his own expense, while 
in return he received a fourth interest in the 
American rights and a half interest in patents 
which might be secured abroad. He had no mon- 
ey of his own but quickly induced his father to 



Vail 

finance the undertaking, and thereupon Vail, 
Morse, and a third associate, Leonard D. Gale, 
went to work on the telegraph in the shops of 
the Speedwell Iron Works. On Jan. 6, 1838, a 
successful demonstration was made of the im- 
proved electric telegraph through three miles of 
wire stretched around one of the shops. Vail's 
father furnished the message for this occasion: 
"A patient waiter is no loser." Within the month 
Vail and Morse held their first public exhibition 
of the telegraph in New York City, when "At- 
tention, the Universe, by kingdoms right wheel," 
was the terse message successfully transmitted. 
The mechanical perfection of practically all the 
instruments used was the result of Vail's skill, 
and he worked enthusiastically with Morse in 
demonstrating the telegraph before the Franklin 
Institute, Philadelphia, on Feb. 8, 1838, and be- 
fore members of Congress on Feb. 21 of that 
year. The partners felt that the telegraph ought 
to be owned by the government and hoped that 
as a result of this latter demonstration Congress 
would purchase the invention. This hope was 
disappointed, but the demonstration in Washing- 
ton aroused the interest of one congressman, 
Francis O. J. Smith, who within a month became 
a financial partner and received a four-sixteenths 
interest in the invention, brought about by the 
reduction of Vail's interest from four to two 
sixteenths. 

The new capital thus acquired enabled Morse 
to proceed to Europe to secure his foreign patents, 
and with his departure Vail's interest in the tele- 
graph waned. He did very little work on it in 

1838, and in 1839 he went to Philadelphia to rep- 
resent his father's interests. Here he remained 
until 1843 ; but when in March of that year Con- 
gress passed the act providing for an experi- 
mental telegraph line between Washington and 
Baltimore, Vail became Morse's chief assistant 
and received the test message "What hath God 
wrought !" at Baltimore on May 24, 1844. He 
remained with Morse for the next four years, 
publishing in 1845 The American Electro Mag- 
netic Telegraph, but again lost interest in the 
work, and in 1848 resigned his position as su- 
perintendent at Philadelphia. Returning to Mor- 
ristown, he lived there in retirement until his 
death, giving much of his time in later years to 
compiling material for a genealogy of the Vail 
family. Vail profited little from the telegraph, 
for he did not improve the opportunities it af- 
forded, failing to take up the manufacture of 
telegraph instruments, and he died poor and un- 
happy. He was twice married : first, July 23, 

1839, to Jane Elizabeth Cummings, who died in 
1852; and second, Dec. 17, 1855, to Amanda O. 



Vail 

Eno, who with three sons by his first marriage 
survived him. He died in Morristown, in his 
fifty-second year. 

[H. H. Vail, Gcneal. of Some of the Vail Family 
(1902) ; F. B. Read, Up the Heights of Fame and For- 
tune (1873); Gen. Alumni Cat., N. Y. Univ., vol. I 
(1906); Hist, of the First Presbyt. Ch., Morristown, 
N. J., pt. II (n.d.), containing "The Combined Regis- 
ters, from 1742 to 1885" ; death notice in N. Y. Times, 
Jan. 20, 1859; E. L. Morse, Samuel F. B. Morse: His 
Letters and Journals (1914, vol. II) ; J. D. Reid, The 
Telegraph in America (1879) ; "The Invention of the 
Electro-Telegraph," Electrical World, July 20-Dec. 21, 
1895; U. S. National Museum records.] C W M 

VAIL, STEPHEN MONTFORT (Jan. 15, 
1816-Nov. 26, 1880), Methodist Episcopal cler- 
gyman, educator, was born in Union Vale, 
Dutchess County, N. Y., the son of James Vail, 
a farmer, and Anna (Montfort) Vail. When he 
was fourteen years old he entered Cazenovia 
Seminary, Cazenovia, N. Y., and in 1834, Bow- 
doin College, from which he was graduated with 
honors in 1838. For his professional education 
he went to Union Theological Seminary, New 
York City, completing the course there in 1842. 
That same year he was admitted on trial to the 
New York Conference of the Methodist Epis- 
copal Church, and in September was married to 
Louisa R. Cushman. He was ordained deacon 
in 1844, and elder in 1846. His pastoral appoint- 
ments were to Fishkill, N. Y. ( 1842-44) , Sharon, 
Conn. (1844-46), and Pine Plains, N. Y. (1846- 
47). In 1847 he became principal of Pennington 
Seminary, Pennington, N. J., leaving there two 
years later to accept the chair of Hebrew in the 
Methodist General Biblical Institute, Concord, 
N. H., which, opened in 1847, was the first dis- 
tinctively theological institution established by 
American Methodists. In this position he served 
until 1869. 

Two interests which Vail furthered brought 
him prominence. At a time when Methodists in 
general opposed education as a requirement for 
the ministerial office on the ground that the call 
of God and a vital personal experience were the 
essential requisites, Vail was a vigorous advo- 
cate of theological training. Because of articles 
in support of his views on this subject, published 
while he was at Pennington, which were deemed 
by some contrary to Methodist principles, he 
was placed on trial before the New Jersey Con- 
ference. The charges were so trivial, however, 
that he was speedily acquitted. During the many 
years he was connected with the General Bibli- 
cal Institute he was indefatigable in his efforts 
to build up the school and also to raise the edu- 
cational standards of his denomination. In 1853 
he published Ministerial Education in the Meth- 
odist Episcopal Church. A second interest, and 



137 



Vail 

one that made him more widely known, was in 
the abolition of slavery. It led him to cross 
swords with prominent men of his own calling' 
who defended the institution on Biblical grounds. 
In i860 he published a sermon entitled The 
Church and the Slave Power, and in 1864, The 
Bible Against Slavery. The latter was a reply 
to Bishop John Henry Hopkins [g.t'.] of the 
Protestant Episcopal Church who had advanced 
arguments to the effect that slavery is not a sin 
because it is not forbidden in the Scripture, and 
to Nathan Lord \_q.vJ], president of Dartmouth 
College, who contended that slavery was divine- 
ly ordained, and therefore not to be questioned. 
A Methodist and a stanch Republican and sup- 
porter of the Union, he was regarded as worthy 
of recognition by President Grant, who in 1869 
appointed him consul at Ludwigshafen, Bavaria, 
in which position he served until 1874. Return- 
ing fo the United States, he retired to his farm 
at Pleasant Plains, Staten Island. He died at the 
home of a son-in-law in Jersey City, survived 
by his wife and six children. In addition to the 
writings already mentioned he published Life in 
Earnest; or Memoirs and Remains of the Rev. 
Zcnas Caldwell, which appeared in 1855. 

[Commemorative Biog. Record of Dutchess County, 
N. Y. (1897); H. W. Cushman, A Hist, and Biog. 
Gcncal. of the Cushmans : The Descendants of Robert 
Cushman (1855); Gen. Biog. Cat. of Bowdoin Coll. 
(191 2) ; sketch in Minutes of the Ann. Conferences of 
the M. E. Church, Spring Conferences of 1881 (1881), 
reprinted in Stephen Allen and W. H. Pilsbury, Hist, 
of Methodism in Me. (1887) ; Christian Advocate (N. 
Y.), Dec. 2, 1880; Zion's Herald, Jan. 6, 1881 ; death 
notice in N. Y. Times, Nov. 27, 1880.] H. E. S. 

VAIL, THEODORE NEWTON (July 16, 
1845-Apr. 16, 1920), telephone and utilities ex- 
ecutive, was born near Minerva, Carroll County, 
Ohio, the son of Davis Vail, a Quaker farmer 
and iron worker, and Phebe (Quinby) his wife. 
There were ten children, of whom seven survived 
childhood, and of these Theodore was the third. 
In 1847 Davis Vail took his family back to his 
former home in New Jersey, and went to work 
again in the Speedwell Iron Works near Mor- 
ristown, well known through its association with 
his cousin, Alfred Vail \_q.vJ], and the electric 
telegraph. 

Theodore went to the public schools and to 
the Morristown Academy until he had finished 
the high school grade. By this time he had be- 
come interested in reading, especially along the 
lines of geography and human achievement ; but 
his real education was mainly a casual one in 
the school of versatile experience. At seventeen 
he went to work in a drugstore where there was 
a telegraph office ; he learned to use the instru- 
ment, and by the time he was nineteen he was at 



Vail 

work in New York as an operator for the West- 
ern Union Telegraph Company. This career was 
interrupted by the decision of his father to go 
West. The family moved in 1866 to Waterloo, 
Iowa, and Theodore went with them. Here he 
learned what it was to be a pioneer, breaking the 
loam and harvesting rich crops. Baseball was 
the recreation of the region, and in Iowa Vail 
conceived his lifelong enthusiasm for the game. 

In 1868 he went back into the telegraph serv- 
ice and was soon night operator at Pine Bluffs, 
in the Indian country among the Black Hills on 
the Union Pacific Railway. From this telegraph 
service he went into the mail service, and on 
Aug. 3, 1869, at Newark, N. J., he married Em- 
ma Louise Righter, a cousin on his mother's 
side. They settled in Omaha, whence he went on 
his mail trips across the continent. On July 18, 
1870, a son was born to them. Vail was soon 
devising improvements in the operation and 
routings of the railway mail service. This initi- 
ative brought him advancement and in 1873 
transfer to the office of the railway mail service 
at Washington ; in 1874 he became assistant gen- 
eral superintendent. Under Postmaster-General 
Marshall Jewell [q.v.~\, on Sept. 16, 1875, he in- 
augurated the Fast Mail between New York and 
Chicago, over the New York Central and Hud- 
son River Railroad ; the first train, carrying only 
mail, started from New York at a speed of more 
than forty-one miles an hour, faster than any 
passenger train had ever traveled (Paine, post, 
p. 77). With the beginning of 1876 Theodore 
Vail became general superintendent of the rail- 
way mail service. 

Meantime Alexander Graham Bell [q.v.~\ had 
invented the telephone and Gardiner Greene 
Hubbard \_q.v.~] had begun to organize the busi- 
ness. Hubbard recognized the need for a young 
man of vision, ability, and force to carry on the 
development of the telephone industry. Know- 
ing Vail through his active interest in the postal 
service, Hubbard singled him out and persuaded 
him to undertake the work under the title of 
general manager of the Bell Telephone Com- 
pany. Between May 1878 and September 1887, 
Vail organized the expanding telephone system ; 
he merged the rapidly multiplying local exchanges 
into more efficient companies ; he put into effect 
a practical system of financing the telephone in- 
dustry; he provided for anticipatory technical 
development and for improved and more eco- 
nomical manufacture of telephone apparatus, 
with the Western Electric Company as the man- 
ufacturing unit, so as to improve the quality and 
extend the distance of telephone transmission. 
His culminating contribution in this period was 



Vail 

to unify the industry by connecting all the op- 
erating companies and exchanges by a long-dis- 
tance telephone system. For this purpose, with 
Edward J. Hall, Jr., as the active man, he in- 
corporated in 1885 a special subsidiary company, 
the American Telephone & Telegraph Company, 
of which he was the first president. 

By 1887 his vitality was depleted, for no plan 
had been too great for his quick mind to under- 
take, and no detail too small to receive his per- 
sonal attention. He resigned from the telephone 
company and from all other responsibilities, and 
retired in 1889 to a farm he had bought at Lyn- 
donville, Vt. There, some years before, his in- 
terest in scientific agriculture and in practical 
education had led him to give the funds neces- 
sary to rehabilitate and reopen (in 1884) an 
industrial school, Lyndon Institute. 

Soon, however, a visitor from South America 
interested him in the industrial development of 
the Argentine Republic ; and after several years, 
during which he spent much time in Europe 
without losing touch with the telephone com- 
pany, he turned his interest and energy into 
utility projects in Argentina. This was his chief 
occupation from 1894 to 1907. He financed and 
developed a great water-power plant at Cordoba 
and electrified and made profitable a street rail- 
way system in Buenos Aires. After the death 
of his wife in February 1905, and of his only 
child, Davis, in December 1906, he sold out his 
South American interests and returned to Ver- 
mont. Marrying on July 27, 1907, Mabel R. 
Sanderson of Boston, and making his niece, 
Katherine Vail, his adopted daughter, he again 
turned his attention to agriculture and education 
for country life. In 1910, at Lyndonville, he was 
instrumental in establishing the Lyndon School 
of Agriculture. 

Meantime the telephone had been spreading 
throughout the United States. The Bell Com- 
panies had grown from 180,680 telephones (Dec. 
31, 1887) to 2,773,547 telephones (Dec. 31, 
1906). In 1900 the American Telephone & Tele- 
graph Company had taken over from the Amer- 
ican Bell Telephone Company its function as 
the chief corporation of the telephone system, 
retaining its former long-distance functions in 
a special long-line department. With the expira- 
tion of the Bell telephone patents in 1893 and 
1894, hundreds of independent telephone com- 
panies sprang up and entered into local com- 
petition with the Bell organizations. It was not 
yet generally realized that the telephone was a 
natural monopoly and that the existence of a 
multiplicity of telephone companies would pre- 
vent nation-wide telephone efficiency. The di- 



Vail 

rectors of the Bell company now urged Vail to 
take hold of the industry again, and on May 1, 
1907, his election as president of the American 
Telephone & Telegraph Company was announced. 
His first step was to move the headquarters of 
the company from Boston to New York. With 
the purpose of fostering and increasing public 
understanding and confidence he made the an- 
nual reports a medium for the frank discussion 
of telephone problems. He hastened the unifica- 
tion of the telephone industry by personally 
making the acquaintance of all the chief officers 
of the Bell companies throughout the country 
and by a policy of cooperation with the inde- 
pendent telephone companies. Under this policy, 
companies that preferred to remain independent 
could secure long distance service by contract 
from the adjacent Bell company; these were 
called Bell-connected. By such steps the Bell 
System came more and more to realize its natural 
ideal — "One Policy, One System, Universal 
Service." Vail went further, toward a unification 
of all electric communications, affiliating the 
Western Union Telegraph Company with the 
American Telephone & Telegraph Company in 
1909, with himself as president of both com- 
panies, and inaugurating improvements of serv- 
ice such as the night letter and telephone recep- 
tion of telegrams. The federal government 
claimed, however, that this association was in 
violation of the anti-trust laws, and in 1913, the 
two companies were separated without formal 
legal action in court (Annual Report of the 
American Telephone & Telegraph Company, 

IQI3). 

Meanwhile, by selecting the right men and 
properly supporting them in their work, Vail 
pushed forward the progress of telephony: sci- 
entific research resulted in new inventions and 
technical improvement, as well as in efficient 
construction ; popular education increased the 
field of the telephone ; able commercial manage- 
ment brought profits ; and world telephony was 
rendered certain. The first long stride in this 
direction was the telephone conquest of the des- 
ert and the mountains. On Jan. 25, 191 5, during 
the Panama-Pacific Exposition at San Fran- 
cisco, the first transcontinental telephone line 
was opened with conversations between Presi- 
dent Woodrow Wilson at Washington, Alex- 
ander Graham Bell at New York, Thomas A. 
Watson at San Francisco, and Theodore N. Vail 
at Jekyl Island, off the coast of Georgia. The 
same year telephone engineers under John J. 
Carty developed radio telephony so that on Oct. 
21, communications sent out from Arlington, 
Va., were simultaneously received in Paris and 



139 



Valentine 

at Honolulu. In 1917 a collection of Vail's pa- 
pers and addresses was privately printed under 
the title, Views on Public Questions. 

After the United States went into the World 
War, telephone battalions were organized, in 
accordance with plans suggested by Carty and 
approved by Vail, and they built an American 
telephone system in France. On July 31, 1918, 
the government took over control of all the wire 
communication systems, and Vail was requested 
to continue with his own organization the con- 
duct of the telephone business for the govern- 
ment, reporting to the Postmaster General. The 
wires were returned to the owning companies 
on July 31, 1919. Just previously, June 18, Vail 
had resigned the presidency of the American 
Telephone & Telegraph Company, and become 
chairman of the Board of Directors. He had 
always lived unsparingly; in April 1920 he went 
to the Johns Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore, where 
he died on Apr. 16. He was buried in the old 
cemetery at Parsippany, N. J. The chief or- 
ganizer of the telephone business, in little more 
than forty years he had "made neighbors of a 
hundred million people." 

[A. B. Paine, In One Man's Life (1921), repr. as 
Theodore N. Vail: A Biog. (1929) ; J. W. Stehman, 
The Financial Hist, of the Am. Telephone and Tele- 
graph Company (1925) ; Ann. Reports of the Directors 
of the Am. Telephone and Telegraph Company, 1907— 
19; Boston Transcript, Apr. 16, 1920; Evening Post 
(N. Y.), Apr. 17, 1920 ; Evening Caledonian (St. 
Johnsbury, Vt.), Apr. 16, 1920; Wall Street Journal, 
Apr. 17, 23, 1920; Western Electric News, May, Aug. 
1920 ; papers in the Theodore N. Vail Collection of the 
Am. Telephone Hist. Lib., New York City.] 

W. C. L. 

VALENTINE, DAVID THOMAS (Sept. 
15, 1801-Feb. 25, 1869), compiler of historical 
materials, was born in East Chester, Westches- 
ter County, N. Y., the second son of Daniel and 
Miriam (Fisher) Valentine, and a descendant 
of Benjamin Valentine of Holland, who settled 
near the town of Yonkers in 1679. On his moth- 
er's side he was descended from English stock 
which became established in America as early 
as 161 1. He received his principal schooling in 
the Westchester Academy at White Plains, and 
in 181 5 removed to New York City, where he 
found employment as a grocer's clerk. A few 
years later he became a member of the national 
guard, and after passing through the lower ranks 
he declined to become major of the regiment in 
1826, and definitely retired from military life. 
Meanwhile he had acquired the friendship of 
persons prominent in municipal political affairs, 
and through their influence he became clerk of 
the marine court. He held his position from 
1826 until 1830, when he was appointed deputy- 
clerk of the common council. In 1842 he became • 



Valentine 

clerk of the council and chief of the legislative 
department and held the position without inter- 
ruption until 1868, despite numerous political 
changes. In January 1868, however, he was su- 
perseded in office — a circumstance which prob- 
ably hastened his death. 

Pursuant to a legislative resolution, Valen- 
tine published in 1841 his first Manual of the 
Corporation of the City of New York, and there- 
after he added a volume annually until 1867. 
These volumes, copiously illustrated, and con- 
taining a jumbled mass of historical and miscel- 
laneous matter, became so popular that they 
were said to have become by 1869 "almost a 
necessity among New-Yorkers" (New York 
Times, post). Now adequately indexed, these 
manuals constitute an extremely useful, if un- 
even, source of information relative to New York 
life. Other literary activities of Valentine in- 
clude a History of the City of New-York ( 1853), 
chiefly the work of W. I. Paulding, a member 
of Valentine's corps of scholarly assistants, in- 
formative but badly organized, and extending 
only to the year 1756 ; A Compilation of the Laws 
of the State of New York, Relating Particularly 
to the City of New York (1862) ; Compilation 
of Existing Ferry Leases and Railroad Grants 
Made by the Corporation of the City of New 
York (1866); and Ordinances of the Mayor, 
Aldermen, and Commonalty (1859). 

Popularly and affectionately referred to as 
"Old Uncle David" during his declining years, 
Valentine was one of the most respected and be- 
loved residents of New York City. Had he not 
remained so absorbed in uncovering, compiling, 
and preserving local historical and antiquarian 
materials, he could probably have risen with ease 
to high official position. He became a member 
of the New-England Historic and Genealogi- 
cal Society in 1855. He was twice married, first 
to Martha Carnell, on June 24, 1821. They had 
three sons and two daughters. After her death, 
he was married to Caroline M. Spicer, who, with 
the children of his first wife, survived him. 

[T. W. Valentine, The Valentines in America, 1644— 
1874 (1874); New-Eng. Hist, and Geneal. Register, 
Oct. 1869 ; Otto Huf eland, compiler, Hist. Index to the 
Manuals of the Corp. of the City of N. Y. (1900) ; An 
Index to the Illustrations in the Manuals of the Corp. 
of the City of N. Y. (1906); William Cushing, In- 
itials and Pseudonyms (1885); TV. Y. Times, N. Y. 
Herald, Feb. 26, 1869.] R.W.I. 

VALENTINE, EDWARD VIRGINIUS 

(Nov. 12, 1838-Oct. 19, 1930), sculptor, the 
youngest of nine children of Mann Satterwhite 
and Elizabeth (Mosby) Valentine, was born at 
Richmond, Va., where his father was a prosper- 
ous merchant, a member of a family that had 



140 



Valentine 



Valentine 



been in Virginia since the middle of the seven- 
teenth century. He received his early education 
from tutors and in private schools. His wish to 
become a sculptor led him to the study of anat- 
omy, and in 1856 he began to attend lectures 
at the Medical College of Virginia, Richmond. 
By 1857 he had made several portrait busts, and 
in the fall of 1859 he went to Paris, where he 
studied drawing from the nude under Thomas 
Couture, and modeling under Franqois Jouffroy. 
He then traveled to Italy, visited numerous gal- 
leries, and studied in Florence. In 1861 he was 
accepted as a pupil in the Berlin studio of Au- 
gust Kiss, where his charm and goodness com- 
pletely won the old sculptor's heart. While he 
was in Berlin he received from the South photo- 
graphs of Gen. Robert E. Lee, and made from 
them a portrait statuette, which he sold for the 
benefit of the Southern cause. In the fall of 1865 
he studied for a time at the Royal Academy, 
Berlin. 

Toward the end of 1865 he returned to Rich- 
mond, where he opened a studio. He had won 
praise in Berlin for a bust from life of Dr. Franz 
von Holtzendorff, and in London for the Lee 
statuette. But in Richmond, in the tragic circum- 
stances of the Reconstruction, he at first re- 
ceived no orders. Undaunted, he continued to 
work diligently, producing the heads entitled 
"The Penitent Thief" and "The Woman of Sa- 
maria," and a number of portrait and genre stud- 
ies of the American negro. Among the latter 
are "Uncle Henry," a character study of the old- 
time plantation negro ; "The Nation's Ward," a 
happy-go-lucky African ; and a mildly satirical 
statuette, "Knowledge Is Power," which sug- 
gests the "Rogers groups" and shows a darky 
boy sound asleep over his tattered book. A much- 
admired bust of General Lee, done from life, was 
followed by portraits of J. E. B. Stuart, Albert 
Sidney Johnston, Joseph E. Johnston, Col. John 
S. Mosby, Commodore Matthew F. Maury, and 
other Southern leaders, most of them done from 
life. At last, in 1870, came a really inspiring 
commission, resulting in Valentine's finest work, 
the marble recumbent figure of Lee for the Lee 
Mausoleum at Washington and Lee University, 
Lexington, Va. In 1908 Valentine's bronze 
standing figure of Lee was unveiled in Statuary 
Hall, Washington, D. C, as the gift of the State 
of Virginia. Many examples of Valentine's work 
are to be seen in Richmond — at the Jefferson 
Hotel, which has his marble statue of Thomas 
Jefferson, in Monroe Park, where his bronze 
figure of Gen. W. T. Wickham stands, and in 
the Valentine Museum, former home of his 
brother Mann. His other works include the stat- 



ues of Jefferson Davis in Richmond, of which 
there is a replica in New Orleans, John C. Breck- 
inridge in Lexington, Ky., Gen. "Stonewall" 
Jackson in Lexington, Va., and John J. Audubon 
in New Orleans. His classical group represent- 
ing Andromache and Astyanax after their fare- 
well to Hector was shown at the World's Co- 
lumbian Exposition, Chicago, in 1893. It is said 
that he refused to commemorate by his work any 
Northern hero. Though many of his statues are 
historically interesting as likenesses, artistically 
they leave something to be desired ; they are on 
the whole rather wooden and lifeless. Valentine 
served as president of the Valentine Museum, the 
Richmond Art Club, and the Virginia Historical 
Society. He was married on Nov. 12, 1872, in 
Baltimore to Alice Churchill Robinson (d. Aug. 
2 3» 1883), and on Jan. 5, 1892, to Katherine Cole 
(Friend) Mayo (d. Feb. 5, 1927). There were 
no children. He died in Richmond. 

[Who's Who in America, 1930-31 ; Elizabeth G. 
Valentine, Dawn to Twilight ; Work of Edward V. 
Valentine (1929); Lorado Taft, The Hist, of Am. 
Sculpture (1924 ed.) ; C. E. Fairman, Art and Artists 
of the Capitol of the U. S. (1927) ; Margaret J. Pres- 
ton, in Am. Art Review, May 1880, an uncritical ar- 
ticle ; obituary in Richmond Times-Dispatch, Oct. 20, 
'930.] A.A. 

VALENTINE, MILTON (Jan. 1, 1825-Feb. 
7, 1906), Lutheran theologian, educator, was 
born near Uniontown, Carroll County, Md., the 
son of Jacob and Rebecca (Picking) Valentine, 
and a descendant of George Valentine who emi- 
grated from Germany in the early part of the 
eighteenth century and settled in Frederick 
County, Md., in 1740. Milton worked on the 
farm until he was twenty-one, meanwhile pre- 
paring for college at the Taneytown Academy. 
In 1846 he enrolled at Pennsylvania College, 
Gettysburg, and was graduated in 1850; he then 
entered the Lutheran Theological Seminary in 
the same town, where he was graduated in 1852, 
and was licensed as a minister. He served for a 
year as supply pastor at Winchester, Va., a year 
as missionary in Pittsburgh, a year as regular 
pastor at Greensburg, Pa., and four years as 
principal of Emmaus Institute at Middletown, 
Pa. In 1859 he became pastor of St. Matthew's 
Lutheran Church at Reading, where he minis- 
tered with conspicuous success for seven years. 
In 1866 he accepted the professorship of Bibli- 
cal and ecclesiastical history in the Lutheran 
Theological Seminary at Gettysburg. 

The seminary was passing through a crisis. 
Tt had been founded in 1826, and Pennsylvania 
College in 1832, by Samuel S. Schmucker [q.v.], 
moving spirit in the early history of the General 
Svnod of the Lutheran Church in the United 



141 



Valentine 

States. Schmucker's position was that of a liber- 
ally conservative Lutheranism, based upon the 
Scriptures as "the inspired Word of God and 
the only perfect rule of faith and practice" and 
upon the Augsburg Confession as "a summary 
and just exhibition of the fundamental doctrines 
of the Word of God." Diverging from this cen- 
tral position, there began in the 1850's a move- 
ment towards the left on the part of certain 
zealous advocates of "American Lutheranism," 
impatient of liturgies and interested in revivals 
and other "new measures" ; and toward the right, 
partly owing to immigration, a strong swing 
toward "Old Lutheranism" or "Symbolism," the 
supporters of which proposed as a confessional 
basis not only the Augsburg Confession but the 
whole body of Lutheran symbolical books as 
contained in the Book of Concord. The growing 
strength of the second of these movements seri- 
ously threatened the seminary at Gettysburg. 
Though Schmucker resigned in 1864, the Penn- 
sylvania Ministerium withdrew to found its own 
seminary in Philadelphia, and led in the or- 
ganization of another general body of Lutherans, 
the General Council, in 1867. The directors of 
the seminary had faced this crisis with courage 
and vigor, securing funds for two new profes- 
sorships and calling Valentine to one of them. 
After two years of teaching in this post he was 
elected president of the college, to which he gave 
for sixteen years a scholarly, effective adminis- 
tration. In 1884 he returned to the service of 
the seminary, becoming professor of theology 
and chairman of the faculty. He retired because 
of increasing age and impaired hearing in 1903, 
with the title of professor emeritus. 

Valentine was an accurate scholar, a penetrat- 
ing thinker, and a stimulating teacher. He was 
a vigorous defender of the position of General 
Synod Lutheranism, which he described as 
"standing for the principle of union in generic 
and Catholic Lutheranism on the great historic 
Confession of Augsburg, which has always been 
recognized as the one decisive determining 
standard of our Church, apart from any of the 
developed specialties of explanation which have 
been asserted by some, and into which they have 
been pleased to restrict themselves" (Lutheran 
Observer, March 6, 1891). From 1871 to 1906 
he was an editor of the Quarterly Review of the 
Evangelical Lutheran Church (later the Luther- 
an Quarterly) . He was a member of the joint 
committee which, laboring from 1885 to 1888, 
prepared the Common Service which is now used 
in public worship by most English-speaking 
Lutheran churches. His textbooks, Natural The- 
ology (1885) and Theoretical Ethics (1897), 



Valentine 

were widely used. In 1898 he published Christian 
Truth and Life, a volume of sermons. His great- 
est work, Christian Theology, in two volumes, 
edited by his son, M. H. Valentine, appeared in 
1907. On Dec. 18, 1855, he married Margaret 
G. Gait of Taneytown, Md., by whom he had 
four children. 

[T. W. Valentine, The Valentines in America (1874) ; 
A. R. Wentz, Hist, of the Gettysburg Theological Semi- 
nary (1926) ; S. G. Hefelbower, The Hist, of Gettys- 
burg Coll. (1932) ; Lutheran Quart., Jan. 1907; Pub. 
Ledger (Phila.), Feb. 9. 1906.] L. A. W. 

VALENTINE, ROBERT GROSVENOR 

(Nov. 29, 1872-Nov. 14, 1916), administrator 
and industrial counselor, was born at West New- 
ton, Mass., the only child of Charles Theodore 
and Charlotte Grosvenor (Light) Valentine. He 
was a descendant of John Valentine who was 
made a freeman of Boston, Mass., in 1675. Rob- 
ert prepared for college at Hopkinson's School, 
Boston, and was graduated at Harvard in 1896. 
From 1896 to 1899 and from 1901 to 1903 he 
taught English at the Massachusetts Institute of 
Technology, the intervening period being spent 
in the National City Bank, New York. Begin- 
ning in 1903, through the interest of James Still- 
man [<7.7\], he had a miscellaneous business ex- 
perience with railroads and financial institutions 
in New York and Omaha until ill health from 
overwork forced him to retire from business in 
1904. That same year, Dec. 31, he married 
Sophia French of South Braintree, Mass. Dur- 
ing the administration of Theodore Roosevelt 
he became private secretary to Francis E. Leupp 
{.q.v.~\, commissioner of Indian affairs, whose 
assistant he became in 1908. Upon Leupp's re- 
tirement in 1909, President Taft appointed Val- 
entine to the head of the Indian Office. 

His administration of that office was a notable 
one. He was resourceful in the protection of the 
enormous Indian properties against the many at- 
tempts at encroachments upon them, and was 
eager for the development of the best of the In- 
dian cultures. One of his acts as commissioner 
created considerable political difficulties because 
of the religious susceptibilities that it awakened. 
By an Indian Office circular (Number 601), he 
prohibited the wearing of religious garb and the 
display of religious insignia in what had for- 
merly been religious schools for Indians but had 
been taken over as government institutions. In 
the spring of 1912 the Indian Office under his 
administration was under political fire and a 
Congressional investigation followed. The com- 
mittee in its report divided on political lines, the 
four Democratic members finding against him, 
and the three Republican members supporting 
him (House Report No. 1279, 62 Cong., 3 



T42 



Valentine 

Sess.). That same year he threw in his lot with 
Theodore Roosevelt in the Bull Moose cam- 
paign, and resigned from the Taft administration. 

The range of Valentine's experience thus far 
— educational, financial, administrative, socio- 
logical — was all useful though unconscious prep- 
aration for his real life work, short as that was ; 
for his significance, apart from his enduring 
work at the Indian Office, is that of founder of 
the new profession of industrial counselor. For 
four years he specialized as adviser on industrial 
relations, and the impact of his example and 
achievements led to the recognition of the need 
of a body of specialists like himself. Others be- 
fore him had diagnosed the so-called labor prob- 
lem as essentially a human problem — the prob- 
lem of men and women, with their impulses and 
desires, behind the mechanism of industry. Val- 
entine was the first, however, to draw profound 
conclusions from this discernment. Just because 
the terms of this human equation, he argued, 
were subtle and excessively complicated, there 
was the greater necessity for making these 
elusive aspects of the relation of capital and labor 
the subject of organized study. Instead of ignor- 
ing the human problem, or leaving it to caprice, 
Valentine maintained that personal relations 
must be studied with the same scientific spirit as 
are the processes of production and the fiscal 
side of business. Such knowledge, he was con- 
vinced, could be achieved only by professionals, 
that is, by men who devoted their entire time to 
it, with a function as well-defined as that of the 
lawyer or the financial expert. With this insight 
and with astonishing courage — for he had neither 
funds nor backers — in the winter of 1912, Val- 
entine advertised himself in Boston as an in- 
dustrial counselor, thus inaugurating, so far as 
history records, the beginning of this profession. 

Basic to this profession was the need of what 
Valentine called "an industrial audit" which 
would bear the same relation to the social health 
of an industry that a periodic financial audit 
bears to the solvency of a business. Such an in- 
dustrial audit called for the invention of a tech- 
nique adapted, by appropriate adjustments, to 
every variety of business. Valentine helped to 
install such an audit in diverse types of industrial 
organizations, just as he served as adviser on 
labor problems for diverse clients. Like an old- 
fashioned lawyer, he served labor unions, em- 
ployees, and public officials. Notable among the 
services rendered the last-named was his work 
for Mayor John Purroy Mitchel [q.z\] in the 
very difficult transit strike in New York City, 
during the summer of 1916. 

Essentiallv Valentine was an educator. He 



Valiandigham 



disseminated ideas and imparted ferment — in his 
work for his clients, as chairman of the first 
wage board under the Massachusetts minimum 
wage law (1913), as lecturer at Wellesley Col- 
lege (1915-16), in formal addresses, and through 
the mere contagion of casual contact. He was a 
poet by temperament who was dominated by sci- 
entific ardor to institutionalize sound human re- 
lations. The astonishing aspect of his career is 
that he succeeded in establishing recognition of 
his idea of scientific order in the human aspects 
of industry although he had so brief a period for 
accomplishment. He died from a sudden heart 
attack, survived by his widow and a daughter. 

[T. W. Valentine, The Valentines in America 
(1874) ; Harvard Coll. Class of 1896: Twenty-fifth An- 
niversary Report (1921) ; Reports of the Commission- 
er of Indian Affairs to the Secretary of the Interior, 
1909-12; Bull, of the Taylor Society, Jan. 1916; Mod- 
ern Hospital, Apr. 1916 ; Survey, Nov. 25, 1916 ; Who's 
Who in America, 1916-17 ; Boston Herald and Boston 
Globe, Jan. 8, 1917; N. Y. Times, Nov. 15, 1916.] 

F.F. 

VALLANDIGHAM, CLEMENT LAIRD 

(July 29, 1820-June 17, 1871), politician, was 
born in New Lisbon, Ohio, the fifth of seven 
children of Clement Vallandigham, a Presby- 
terian minister, and his wife, Rebecca Laird. 
On his mother's side he was of Scotch-Irish 
stock ; on his father's, he was descended from 
Michael Van Landegham, a Flemish Huguenot, 
who was in Stafford County, Va., as early as 
1690. Vallandigham attended the New Lisbon 
Academy founded by his father and in 1837 en- 
tered Jefferson College, Canonsburg, Pa., as a 
junior. The following year he left to teach at 
Snow Hill, Md., but returned to the college in 
1840 only to leave without graduating after a 
heated argument with the president over a ques- 
tion of constitutional law. He then read law for 
two years and was admitted to the Ohio bar. 
Though case law and argument bored him, both 
his practice and his reputation as a political 
speaker grew rapidly. In 1845 he went to Co- 
lumbus as the youngest member of the Ohio leg- 
islature ; he was reelected in 1846 and chosen 
speaker of the House by his Democratic col- 
leagues. The following year he formed a part- 
nership with Thomas J. S. Smith at Dayton, 
Ohio. Here he soon became part owner and ed- 
itor of the Dayton Empire, but the extent of his 
law practice caused him to relinquish his editor- 
ship in 1849. 

Handsome, high-spirited, and self-willed, Val- 
landigham was devoted to the South as the home 
of his ancestors, and idealized Southern char- 
acter. He served as an officer in the Ohio militia 
and became a brigadier-general in 1857, al- 



J 43 



Vail andig ham 



Vallandigham 



though he objected to the maintenance of a strong 
national army and ardently opposed centraliza- 
tion of government. He earnestly supported the 
Mexican War and although he disapproved of 
slavery as a moral and political evil, he advocated 
a policy of non-interference where it existed, op- 
posed the Wilmot Proviso and the repeal of the 
Ohio "Black Laws," and supported the com- 
promise measures of 1850. Long before the Civil 
War he was demanding the suppression of abo- 
litionist fanatics and a return to Jeffersonian 
state rights, the Constitution as the fathers wrote 
it, and the Union as it had been. 

He was defeated for Congress in 1852 by the 
abolitionists and the Liberty party, and in 1854 
by the Know- Nothings. Two years later, de- 
nouncing the Republicans as dangerous section- 
alists headed for civil war, he ran again for 
Congress. Successfully contesting the official 
count, which gave his opponent a majority of 
nineteen, he was seated by the House in May 

1858, and later that year was reelected by a scant 
margin. On the floor of the House, Feb. 24, 

1859, he vigorously attacked the tariff of 1857 as 
a manufacturer's tariff. In the fall of 1859, 
changing trains at Harpers Ferry, Va., (now W. 
Va.), he interrogated the wounded John Brown 
and subsequently stated his conviction that Brown 
had been the instrument of a widespread con- 
spiracy. For this interview he was condemned by 
many Republican journals which charged him 
with "pumping" their martyr. In the excited 
Thirty-sixth Congress he pleaded for freedom of 
speech and of the press, denounced sectionalism 
and ultraism on either side, and declared that the 
West would not allow disunion. As secretary 
of the National Democratic Committee in i860 
and a delegate at the Charleston convention he 
opposed the views of Stephen A. Douglas [g.?\] 
on popular sovereignty, but supported Douglas 
as the only "Union" candidate fit for the presi- 
dency. He vehemently denounced the radical ut- 
terances of Lincoln and Seward and declared 
that the Southern "fire-eaters" would vanish if 
the Republican party were destroyed. In a speech 
at Cooper Union, New York City, Nov. 2, i860, 
he said he would never, "as a Representative in 
the Congress of the United States, vote one dol- 
lar of money whereby one drop of American 
blood should be shed in a civil war" (J. L. Val- 
landigham, post, p. 141). In Congress he sup- 
ported the Crittenden Resolutions and other at- 
tempts at compromise, goins: to the extent of 
proposing (Feb. 20, 1861) a division of the Sen- 
ate and of the electoral college into four sections, 
each to have the power of veto. His able oppo- 
sition to every defense measure proposed in the 



House soon incurred for him the intense hatred 
of the Republicans. 

By the time of his return to Ohio he was sus- 
pected of treasonable intent and had become one 
of the most unpopular and most bitterly abused 
men in the North. Standing for freedom of ex- 
pression, for compromise, and for the restoration 
of peace on any terms, he called the congress- 
men who condemned him radicals, rebels, and 
liars. In May 1862, attempting to give the Demo- 
crats a policy by which to save their party, he 
declared their purpose : "To maintain the Con- 
stitution as it is, and to restore the Union as it 
was" (Speeches, post, p. 365). His eloquent and 
impassioned oratory in a war-weary and uncer- 
tain North gained support among thousands of 
people who thought him the true apostle of lib- 
erty. His party convention enthusiastically re- 
nominated him for Congress in 1862, but he was 
defeated. Thenceforth he was regarded as the 
leader of the Peace Democrats or "Copperheads'' 
in the Northwest. Believing that the Democratic 
victories in 1862 vindicated his policy, he de- 
livered a speech in the House, Jan. 14, 1863, in 
which he said that the time had come to nego- 
tiate a peace, and that prolonging the war would 
mean that the Northwest would join the South, 
and the Union be permanently broken. His 
thrusts at the Republicans encouraged the pro- 
Southern element and the disloyalists in the or- 
der of the Sons of Liberty, of which he was 
commander ; they pleased President Davis, and 
made the Federal administration wince. 

When in the spring of 1863 Gen. Ambrose E. 
Burnside [?.?'.] issued General Order Number 
38, warning the peace party that the "habit of 
declaring sympathies for the enemy" would not 
be allowed in the Military District of Ohio, and 
that expressed or implied treason would not be 
tolerated, Vallandigham, who had promoted re- 
sistance to conscription, defied the military in 
speeches at Columbus and Mount Vernon, call- 
ing the "wicked and cruel" war a diabolical at- 
tempt to destroy slavery and to set up a Repub- 
lican despotism. On May 5, 1863, he was 
arrested in Dayton and the next day was tried 
by a military commission in Cincinnati for ex- 
pressing treasonable sympathy. He was con- 
demned to confinement in Fort Warren, but 
President Lincoln shrewdly banished him (May 
19) to the Confederacy. Treated kindly by the 
Confederates, he ran the blockade to Bermud. 
thence sailed to Halifax, and in August settled 
at Windsor, Ont., across the river from Detroit. 
An appeal was taken to the federal courts in an 
attempt to get a decision on the validity of his 
trial before the military body, but in February 



144 



Vail and ig ham 



Vallejo 



1864 the Supreme Court decided that it had no 
power to issue a writ of habeas corpus to a mili- 
tary commission (Ex parte Vallandigham, 1 
Wallace, 243). 

Meanwhile the Peace Democrats of Ohio, 
choosing him as the symbol of their principles, 
in July 1863 made him their candidate for gov- 
ernor. Mobs rioted in his behalf and committees 
of Democrats importuned Lincoln to return him 
to Ohio, but were refused on grounds of military 
necessity. After carrying on his campaign through 
friends and through correspondence, he polled a 
large vote, but was defeated decisively by John 
Brough [q.i'.~\, a War Democrat running on the 
Republican ticket. On June 15, 1864, he suddenly 
appeared to deliver a speech before a Democratic 
convention at Hamilton, Ohio, and was after- 
wards escorted in triumph to Dayton. Allowed 
to go unnoticed by the President, he denounced 
"King Lincoln" and spat upon General Order 
Number 38. He ended his extensive pre-cam- 
paign speaking tour in Chicago, where he talked 
to crowds in the streets and in August irrepar- 
ably damaged his party's cause by forcing into 
the national Democratic platform a resolution 
(written by himself and John McElwee) declar- 
ing the war a failure and demanding an imme- 
diate cessation of hostilities. 

The Vallandigham influence and Northern vic- 
tories defeated the Democracy in 1864. On Jan. 
23, 1865, Vallandigham begged Horace Greeley 
[q.v.] to bring about peace, but the failure of the 
conference at Hampton Roads in February end- 
ed his peace efforts. He regretted the assassina- 
tion of Lincoln because he feared that in retali- 
ation the radicals would bring greater evils upon 
the country. In 1866 he went to Philadelphia to 
attend the "National Union Convention" of sup- 
porters of President Johnson, but though hun- 
dreds of people called at the Girard House to see 
him, he was forced to withdraw from the con- 
vention to make harmony possible in the party 
ranks. He entered the state elections in 1867 
with his accustomed vigor and invective, and 
was deeply grieved when the Democratic leaders 
refused to choose him senator. As a member of 
the Ohio delegation to the National Democratic 
Convention of the following year, though Sal- 
mon P. Chase [</.7\] was his personal preference 
for the presidential nomination, he supported 
George H. Pendleton \_q.v."\ until the latter with- 
drew from the contest ; then, after the movement 
toward Chase had failed, he turned to Horatio 
Seymour \_q.v.~\ ; in the subsequent campaign the 
Republican incumbent, Gen. Robert C. Schenk 
[q.v.~\, defeated Vallandigham for Congress. 

In succeeding months Vallandigham reached 



the conclusion that it was time to accept the re- 
sults of the Civil War and to drop the old issues ; 
early in 1871 he won the Ohio Democracy to this 
view and invited dissatisfied Republicans to join 
the Democrats in turning to living issues of a 
new day, but he died before the movement he 
thus helped to start took shape in the Liberal 
Republican party of 1872. Whatever his policy 
at any time, Vallandigham advocated it with the 
ardor and sincerity of a fanatic. In 1871 he was 
retained as counsel for the defendant in a murder 
case and while demonstrating to a friend the way 
in which the victim had been shot he mortally 
wounded himself. On Aug. 27, 1846, he had 
married Louisa A. McMahon by whom he had 
two sons, one of whom lived to maturity. 

[Sources include Vallandigham letters in Western 
Reserve Hist. Soc. ; Speeches, Arguments, Addresses 
and Letters of Clement L. Vallandigham (1864) ; Mc- 
Clellan MSS., Blair MSS., William Allen MSS. in Lib. 
of Cong. ; Cong. Globe, 36 and s7 Cong. ; War of the 
Rebellion : Official Records (Army), 2 ser. V, VII. For 
accounts of Vallandigham's career see J. L. Vallandig- 
ham, A Life of Clement L. Vallandigham (1872), by a 
brother; E. N. Vallandigham, in Putnam's Mag., Aug. 
1907; W. H. Van Fossan, in Ohio Archtrol. and Hist. 
Quart., July 1914 ; Henry Howe, Hist. Colls, of Ohio 
(2 vols., 1902) ; S. D. Cone, Biog. and Hist. Sketches: 
A Narrative of Hamilton and Its Residents (n.d. ; 
preface dated 1896). See also J. G. Nicolay and John 
Hay, Abraham Lincoln (1890), VII, 328-60; E. J. 
Benton, "The Movement for Peace without a Victory 
during the Civil War," Western Reserve Hist. Soc. 
Colls., pub. no. 99 (1918) ; J. G. Randall, Constitutional 
Problems under Lincoln (1926) ; E. C. Kirkland, The 
Peacemakers of 1864 (1927) ; H. C. Hubbart, " 'Pro- 
Southern' Influences in the Free West, 1840-1865," 
Miss. Valley Hist. Rev., June 1933 ; C. H. Coleman, 
The Election of 1868 (1933) ; The Am. Ann. Cyc, 
186 _? (1864), 1871 (1872) ; Cincinnati Daily Enquirer, 
June 19, 1871.] W.E.S h. 

VALLEJO, MARIANO GUADALUPE 

(July 7, 1808-Jan. 18, 1890), prominent early 
California citizen and military leader, was born 
in Monterey, Cal., son of Ignacio Vallejo and 
Maria Antonia Lugo. At fifteen he was at- 
tached as cadet to the Monterey garrison ; by 
1827 he was ensign in the company at the Presidio 
(now San Francisco). On the occasion of the 
formidable Estanislao Indian rebellion of 1829, 
when the neophytes of the San Jose mission rose 
against the missionaries, young Vallejo was sent 
against the Indians with a hundred men and a 
number of Indian auxiliaries. He defeated and 
scattered the rebels, but his victory was marred 
by his failing to prevent the murder of some of 
the prisoners by his Indian allies. Elected a 
deputy to the territorial congress in 1830 (illegal- 
ly, it seems, since he was an officer in the army ) . 
he supported the rebellion of the Californians 
against their Mexican governor, Manuel Vic- 
toria, in 1832. That same year, on Mar. 6, he 
married Maria Francisca Felipa Benicia Car- 



M 1 ? 



Vallejo 



rillo of San Diego, by whom in the course of time 
he had between thirteen and seventeen children. 
The new governor, the able and humane Jose 
Figueroa, a close friend of Vallejo's, had Vallejo 
removed as deputy but made him commander of 
an expedition to reconnoitre the northern fron- 
tier, where the activities of the Russians at Fort 
Ross were causing uneasiness among the Cali- 
fornians. Vallejo found the Russians to be peace- 
fully engaged in the fur trade and no menace to 
California, but his report on the danger from 
the warlike Indians of that region and the en- 
croachment of American immigrants decided 
Governor Figueroa to establish a military post 
there. The commandant of the new garrison at 
Sonoma was Vallejo, and his organization of 
the frontier defenses and his control of the In- 
dians were, perhaps, his most valuable contri- 
butions to the state. The secularization of the 
mission properties carried on by Figueroa led 
naturally to the appointment of Vallejo as ad- 
ministrator of the Solano mission, a duty which 
he performed efficiently and humanely, befriend- 
ing the Indians and settling them on the mission 
lands, although in so doing he ran afoul of the 
belligerent Father Mercado of Solano. 

With the death of Figueroa in 1835 Vallejo 
was again forced into politics, this time against 
the bombastic centralist governor Mariano Chico 
and his lieutenant Gutierrez. He supported his 
nephew, Juan Bautista Alvarado [q.i\~\, in the 
rebellion that led to the proclamation of the "free 
state" of California in 1836, and in 1838, under 
Alvarado's governorship, was named commander 
of the state forces. A petty quarrel over mili- 
tary etiquette estranged the two, and Vallejo 
retired to his post at Sonoma, where, with an 
imposing force of Indian allies and his own 
troops, he made himself a semi-independent chief- 
tain, a cacique on the Spanish-American pat- 
tern, and the most powerful figure in the north. 
Alvarado's appointment of William Hartnell as 
administrator of the missions widened the gap 
between the two. When Hartnell invaded the 
Sonoma country in the discharge of his duties, 
he was promptly arrested and deported by Val- 
lejo, and thereafter Vallejo was left to himself 
until the end of the Mexican regime in 1846. 
Vallejo had protected and encouraged the im- 
migration of American families into his terri- 
tory, being, as he said, powerless to prevent it. 
The presence of the Fremont expedition of 1846 
encouraged an enemy of the Vallejos, one Mer- 
ritt, and a number of idle Americans at Fort Sut- 
ter to undertake their headless and planless 
"Bear Flag Republic." Their single exploit was 
the capture and imprisonment of Vallejo and his 

146 



Vallentine 

brother Salvador, and the theft of their cattle. 
The two brothers were kept prisoners for two 
months by the unaccountable Fremont. 

A powerful agent in securing the submission 
of California to the United States, Vallejo was 
elected to the constitutional convention of 1849, 
and to the first state Senate of California, where 
he staged a long fight to have the state capital 
fixed at Vallejo in his own territory. Thereafter 
he devoted his energies largely to clearing the 
titles of his princely holdings, some of which he 
retained. In his latter years he was no longer 
the great cacique of the Mexican days, but he 
kept up his magnificent hospitality at the great 
house at Sonoma to the end of his life. He died 
in Sonoma in comparative poverty, a well loved 
and respected country gentleman. His unpub- 
lished "Historia de California" is a somewhat 
colored, but charming and valuable account of 
early California. 

[See H. H. Bancroft, Hist, of Cal. (7 vols.. 1884- 
90) ; T. H. Hittell, Hist, of Cal. (4 vols., 1885-07) I 
Zephyrin Engelhardt, The Missions and Missionaries of 
Cal. (6 vols., 1908-30) ; C. E. Chapman, Hist, of Cal., 
the Spanish Period (1921) ; Eugene Duflot de Mofras, 
Exploration du Territoire de V Oregon, des Calif ornies 
(2 vols., Paris, 1844), valuable for its description of 
Spanish Cal. ; Alfred Robinson, Life in Cal. before the 
Conquest (1846) ; P. M. G. Vallejo, "Memoirs of the 
Vallejos," in Bulletin (San Francisco), Jan. 27-Feb. 
t6, 1914; M. L. Lothrop, "Mariano Guadalupe Vallejo, 
Defender of the Northern Frontier," unpublished dis- 
sertation in the Univ. of Cal. lib., 1927 ; M. G. Vallejo, 
"Historia de California," MS. in the Bancroft Lib., 
Berkeley, Cal.; and obituary in Morning Call (San 
Francisco), Jan. 19, 1890. There are thirty-seven vols, 
of manuscript material from the archives of the Vallejo 
family in the Bancroft Lib.] l B S n 

VALLENTINE, BENJAMIN BENNATON 

(Sept. 7, 1843-Mar. 30, 1926), journalist, play- 
wright, was born in London, the son of Benja- 
min Vallentine, a toy merchant, and Rosa (Na- 
than) Vallentine. He always gave King Edward 
VI's School, Birmingham, as the place of his 
education, but the truth seems to be that most of 
his education was not obtained at any school. As 
a youth, he spent several years in Australia, 
where he was clerk in a shipping firm at Sydney. 
He studied for the English bar, and contributed 
to Sydney newspapers. In 1870 he returned to 
England, and the next year came to New York 
City, where he lived until his death. 

In New York he became partner in a shipping 
house, but after the panic of 1873 turned to jour- 
nalism. He was one of the founders of Puck in 
1877, and served as managing editor from 1877 
to 1884. For Puck he wrote the series of papers 
beginning in the March 1877 issue, which con- 
stitute his chief claim to remembrance. They 
purport to be the letters of one Lord Fitznoodle, 
a musical-comedy Britisher, concerning his ad- 



Vallentine 

ventures among the Americans. The satire, which 
frequently cuts both ways, is always good-natured 
and urbane. After leaving Puck, Vallentine 
served as managing editor of Irving Bacheller's 
newspaper syndicate (1886-88). He did much 
editorial writing and dramatic criticism for New 
York newspapers, and held other editorial po- 
sitions. Always interested in the theatre, he be- 
came a familiar figure on Broadway and had a 
wide circle of theatrical acquaintance. He wrote, 
collaborated on, or adapted, a good many plays, 
most of them having no pretension to depth. 
None of the plays seems to have been published, 
except a one-act version of In Paradise, but some, 
including Fadcttc (a comic opera), A Southern 
Romance, and In Paradise, were produced in 
New York, the first in 1892, the second in 1897, 
and the third in 1899. 

In his later years Vallentine fell upon hard 
times. He was registered at New York Univer- 
sity Law School in 1907-08. In 1908 he took a 
civil service position as audit-inspector with the 
municipal finance department, but the salary was 
low and had to be pieced out by donations from 
his family and "loans" from his friends. He had 
never married, and lived in a furnished room, 
spending much of his time at his old haunt, the 
Lotos Club. About two years before the end his 
health failed, and he underwent several opera- 
tions. Then one day in his eighty-third year he 
fell unconscious in a restaurant and was taken 
to Bellevue Hospital. Annoyed at finding him- 
self in a public hospital ward, he tried to get up 
— and fell dead. 

Vallentine's friends remember him as a tiny 
man, with great flashing black eyes and quick, 
nervous gestures. He never lost his British ac- 
cent nor all of his British way of looking at 
things. He was a good conversationalist, and 
had an amazing memory and wide information. 
Every one testifies to the essential fineness of his 
character. He was a lively and interesting per- 
son rather than a man of genius ; yet his connec- 
tion with Puck and his creation of the comic 
character which gave him his nickname of 
"Fitznoodle" entitle him to be remembered. 

[Sources include files of Puck ; Who's Who in Amer- 
ica, 1924-25 ; Who's Who in Nezv York (1911) ; Phila. 
Sunday Mirror, July 30, 1880; N. Y. Times, Sept. 5, 
1899, Mar. 31, 1926, Apr. 4, 1926; World (N. Y.), 
Mar. 31, 1926; Dramatic Compositions Copyrighted in 
the United States, 1870 to 1916 (1918) ; records of the 
Gen. Reg. Office, London, of N. Y. Univ. Law School, 
and of Newspaper Club, N. Y. ; personal recollections 
of Walter R. Benjamin, Stephen L. Newman, Eva 
Ingersoll Wakefield, and Anna Fisch, all of New York, 
and of members and employees of the Lotos Club, N. 
Y. In his latter years Vallentine seems to have used 
Benton instead of Bennaton for a middle name.] 

E.M.S. 



Valliant 

VALLIANT, LEROY BRANCH (June 14, 
1838-Mar. 3, 1913), jurist, was born at Moul- 
ton, Ala. His father, Denton Hurlock Valliant, a 
native of Tennessee, was descended from John 
Valliant (or Vaillant), a Londoner of French 
parentage, who settled on the Eastern Shore of 
Maryland in the seventeenth century (1658, ac- 
cording to family tradition), and from Jonathan 
Hurlock who came to the same section of Mary- 
land from England in the first half of the eigh- 
teenth century. His mother, before marriage 
Narcissa Kilpatrick, a native of Tennessee, was 
of Irish and Scottish ancestry. An orphan at six, 
Valliant, helped by relatives, received a good 
education, first at private schools, then at the 
University of Mississippi, where he was grad- 
uated in 1856, and later at the Cumberland Uni- 
versity Law School in Tennessee, where he was 
graduated in 1858. That same year, when the 
fascinating William Walker [q.v.] was starting 
one of his Nicaraguan expeditions, Valliant 
joined a band of Walker's "emigrants" and em- 
barked by river for New Orleans, but because of 
lack of funds was put off the boat with his com- 
panions at Memphis. In later years Valliant 
expressed religious thankfulness for the abortive 
outcome of this youthful adventure. 

After settling at the prosperous river town of 
Greenville, Miss., he was admitted to the bar in 
1859, and practised law until the Civil War. In 
1861 he entered the Confederate military serv- 
ice. At the battle of Shiloh, as captain of Com- 
pany I, 22nd Mississippi Regiment, he was for a 
while in command of that regiment because all 
his ranking officers had been killed or wounded. 
Shortly afterwards, shattered in health and with 
sight permanently impaired, he returned to 
Greenville where eventually, with restored health, 
he resumed his career as a lawyer, serving for a 
term as chancellor of his district. In 1874, partly 
because of dissatisfaction with the progress of 
reconstruction, he left Mississippi, went to St. 
Louis, and there in the course of twelve years 
acquired considerable reputation as a lawyer and 
as a public speaker. Appointed by the governor 
in 1886 to a temporary judgeship on the circuit 
court of St. Louis, in the fall of that year he was 
elected judge of the same court for a consti- 
tutional term of six years, and reelected in 1892. 
In 1898, while still a circuit judge, he was elect- 
ed for a four-year term to fill a vacancy in the 
supreme court of Missouri, and in 1902 was re- 
elected for another term of ten years. After twen- 
ty-six years of useful public service in Missouri, 
he finally retired Dec. 31, 1912, broken in health, 
but still alert mentally and beloved by the legal 
profession. He died at Greenville ; his body was 



H7 



Van Allen 

taken to St. Louis and buried in Bellefontaine 
Cemetery. In October 1862 be had married 
Theodosia Taylor Worthington of Leota Land- 
ing, Miss., who with their three sons survived 
him. 

Valliant's judicial activities on the Missouri 
supreme court are set forth in 147-247 Missouri 
Reports. As a judge he was sound rather than 
brilliant. He wrote the majority opinion of the 
court in Morgan vs. J I 'abash Railroad Company 
(1900), 159 Mo., 262, which after years of con- 
troversy finally established the so-called humani- 
tarian doctrine as a Missouri exception to the 
rather harsh English common-law rule of con- 
tributory negligence. Another of his important 
opinions was in the case of State ex rcl. Kocln 
vs. Lesser (1911), 237 Mo., 310, holding that 
under the taxation statutes of Missouri the stocks 
in non-Missouri corporations even if owned by 
Missouri residents are not subject to taxation as 
personal property in Missouri. 

[James Cox, Old and New St. Louis (1894) ; A. J. 
D. Stewart, The Hist, of the Bench and Bar of Mo. 
( 1898) ; William Hyde and H. L. Conard, Encyc. of the 
Hist, of St. Louis (1899), vol. IV; Who's Who in 
America, 1912-13 ; "In Memoriam," 248 Mo. Reports 
(1913) : Henry Lamm, "Address in Memory of Judge 
Leroy B. Valliant," Proc. 31st Ann. Meeting Mo. Bar 
Asso. (1913); St. Louis Globe-Democrat, Mar. 5, 6, 
1 91 3 ; newspaper clippings at Mo. Hist. Soc, St. Louis.] 

T.W. 

VAN ALLEN, FRANK (Jan. 10, 1860-Aug. 
28, 1923), missionary physician, the son of Mar- 
tin and Martha (Bowen) Van Allen, was born 
in Dubuque, Iowa, to which place his parents 
had removed from New York State. He was a 
descendant of Pieter van Allen who came to New 
Nether land in 1658. The boy's preparatory edu- 
cation was obtained in Lake View High School, 
Chicago, 111., where he distinguished himself as 
a student. Entering Yale in 1881, he received 
from that institution the degrees of B.A. in 1885, 
M.D. in 1887, and B.D. in 1888. He was or- 
dained to the Congregational ministry at West 
Haven, Conn., on May 21, 1888, and in Septem- 
ber was married in Chicago to Harriet Adelia 
Gurnee. Sailing with his wife from New York 
Oct. 13, under commission of the American 
Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions, 
he arrived in Dindigul, Madura, South India, 
on Nov. 28. Except for several furloughs, he 
spent the remainder of his life in Madura, en- 
gaged in medical missionary service. 

After a brief time in Dindigul he moved to 
Madura City, where he took charge of a mission 
dispensary which had been in operation since 
1834. Under his direction it rendered a con- 
tinually increasing service. In 1890 he reported 
the treatment of 13,000 cases ; six years later the 

I48 



Van Alstyne — Van Amringe 

number had doubled ; and in 1897 it reached 47,- 
200. The following year a new men's hospital, 
the Albert Victoria Memorial, was completed, 
and on Oct. 29 it was opened by the governor of 
Madras. On this occasion an address was de- 
livered by the Raja of Ramnad, one of the chief 
donors. The cost was $14,000, provided almost 
entirely by non-Christians of India, and the ex- 
pense of maintenance was borne largely by "na- 
tive" subscriptions. Van Allen never charged 
specific fees for any service, but received "thank- 
offerings," which, even before 1896, approxi- 
mated $7,000. In 1902 the gifts amounted to 6,- 
300 rupees, including a donation of 1,800 from a 
Zamindar (land-owner) for the cure of his wife, 
who had not walked for four years previously. 
In 1905, another Zamindar gave 5,000 rupees. 
That year, the in-patients of the hospital num- 
bered 346, the out-patients, 20,800, and 1,100 
operations were performed, including many leg 
amputations. These figures indicate the extent 
of service rendered, and its generous support by 
Indians. The doctor came to hold a place of 
highest esteem throughout the district. Branches 
of the hospital were opened at Aruppukottai and 
Manamadura, in the latter place in connection 
with a leper colony. On the death of his wife in 
191 1 Van Allen founded for the needy the Har- 
riet Gurnee Fund. They had four children. 

His work was recognized by the government 
of India, which bestowed on him in 1914 the 
Kaiscr-i-Hind medal. He had rendered especial- 
ly conspicuous service during times of plague 
and cholera. Ultimately, he fell victim to the 
risks of his own service. Unknown to others 
until the last year of his affliction, he suffered 
for a decade from an incurable disease, contract- 
ed while he operated on a patient. Shortly before 
his death he resigned the headship of the hos- 
pital and retired to the nearby village of Melur 
to live his remaining days among the Christians 
there. 

{Quarter-Centenary Record of the Class of 1885, Yale 
Univ. (1913) ; Yale '$5 Forty-five Years After (1932) ; 
Yale Univ. Obit. Record, 1925 ; The Congregational 
Y car-Book, 1923 ; Missionary Herald, 1 888-1923, 
especially Oct. 1923 ; Harvest Field, vol. XLIII (1923) ; 
Yale Divinity News, Mar. 1924.] J.C. A. 

VAN ALSTYNE, FANNY CROSBY [See 
Crosby, Fanny, 1820-1915]. 

VAN AMRINGE, JOHN HOWARD (Apr. 
3, 1835-Sept. 10, 1915), professor of mathe- 
matics and dean of Columbia College, was born 
in Philadelphia, Pa., the son of William Fred- 
crick Van Amringe (1791-1873), the author of 
two scientific works, and Susan Budd Sterling, 
daughter of James Sterling of Burlington, N. J. 



Van Amringe 



His grandfather, Leon Van Amringe, was born 
in Rotterdam, South Holland; married Elizabeth 
Oborne, a Hampshire woman, in London; and 
emigrated to America in 1791 (M. H. Thomas, 
"Van Amringe . . . Family Records," New-Eng- 
land Historical and Genealogical Register, Oct. 
l 935> PP- 39 2_ 95)- The family moved to New 
York City about 1840. Van Amringe was edu- 
cated by his father and at the Montgomery Acad- 
emy in Orange County, N. Y., whence he entered 
Yale in 1854. He remained there two years, and 
after a two-year interlude of teaching entered 
Columbia College, graduating in i860 with sec- 
ond honors. The same year he was appointed 
tutor in mathematics; in 1863 he became adjunct 
professor. On June 20, 1865, he married Cor- 
nelia, daughter of William Goelet Bucknor of 
New York City; they had three sons and one 
daughter. Van Amringe became professor of 
mathematics in the School of Mines, Columbia 
University, in 1865 an d hi the School of Arts in 
1873. In 1894 he succeeded Henry Drisler [q.v.] 
as dean of the School of Arts (renamed Columbia 
College in 1896). For a short time in 1899 he 
was acting president of Columbia University. 
He resigned his offices, June 30, 1910, and was 
made emeritus professor of mathematics. After 
the death of his former teacher and colleague, 
Prof. Charles Davies, he became editor of the 
Davies Series of mathematical textbooks. He 
wrote various professional papers, two pamphlets 
on life insurance (1872 and 1874), and many 
articles on Columbia and its alumni. He was one 
of the founders of the New York Mathematical 
Society (later the American Mathematical So- 
ciety), and its first president (1888-90). He 
was one of the most popular members of the Cen- 
tury Association, and was vice-president at the 
time of his death. Long active in Episcopal or- 
ganizations in New York, he served as vestry- 
man of Trinity Church and trustee of the Gen- 
eral Theological Seminary. He was a tall man, 
with a military bearing, and wore a great droop- 
ing mustache. His death occurred in Morris- 
town, N. J. 

"Van Am," as he was universally called, is a 
unique figure in the history of Columbia. "As a 
teacher he was clear, quick and incisive ; having 
a perfect mastery of his subject, he expected and 
demanded hard work of his students, and was 
intolerant of inattention or neglect. Keen to de- 
tect a fault and sharp to reprimand, he was 
equally ready to recognize good work and anxious 
to do strict justice" (Pine, post, p. 192). Prob- 
ably no other teacher in Columbia's history in- 
fluenced the lives and ideals of his students as 
did Van Amringe. Probably no other teacher of 



Van Beuren 

his day was so loved and revered, and "his boys" 
have delighted to perpetuate his memory at Co- 
lumbia in song and stone and bronze and oils. 
Scarcely had he become an alumnus when he be- 
gan to arouse an interest in the college among 
the alumni, and to restore the semi-moribund 
alumni association ; imbuing others slowly with 
his own enthusiasm, he made the association a 
vital and vivifying influence in the whole 
university. He was at first secretary, then presi- 
dent of the association, and later president of 
the alumni of the federated schools of the uni- 
versity. He was unanimously elected president 
of the Columbia University Club in New York 
City on its foundation in 1901 and held office un- 
til his death. For decades no alumni gathering 
was complete without him. He was a fluent ora- 
tor, speaking in "exquisitely phrased sentences, 
rich in thought and suggestion, often imbued 
with deep feeling and genial humor" (Ibid., p. 
194). He prepared the alumni necrology for 
many years, and used this material as a basis for 
nine new editions of the General Catalogue, 
which he edited from 1865 to 1906. His interest 
in history, originally stimulated by his courses 
with Francis Lieber [q.v.], was life-long. He 
compiled An Historical Sketch of Columbia Col- 
lege (1876), and wrote the section on Columbia 
for Universities and Their Sons (5 vols., 1898- 
1900), revising this for A History of Columbia 
University, 1754-1904 (1904). 

[The Columbia Alumni News, Nov. 5, 19 15, sec. 2, is 
devoted to Van Amringe ; it contains a biog. by J. B. 
Pine and memorial addresses by N. M. Butler and Seth 
Low ; a somewhat cynical estimate by a colleague ap- 
pears in J. W. Burgess, Reminiscences of an Am. Schol- 
ar (1934). See also Who's Who in America, 1914-15; 
N. Y. Times and N. Y. Herald, Sept. 11, 1915 ; J. J. 
Chapman, in Evening Post (N. Y.), Sept. 24, 1915; 
Outlook, Sept. 22, 1915; N. M. Butler, in Columbia 
Spectator, Apr. 20, 1931. The date of Van Amringe 's 
birth, sometimes given as 1836, is from the family 
Bib le.] M.H.T. 

VAN BEUREN, JOHANNES (c. 1680-July 
27, 1755), physician, founder of a family of well- 
known physicians of New York City and vicinity, 
was born in Amsterdam and came to New York 
at the age of twenty-two. He had been a student 
of the renowned Dutch physician Hermannus 
Boerhaave, who had made the medical depart- 
ment of the University of Leyden famous 
throughout Europe. With this training he soon 
established a large practice in New York, where 
few of the so-called physicians had ever seen the 
inside of a medical school. In the words of a local 
historian, "few physicians amongst us are emi- 
nent for their skill. Quacks abound like locusts 
in Egypt, and too many have recommended them- 
selves to a full practice and profitable subsist- 



149 



Van Brunt 

ence" (William Smith, History of New-York, 
1814, p. 325). 

After practising in New York for more than 
twenty years, he removed about 1724 to Flat- 
bush, Long Island, and lived there until 1728, 
when he returned to New York. In 1736, an 
almshouse, known as the "Publick Workhouse 
and House of Correction," was built on the site 
of the present City Hall. The hospital depart- 
ment was a room about twenty-five feet square 
on the second floor, containing six beds, and Van 
Beuren, through the influence of the governor 
of the colony it is said, was appointed its first 
medical director. He held the position until his 
death. His salary was f 100 a year, out of which 
he was expected to provide his own medicines. 
This was the beginning of Bellevue Hospital, 
which may lay claim to being the oldest hospital 
in the United States. As Boerhaave in Holland 
was among the first to teach that pure air, clean- 
liness, and simple buildings are the first require- 
ments for a hospital, it may be presumed that 
these principles were established by his former 
pupil in the new hospital in New York. 

Van Beuren was married at New York, on 
June 15, 1707, to Maria Meyer, the daughter of 
Pieter Meyer and his wife, Batje Jans, of New 
York. They had fifteen children. His marriage 
and the baptisms of all but two of the children 
are recorded in the register of the Dutch Church. 
Five of his sons were physicians, and one of 
them, Beekman Van Beuren, who was the phy- 
sician at the almshouse from 1765 to 1776, is 
credited with the introduction of inoculation for 
smallpox in the public institutions of the city. 
William Holme Van Buren [q.v.] was a de- 
scendant. 

[An Account of Bellevue Hospital (1893), R. J. 
Carlisle, ed. ; William Jones, "The Van Beuren Family 
of New York and New Jersey," N. Y. Geneal. and 
Biog. Record, Jan. 1932.] W.J. 

VAN BRUNT, HENRY (Sept. 5, 1832-Apr. 
8, 1903), architect and writer, was born in Bos- 
ton, Mass., the son of Commodore Gershom 
Jaques Van Brunt, of the United States Navy, 
and Elizabeth Price (Bradlee) Van Brunt. On 
his father's side he was descended from Rutger 
Joesten van Brunt, who emigrated from the 
Netherlands in 1653 and in 1657 settled in New 
Utrecht, Long Island (now part of Brooklyn). 
One of his mother's ancestors is said to have been 
Nathaniel Bradlee, a participant in the Boston 
Tea Party. Van Brunt was educated at the Boston 
Latin School and at Harvard University. During 
his freshman year, he had a serious accident to 
his hip, which left him at least a partial invalid 
for the rest of his life. He graduated in 1854. He 



Van Brunt 

then entered the Boston office of George Snell, 
architect, as a student; in 1856 he went to New 
York and became a student in the famous office- 
atelier of Richard Morris Hunt [g.r r .], where 
he remained for several years. During the Civil 
War he was for two years clerk to Commodore 
L. M. Goldsborough of the North Atlantic 
Squadron and saw service in Virginia and North 
Carolina. In 1863 he formed a partnership, Ware 
and Van Brunt, with William Robert Ware 
lq.z\], whom he had met in Hunt's office. The 
work done with Ware included the First Church, 
Boston, Memorial Hall, Weld Hall, and the east 
wing of the college library at Harvard, and the 
library of the University of Michigan. Ware re- 
tired completely from the partnership in 1881 ; 
it was not formally dissolved, however, till 1883. 
Van Brunt thereupon took into partnership 
Frank M. Howe, who had been an employee of 
the firm since 1868, and the remainder of his 
architectural work was done under the firm name 
of Van Brunt and Howe. Commissioned by his 
friend Charles Francis Adams [q.z\], president 
of the Union Pacific Railway (1884-90), to de- 
sign a large number of railroad stations in the 
West, Van Brunt sent Howe to Kansas City to 
open an office in 1885 and followed him soon af- 
ter. Few architects of their training were then 
settled in the Middle West, and a large amount 
of work came to them. It included the railroad 
stations at Ogden, Utah; Sioux City, Iowa; 
Portland, Ore. ; and Omaha, Nebr. ; the store of 
the Emery, Bird, Thayer Dry Goods Company 
at Kansas City, large houses for the Armour and 
Griffiths families and for August R. Meyer, and 
other work largely residential and commercial. 
They were associated with McKim, Mead and 
White in the New York Life Insurance Build- 
ing at Kansas City and, as the most important 
architectural firm west of Chicago, were com- 
missioned to design the Electricity Building at 
the World's Columbian Exposition of 1893 at 
Chicago. Van Brunt had been one of the earliest 
members of the American Institute of Archi- 
tects, and a fellow since 1864; he was secretary 
in 1861 and president in 1899. He declined to 
run for the office a second time because he was 
planning a long tour in Europe for study and 
rest, his first trip out of the United States. It 
signalled his practical retirement from active 
practice. 

Van Brunt's architectural work is character- 
istic of the eclecticism of his time. He started 
with a strong bias towards Ruskin-inspired 
Gothic, but later worked in the popular Ro- 
manesque and in various types of classic as well ; 
the work which seems best today, however, is 



T 5° 



Van Buren 

characterized by a strong personal search for 
original and honest expression. His most im- 
portant contribution was in his writings; many 
magazine articles on architectural subjects are 
distinguished for their keen analysis, and their 
graceful and persuasive style. Some of these 
were republished (with other material) in Greek 
Lines and Other Architectural Essays (1893). 
Van Brunt was also the translator of Viollet-le- 
Duc's Entreticns sur V Architecture (2 vols., 
1863-72) as Discourses on Architecture (1875). 
The courtliness, dignity, and gentleness which 
so characterized his manner are well expressed 
in his writing. His accomplishments are all the 
more remarkable in view of the physical disabil- 
ity against which he labored. He married Alice 
Sterritt Osborn at Salem, Mass., Oct. 6, 1869. 
He died in Milton, Mass., survived by his wife 
and their seven children. 

[T. G. Bergen, Gcneal. of the Van Brunt Family 
(1867) ; Who's Who in America, 1901-02, with an 
error in the mother's name ; Harvard Coll. . . . Class of 
1854 (1894); filie Brault, Les Architcctes par Leurs 
Ocuvres (3 vols., 1892-93) ; Proc. Thirty-seventh Ann. 
Convention Am. Inst, of Architects (1904); G. C. 
Mitchell. There Is No Limit: Architecture and Sculp- 
ture in Kansas City (1934) ; Am. Architect and Build- 
ing News, Apr. 11, 1903 ; obituaries in N. Y. Tribune 
and Kansas City Jour., Apr. 9, 1903 ; information from 
Van Brunt's son, Courtlandt Van Brunt.] T. F. H. 

VAN BUREN, JOHN (Feb. 10, 1810-Oct. 
13, 1866), lawyer, politician, was born in Kin- 
derhook, N. Y., the son of Martin Van Buren 
[q.v.~\ and Hannah (Hoes) Van Buren. He was 
sent first to the Albany public schools, then to 
Albany Academy whence he went to Yale. In 
college he drank and gambled freely, studied lit- 
tle, worried the faculty and president of Yale, 
and cost his father unnecessary expense and 
sleepless nights. Upon graduation he read law 
with Benjamin F. Butler and later with Aaron 
Vanderpoel, whose niece Elizabeth he afterward 
married (June 22, 1841). In July 1831 he was 
admitted to the Albany bar, and one month later 
he sailed with his father to London to become an 
attache of the American legation. His fine 
physique, ready wit and good humor, and aris- 
tocratic and gracious bearing made him a favorite 
at the English court. The Whig press of Amer- 
ica dubbed him "Prince John." Before returning 
home he traveled on the Continent, and in 1838 
he again visited England and Ireland. 

His activities in politics were so like his fa- 
ther's that he soon won another title, "Young 
Fox." By 1834 he was a member of the "Albany 
regency." For a time he was a law examiner in 
Albany and a law partner of James McKnown 
I 1837-45), later taking as a partner Hamilton 
\V. Robinson. In 1845 he joined the -adical wing 



Van Buren 

of the New York Democracy and won the of- 
fice of attorney general (1845). He prosecuted 
the anti-rent cases and after his resumption of 
private practice took part in the notorious For- 
rest divorce suit, in which he lost prestige. Al- 
though he was popular with the New York bar 
and powerful with juries, his political activities 
during the forties rather obscured his legal ca- 
reer (McAdam, post, I, 505). 

Much of his time was consumed in lobbying 
in the state legislature. His power was felt in 
nearly every Democratic state convention from 
1836 to 1848, and especially in campaigns for 
his father. He published a pamphlet, The Syra- 
cuse Convention, in 1847. He was influential in 
organizing the "Barnburners," and in behalf of 
them and the Free-soil groups he persuaded his 
father to accept the nomination for president at 
Buffalo in 1848. His zeal and oratory stirred 
the Free-soilers deeply. Some of their leaders 
wanted him for their standard bearer, but he 
chose to fight for his father, who had lost the 
Democratic presidential nomination to Polk at 
Baltimore (1844). John as a delegate to the 
convention led the enraged "Barnburners" in 
their withdrawal. He stumped the state, de- 
nouncing the Fugitive-slave Law and every- 
where electrifying his audiences with his Free- 
soil evangelism. Had he grasped the full 
significance of the Free-soil movement he could 
have been one of the chief leaders of the forth- 
coming Republican party, but he was unhappy 
outside the Democracy and returned to it in 1849. 
He supported the compromise measures of 1850. 
In 1853 he threatened to denounce Pierce (R. F. 
Nichols, The Democratic Machine, 1850-1854, 
1923, p. 212), but was kept quiet by Marcy and 
Tilden, and finally came out strongly for popu- 
lar sovereignty in Kansas. He wanted a con- 
vention of states (i860) to arrange for guaran- 
tees to the slavery interests and to prevent war. 
He denounced Lincoln for calling for troops so 
soon after the firing on Fort Sumter. In many 
speeches he defended General McClellan, bitterly 
assailed the draft, the suspension of the writ of 
habeas corpus, and the use of colored troops. He 
supported Seymour for governor in 1862 and 
McClellan for president in 1864, and was him- 
self defeated in his candidacy for the attorney 
generalship of the state in 1865. He threw his 
waning influence to Andrew Johnson (1866), 
but his failing health caused him to seek its im- 
provement in England. He died of a kidney 
disease while on the Scotia en route to New 
York, leaving his only child, Anna, and was 
buried in Albany beside his wife, who had died 
in 1844. 



Mi 



Van Buren 



Van Buren 



[Van Buren MSS. and Marcy MSS. in Lib. of Cong. ; 
the private collection of Blair MSS. ; Van Buren let- 
ters in N. Y. State Lib., Albany ; D. S. Alexander, A 
Political History of the State of N. Y '., vol. II (1906) ; 
D. T. Lynch, An Epoch and a Man : Martin Van Buren 
and His Times (1929) ; W. L. Mackenzie, The Life and 
Times of Martin Van Buren (1846) ; E. M. Shepard, 
Martin Van Buren (1888); H. D. A. Donovan, The 
Barnburners (1925); John Bigelow, Retrospections of 
an Acth'c Life, vol. I (1909), pp. 86-90; David Mc- 
Adam and others, Hist, of the Bench and Bar of New 
York, vol. I (1897) ; Harriet C. W. Van Buren Peck- 
ham, Hist, of Cornelius Macsscn Van Buren . . . and 
His Descendants (1913) ; G. B. Vanderpoel, Genealogy 
of the Vanderpoel Family (1912); obituaries in Eve- 
ning Post (N. Y.), Oct. 16, 19, 1866; N. Y. Tribune, 
Oct. 17, 20, 1866.] W. E. S h. 

VAN BUREN, MARTIN (Dec. 5, 1782-July 
24, 1862), eighth president of the United States, 
was born in Kinderhook, near Albany, N. Y., 
the third of five children of Abraham and Maria 
(Hoes) Van Buren, both of whom were of 
Dutch descent. Abraham was descended from 
Cornelis, who was the son of Maes of Buurmal- 
sen and came to New Netherland in 1631 as a 
leaseholder of Van Rensselaer. Maria Hoes was 
the widow Van Alen and mother of two children 
when she married the bachelor Abraham. Mar- 
tin's parents were frugal truck farmers and keep- 
ers of an inherited tavern who became respect- 
able slave-owning citizens in the village. In the 
inadequate village schools the boy gained a fair 
knowledge of English and a smattering of Latin. 
After graduation at the age of fourteen, he be- 
came a clerk in the law office of Francis Silves- 
ter, a Federalist. He read little from law books, 
but devoured every Republican pamphlet, jour- 
nal, or periodical that he could find. Obstinately, 
but good-naturedly, he refused from the begin- 
ning to adopt Silvester's Federalism. By 1800 the 
yellow-haired law clerk had won a local repu- 
tation for his clear thinking, clever presentation 
and summaries of his petty cases, extemporane- 
ous debating, and stanch Republicanism. As a 
reward for his campaign for Jefferson (1800) 
he was sent as a delegate to the congressional 
caucus in Troy. In 1801 he entered as a clerk the 
almost clientless office in New York City of the 
young William Peter Van Ness \_q.v.~\, a devotee 
of Aaron Burr. 

Upon his return to Kinderhook (1803) he was 
licensed to practice law and became the partner 
of his half-brother, James I. Van Alen. He flung 
himself immediately into Republican politics as 
the champion of the Clinton-Livingston factions, 
in opposition to Burr, thereby annoying the Van 
Nesses. His income came from the pockets of 
Jeffersonian-Republican small landholders in 
whose cases in court he had often to oppose the 
eloquent Elisha Williams. By 1807 he was afflu- 
ent enough to marry, on Feb. 21, the sweetheart 



of his youth, his kinswoman Hannah Hoes. She 
bore him four sons : Abraham, John [q.v.~\, Mar- 
tin, and Smith Thompson. Soon he moved to 
Hudson, where as the newly appointed surrogate 
(1808-13), h e launched himself on an ambitious 
political career. Already his enemies had pro- 
nounced him a hypocrite, a heartless, selfish, in- 
triguing politician. He was a manipulator in 
politics, but he was honest and generous in his 
private and public relations. In taverns as well 
as court rooms his ready wit, friendly smile, and 
cheerful disposition won voters and juries to his 
side. He was only five feet six and was slender 
but stood erect like a soldier. He dressed im- 
maculately, as his preceptor Silvester had taught 
him. Rarely was he incensed at even his worst 
enemies. He could see no reason why political 
opponents could not be personal friends. 

Until 1821 he was enmeshed in state politics. 
In his fight for state leadership he moved in a 
maze of political intrigue and bitterness, but al- 
ways remained a partisan Republican. In 1807 
he was admitted as counselor to practise before 
the state supreme court. In a race against Ed- 
ward P. Livingston he was elected state senator 
in April 1812 on an anti-Bank platform. In Au- 
gust he was deeply chagrined at his failure to 
receive the appointment as attorney general of 
the state, which went to Thomas Addis Emmet, 
and at first blamed DeWitt Clinton. In Novem- 
ber, in the legislative session to select presidential 
electors, he supported Clinton, as the nominee of 
the Republican caucus, though the rivalry of the 
two men was becoming intense. He helped to 
secure the election of Daniel D. Tompkins [<?.z/.] 
as vice-president in 1816 and annoyed Clinton 
that year by opposing certain details of the canal 
bill. The next year, however, he supported the 
canal project against the wishes of his group, 
defending his course by saying that he could not 
sacrifice a popular blessing to humiliate Clinton. 
Van Buren was soon chosen regent of the Uni- 
versity of the State of New York (181 5), a recog- 
nition of his importance. In 1816 he was re- 
elected senator (1816-20) and chosen attorney 
general of New York (1816-19). He then moved 
his family to Albany. His wife died in 1819. He 
never attempted to marry again until late in life 
when he was rejected by the spinster, Margaret 
Silvester, who was the daughter of his old pre- 
ceptor. In the state Senate he was establishing 
himself as a leader. In 1817, however, Clinton 
was elected governor, and in 1819, gaining con- 
trol of the Council of Appointment, he removed 
Van Buren from the attorney generalship. While 
bitterly attacking Clinton for cooperating with 
Federalists, Van Buren acted secretly to reelect 



152 



Van Buren 



Van Buren 



Rufus King [q.v.~\ to the United States Senate 
( 1820) and to gain Federalist aid in defeating 
Clinton. He asked for a state constitutional con- 
vention, which convened in 1821, largely because 
he opposed the arbitrary power of Chief Justice 
Ambrose Spencer [q.i 1 .] and favored a reorgani- 
zation of the judicial system. His chief work in 
the convention was in securing an agreement 
between extreme radicals and conservatives that 
could be accepted by all. As chairman of the 
committee on appointments, he advocated the de- 
centralization of the power held by the old Coun- 
cil of Appointment, by the distribution of the 
appointing power among local authorities, the 
legislature, and the governor. He was unsuccess- 
ful in his opposition, probably for the sake of 
patronage, to the popular election of all judicial 
officers. (N. H. Carter and W. L. Stone, Re- 
ports of the Proceedings and Debates of the Con- 
vention of 1821 Assembled for the Purpose of 
Amending the Constitution of New York, 1821.) 
Clinton had been reelected governor in 1820, 
largely because of his canal policy, but the 
"Bucktails" won control of the legislature and in 
February 1821 elected Van Buren to the United 
States Senate. In August 1820 his brother-in- 
law, Moses I. Cantine, and Isaac J. Leake bought 
the Albany Argus. The paper was given the 
contract for the state printing. In 1823, when 
Edwin Croswell [q.z\] became editor, Van Buren 
wrote that without a paper edited by "a sound, 
practicable and above all discreet republican . . . 
we may hang our harps on the willows" (quoted 
in Mackenzie, post, p. 190). Croswell made the 
Argus a highly influential organ. Van Buren 
was chief of a group of leaders, soon nicknamed 
the 'Albany regency," which included William 
L. Marcy, Azariah C. Flagg, Benjamin F. Butler 
(1795-1858), Edwin Croswell, Michael Hoff- 
man, and later Silas Wright and John A. Dix 
[qq.v.~\. "They were formidable in solidarity," 
and achieved extraordinary success (Fox, post, 
pp. 281-86). Van Buren's primacy among them 
was not owing merely to his amiability and cau- 
tion, but to his shrewd judgment of measures 
and men, to his power of analysis and exposition. 
His political philosophy was practical and sin- 
cere. Reckless opposition to public sentiment 
seemed to him inconsistent with good statesman- 
ship, and he thought that those who dispensed 
the public bounty would, to a greater or less de- 
gree, influence and control the public mind. 
However, in attacking Clinton he said that a 
good administration would rally around "the gov- 
ernmental standard the good the virtuous and 
the capable" (Lynch, p. 175), and he and the 
other members of the "regency" faithfully per- 



formed the duties of the important offices they 
obtained. 

As United States senator he was still preoc- 
cupied with factional fights from which he hoped 
to emerge as the leader of a unified national party. 
Not until 1823 did he avow his intention openly 
to support William H. Crawford for president, 
hoping that by delay he could avoid party strife 
in New York and give his state a chance final- 
ly to choose between opposing candidates. In 
Washington he was considered the leader of the 
Crawford faction and he was active in the last 
and well-known congressional caucus, called to 
nominate his candidate (Daily National Intel- 
ligencer, Feb. 16, 1824). He considered Jackson 
unpromising and tried to persuade either Clay or 
Gallatin to run with Crawford. In New York 
in 1824, Clinton, who was a Jacksonian, was 
again elected governor, routing the "regency" 
(C. H. Rammelkamp, "The Campaign of 1824 
in New York," Annual Report of the American 
Historical Association . . . 1904, 1905, pp. 175- 
201). Van Buren tried to produce a deadlock in 
the House of Representatives while it was voting 
for presidential candidates, in order that the 
Clay-Adams men would have to appeal to New 
York for a decision, but the prayerful Stephen 
Van Rensselaer [g.7'.] blocked that plan by vot- 
ing for Adams. Van Buren's early bitterness to- 
wards Adams was probably caused by the latter's 
offer of the ministerial post in London to Clin- 
ton. In the Senate he voted yea on the tariff bills 
of 1824 and 1828, guided partisan opposition, 
served on the finance committee and as chairman 
of the judiciary committee. He opposed the send- 
ing of envoys to the Panama conference, offer- 
ing the explanation that he was opposed to all 
forms of international alliances. In his speeches 
on internal improvements ( Register of Debates 
in Congress, vol. II, 1826, 19 Cong., 1 Sess., cols. 
20-21, 619, 717-18), he laid down a policy of 
opposition to which he steadfastly adhered. Con- 
gress, he said, had no constitutional right to con- 
struct commercial roads and canals within states. 
His practical objections to the program of his 
political rivals were strengthened by the consid- 
eration that most of the projects would deflect 
trade from the Erie Canal and New York. So 
adept was he in politics that he was reelected 
senator (1827) with the aid of Clinton's friends. 
By this time, however, he was turning to Jack- 
son, and took the liberty of telling Jackson to 
refrain from answering defamatory pamphlets. 
He read such pamphlets and planned the answers, 
advising editors here and there what to say about 
campaign issues. After pronouncing a touching 
eulogium upon Clinton, who died in 1828, he ran 



*53 



Van Buren 



Van Buren 



for governor of New York in order that a "Buck- 
tail" state administration would be in control 
after he should become Jackson's secretary of 
state. He resigned the governorship to enter the 
cabinet after making to the legislature several 
recommendations, one of which — the enactment 
of a safety-fund banking law, as suggested by 
Joshua Forman [q.i'.~\ — was adopted. He re- 
turned to Washington society, of which he was 
enamoured, and became at once the most influ- 
ential member of the Jackson cabinet. 

As secretary of state he favored the introduc- 
tion of his New York political spoils system into 
the federal administration. Approached on the 
subject, he replied: "We give no reasons for our 
removals" (Lynch, p. 325). Being a widower, 
he pleased the President by his friendly course 
towards Peggy Eaton (see sketch of Margaret 
O'Neale). He helped Jackson write his famous 
toast, "Our Federal Union — It must be pre- 
served" (Autobiography, p. 414). So completely 
did he win the President's confidence that Jack- 
son said that Van Buren was "one of the most 
frank men" he had known, "a true man with no 
guile" (Jackson Correspondence, IV, 260). Be- 
fore the end of 1830 Jackson proposed to Van 
Buren that they run on the same ticket, he to 
resign after a year and leave Van Buren to carry 
on his policies (Autobiography, pp. 506-07). 
This Van Buren refused to do and persuaded the 
President that it was best for him to resign as 
secretary of state so that the cabinet could be 
reorganized. His resignation (Apr. 11, 1831) 
brought about that of other members and enabled 
Jackson to eliminate Calhoun's supporters, while 
his prompt appointment as minister to Great 
Britain, ostensibly taking him out of politics, 
showed that he was still in Jackson's confidence 
{Ibid., pp. 403-08; Bassett, Life of Jackson, II, 
522-25, 532). Although Van Buren seems delib- 
erately to have kept himself ignorant of the 
Jackson-Calhoun quarrel (Bassett, II, 514-15), 
he was accused of causing it, and had heaped 
upon his head such opprobrious terms as "Flying 
Dutchman," "Red Fox of Kinderhook," and 
"Little Magician." 

His unusual tact stood him in good stead as 
secretary of state. He maneuvered Jackson into 
appointing young energetic ministers, soon es- 
tablished order and confidence in his department, 
and quieted the fears of the foreign diplomatic 
corps, who expected trouble with the frontier 
President. He settled the old dispute over the 
West Indian trade between Great Britain and 
the United States, secured an agreement with 
France by which that country ultimately and 
reluctantly paid claims for compensation for in- 

T 54 



juries inflicted upon American commerce during 
the Napoleonic wars, negotiated a treaty with 
Turkey providing for free access to the Black 
Sea and a most favored nations clause, and tried 
to buy Texas from Mexico, arguing that it was 
a necessity for the development of the Mississippi 
Valley and that Mexico would finally lose it 
through revolution if she did not sell to the 
United States. Jackson's Maysville Road veto 
was largely the work of Van Buren, who drafted 
the message (Autobiography, pp. 315-22; Bas- 
sett, Life of Jackson, II, pp. 484-96), and he 
supported Jackson in his other important do- 
mestic policies. In August 1831 he was on his 
way to London as minister to Great Britain, but 
in January 1832 his appointment was rejected 
by the deciding vote of Vice-President Calhoun. 
He then took his son John with him to travel in 
France and in Holland. 

His return, purposely timed to follow his 
nomination for vice-president in May 1832, was 
celebrated extensively in New York City. His 
graciousness, his courtesy toward even his bit- 
terest foes, and his charming conversation made 
him a favored guest at such celebrations as the 
New York Democrats could provide. In the 
course of the presidential campaign he aided 
Jackson in defeating a bill to recharter the Bank 
of the United States and opposed the theories of 
nullification, as he did internal improvements at 
national expense, but he intentionally remained 
vague on the tariff. Contrary to some opinions, 
he did not disagree with Jackson over the re- 
moval of the government's deposits in the Bank, 
but he did hesitate about the time of their re- 
moval (Jackson Correspondence, V, 179—82, 
183-84). When Jackson appealed to him to have 
the New York Assembly issue a public defense 
of his message on nullification, Van Buren wrote 
the report of the joint committee, endeavoring 
to show the soundness of the party on the state- 
rights question, while supporting the President 
against the nullifiers (Documents of the Senate 
of . . . New York . . . 1833, 1833, no - 34! Auto- 
biography, pp. 548-53 ; Jackson Correspondence, 
IV, 504-08). 

Elected vice-president in 1832 as Jackson's 
running mate, he proved to be an able and fair 
presiding officer of the Senate. Not once did he 
lose the confidence of Jackson. It has been re- 
marked that toward his chief he had a "perfect 
bedside manner" (J. F. Jameson, Preface to 
Jackson Correspondence, Vol. IV, p. v). Ac- 
cepted by his party as Jackson's protege, he was 
nominated for the presidency by a convention 
held in Baltimore in May 1835, Richard M. John- 
son [q.z\~] being nominated for vice-president. 



Van Bur en 



Van Buren 



His platform was enunciated in the letters he 
wrote during the campaign, especially in the 
able letter of Aug. 8, 1836, to Sherrod Williams 
(Xiles' Weekly Register, Sept. 10, 1836, pp. 26- 
30). It was clear that he opposed the distribu- 
tion of the surplus in the treasury and the im- 
provement of rivers above ports of entry, and 
that he would not recharter the Bank under any 
consideration. He had supported Tallmadge's 
resolution on the Missouri Compromise calling 
for the non-extension of slavery and had signed 
a call for a meeting in Albany to protest against 
the extension of slavery (1820), but in 1831 he 
had announced himself as a stanch advocate of 
the right of slave-owning states to control slav- 
ery within their respective boundaries. He had 
advised Governor Marcy in 1835 to condemn the 
activities of the Garrison abolitionists (message 
of Jan. S, 1836), and in 1836, in the Senate, he 
had given a casting vote in favor of the bill bar- 
ring abolitionist propaganda from the mails 
(Register of Debates, 24 Cong., 1 Sess., Col. 
1675 ; see also T. H. Benton, Thirty Years' View, 
I, 587-88). 

In the election of 1836 there were Democratic 
defections in the South to Hugh L. White [q.v.~\ 
and to Willie P. Mangum [q.v.~\, who received 
the vote of South Carolina ; and votes were cast 
for two Whig candidates, William Henry Har- 
rison and Daniel Webster [qq.v.'] ; but Van 
Buren had a large electoral majority over the 
field. As president, he filled the vacancy in the 
Department of War by appointing Joel R. Poin- 
sett [q.v.~\, and retained all the other members 
of Jackson's cabinet. In his optimistic inaugural 
address (Richardson, post, III, 313-20), which 
concluded with a tribute to his predecessor, he 
urged the preservation of American democracy 
as a world experiment. His desire to hold to- 
gether the northern and southern wings of his 
party was manifested in his avowed opposition 
to the abolition of slavery in the District of Co- 
lumbia against the wishes of the slave states, 
and to any interference with slavery in the states 
where it existed. Throughout his administration 
he was plagued by abolitionist agitators and 
those who would silence them, but his chief prob- 
lems were economic. The panic of 1837 soon 
burst upon him. In spite of the fury of clamor 
against it, he held steadfastly to Jackson's specie 
circular, and in his message to the special ses- 
sion of Congress f Sept. 4, 1837, Richardson, III, 
324-46) he properly said that the panic was the 
result of over-action in business and over-ex- 
pansion of credit. Adamant in his determination 
to divorce the "money power" from the federal 
government, and distrustful of the "pet banks" 



as well as of a central institution, he urged that 
an independent treasury be established. His rec- 
ommendations that the installment of the surplus 
scheduled for distribution to the states in Oc- 
tober be withheld, and that treasury notes be 
temporarily issued to meet the pressing needs of 
the government, were adopted, but the first in- 
dependent treasury bill failed of passage. Not 
until 1840 was Van Buren able to secure the 
necessary legislation, with some compromise in 
regard to specie payments, and this was repealed 
by the Whigs in 1841. The independent treasury 
was not effectually established until 1846. It 
has generally been regarded as distinctly credit- 
able to Van Buren's foresight, but at the time of 
his official advocacy of it he alienated conserva- 
tive, or bank, Democrats, especially in New York 
and Virginia, while he was denounced by the 
Whigs for his "heartlessness" in not undertak- 
ing measures of relief and particularly for his 
failure to resort to paper money. He followed 
his lifejong policy of refusing to answer villifiers, 
believing always that "the sober second thought 
of the people" would uphold him. 

Though he was embarrassed by American sym- 
pathy with the Canadian rebellion of 1837, an( ^ 
the seizure by Canadian authorities in American 
waters of the insurgent vessel Caroline, his suc- 
cessful effort to preserve peace between Great 
Britain and the United States was patriotic and 
commendable, notwithstanding the accusations 
of the opposing factions that his officials were 
"the tools of Victoria." His wise policy of con- 
ciliation, however, cost him political support 
along the northern border, as it did also in Maine, 
in connection with the continued controversy 
over the northeastern boundary. He refused to 
annex independent Texas because he wanted no 
war with Mexico and at heart was opposed to 
the further extension of slavery. Throughout 
his administration he and his able cabinet were 
plagued with the terrible depression, to which 
crop failures contributed. Calhoun's cooperation, 
Blair's influential Globe, and Jackson's fidelity 
could not overcome such obstacles. As president, 
Van Buren had been far more than a wily poli- 
tician, but perhaps no amount of courage, pa- 
triotism, and ability would have availed to carry 
through an effective program or to gain popular 
approval in such troublous times. "Little Van" 
was a "used up man" in the "hard-cider" cam- 
paign of 1840. The Whigs, evading issues and 
appealing to emotions, triumphantly elected Wil- 
liam Henry Harrison [q.v.] over the decorous 
President, with an electoral vote of 234 to 60, 
and a popular plurality of nearly 150,000. Van 
Buren even lost New York. 



T 55 



Van Buren 



Van Buren 



He greeted Whigs and Democrats alike at the 
White House and shattered precedent by calling 
on President-elect Harrison at Gadsby's. After 
the inauguration, he retired to the old William 
Van Ness farm at Kinderhook which he had 
bought ; he now repaired it extensively and called 
it "Lindenwald." He presently found occasion 
to deny a statement that he would not again run 
for the presidency, but he also informed the pub- 
lic that he would take no step to secure another 
nomination. He made a tour of the West and 
Southwest, stopping at "Ashland" to see Clay, 
and at "The Hermitage" to pay his respects to 
Jackson (1842). Many Democrats throughout 
the North and West rallied to his support. He 
answered quite frankly, against the advice of in- 
formed friends, many inquiries as to his views 
on political issues. In the well-known "Hammet 
letter" (Washington Globe, Apr. 27, 1844), pub- 
lished on the same day as Clay's "Raleigh letter," 
he courageously said that the annexation of 
Texas would mean war with Mexico and that he 
saw no need for immediate action, but that he 
would yield to the popular decision at the polls. 
This stand probably lost him the Democratic 
nomination (McCormac, Polk, pp. 224-30). His 
opponents published a year-old letter of Jackson 
favoring annexation, and succeeded in getting 
the two-thirds rule adopted by the Democratic 
convention at Baltimore (1844). Van Buren 
withdrew his name for the sake of party har- 
mony and James K. Polk [q.v.~\ was nominated. 
His principles, except on annexation, were adopt- 
ed in the platform. His followers expected recog- 
nition, but President Polk soon let it be known 
that they were not in favor. He offered Van 
Buren the London mission purposely to exile 
him, but Van Buren could not be shelved so 
easily. 

The discontent engendered by his defeat at 
Baltimore, accentuated by bitter factional strife 
within the party in New York, turned half the 
Democrats of the state against the administra- 
tion. The introduction of the Wilmot Proviso 
in 1846 provided a rallying point for this dis- 
content and the latent anti-slavery feeling that 
had been steadily increasing. The next year the 
"Barnburners" seceded from the state conven- 
tion, and, meeting at Herkimer, adopted a plat- 
form, drafted by Van Buren's son John \_q.v.~], 
opposing the extension of slavery to the terri- 
tories to be acquired from Mexico. Van Buren 
himself drew up a similar address, which, after 
revision by his son and Samuel J. Tilden, was 
issued in February 1848 as the address of "Barn- 
burner" Democrats in the legislature. Both 
"Barnburners" and "Hunkers" sent delegates to 



the National Democratic Convention of 1848, 
but the former at length withdrew. At a con- 
vention at Utica in June they nominated Van 
Buren for the presidency, paving the way for a 
general convention later. At Buffalo, in August, 
a gathering of anti-slavery men from all parties, 
organized the Free-soil party, on a platform of 
opposition to the extension of slavery into the 
territories. Van Buren, already nominated by 
the best organized group in the convention, was 
chosen to head the ticket. He had become con- 
vinced, perhaps at the convention of 1844, that 
northern Democrats had yielded to the "slavo- 
cracy" long enough, but accepted the nomination 
reluctantly, preferring to remain a farmer and 
to write his memoirs. The Free-soilers helped 
to defeat Cass by splitting the ticket. For a while 
Van Buren was popular with the New York 
Free-soilers, but he alienated them when he sup- 
ported the compromise measures of 1850. He 
returned to the Democratic fold in 1852, assured 
by the elder Blair that he could trust Pierce, but 
he soon found that his trust was misplaced. He 
was indignant at the "half baked politicians" 
who repealed the Missouri Compromise (1854). 
He hoped the Union would be saved by the elec- 
tion of Buchanan, who promised a peaceful set- 
tlement of the Kansas question. Shocked deeply 
by the Civil War, he found his only solace in his 
confidence, in Abraham Lincoln and refused to 
be associated with Buchanan, whom he now de- 
spised, in holding an ex-president's meeting 
(suggested by Franklin Pierce) to decide on 
some course relative to the cause of the Union. 
After months of suffering with asthma, he died 
in the summer, despondent over the situation of 
the Union armies. Funeral services were held 
in the Dutch Reformed Church of which he had 
been a faithful member. He left a manuscript, 
published by his sons under the title, Inquiry into 
the Origin and Course of Political Parties in the 
United States (1867). His uncompleted autobi- 
ography was edited by J. C. Fitzpatrick and pub- 
lished as "The Autobiography of Martin Van 
Buren" {Annual Report of the American His- 
torical Association for the Year 1918, Vol. II, 
1920). 

[Elizabeth H. West, Calendar of the Papers of Mar- 
tin Van Buren (1910). is an excellent guide to the 
voluminous Van Buren MSS. in the lib. of Cong., ac- 
quired to the time of its compilation ; there is valuable 
material about him in that repository in the papers of 
various persons who were associated with him ; and 
there is a collection of his letters in the N. Y. State 
Lib., at Albany. Valuable printed collections are C. Z. 
Lincoln. State of N. Y. Messages from the Governors 
(1909), vol. Ill, pp. 230-59 ; J. D. Richardson, A Com- 
pilation of the Messages and Papers of the Presidents. 
vol. Ill (1896) ; William McDonald, "The Jackson and 
Van Buren Papers," in Proc. Am. Antiquarian Soc., 



Van Buren 



Vance 



vol. XVIII (1908) ; Van Buren — Bancroft correspond- 
ence, in Mass. Hist. Soc. Proc, vol. XLII (1909) ; J. 
S. Bassett, ed., Correspondence of Andrew Jackson (6 
vols., 1926-33). Among biographies may be cited W. 
M. Holland, The Life and Political Opinions of Martin 
Van Buren (1835) ; W. L. Mackenzie, The Life and 
Times of Martin Van Buren (1846), a bitter attack but 
contains letters; W. A. Butler, Martin Van Buren: 
Lawyer, Statesman and Man (1862) ; George Bancroft, 
Martin Van Buren to the End of His Public Career 
(1889), to 1 84 1, written for the campaign of 1844; E. 
M. Shepard, Martin Van Buren (1888) ; D. T. Lynch, 
An Epoch and a Man: Martin Van Buren (1929). For 
particular phases see J. S. Bassett, "Martin Van Buren," 
in S. F. Betnis, ed., The American Secretaries of State 
and Their Diplomacy, vol. IV (1928) ; J. D. Hammond, 
The History of Political Parties in the State of N. Y . 
(2 vols., 1842) ; D. S. Alexander, A Political History 
of the State of N. Y ., vols. I, II (1906) ; D. R. Fox, 
The Decline of Aristocracy in the Politics of N. Y. 
(1919); William Trimble, "Diverging Tendencies in 
N. Y. Democracy in the Period of the Locofocos," in 
Am. Hist. Rev., Apr. 1919 ; H. D. A. Donovan, The 
Barnburners (1925) ; T. H. Benton, Thirty Years' View 
(2 vols., 1856) ; R. H. Gillet, The Life and Times of 
Silas Wright (2 vols., 1874) ; J. S. Bassett, The Life of 
Andrew Jackson (1911); E. I. McCormac, James K. 
Polk (1922) ; C. G. Bowers, The Party Battles of the 
Jackson Period (1922) ; R. C. McGrane, The Panic of 
1837 (1924) ; W. E. Smith, The Francis Preston Blair 
Family in Politics (2 vols., 1933) ; F. J. Turner, The 
United States: 1830-1850 (1935). For genealogy and 
local materials, see Harriet C. W. Van Buren Peckham, 
History of Cornells Maessen Van Buren . . . and His 
Descendants (1913) ; E. A. Collier, A History of Old 
Kindcrhook (1914). For obituaries see Evening Post 
(N. Y.), July 24, 1862; N. Y. Times, N. Y. Tribune, 
July 25, 1862.] W. E. S— h. 

VAN BUREN, WILLIAM HOLME (Apr. 
4, 1819-Mar. 25, 1883), physician, surgeon, and 
teacher of medicine and surgery, was born at 
Philadelphia, Pa., the son of Abraham Van 
Beuren, a merchant of Philadelphia, and his sec- 
ond wife, Sarah Holme. He dropped the "e" 
from the first syllable of his name, although his 
father used the longer form. His grandfather, 
Abraham Van Beuren, and his great-grandfather, 
John Van Beuren, were both physicians, and his 
great-great-grandfather was Johannes Van Beu- 
ren \_q.v.~]. He entered Yale College as a sopho- 
more in the class of 1838, but was required to 
leave during his junior year because of a student 
prank. He subsequently entered the medical 
school of the University of Pennsylvania, from 
which he was graduated with the degree of M.D. 
in 1840. Yale later recognized his work by giv- 
ing him honorary degrees. Immediately after his 
graduation he entered the army as an assistant 
surgeon, ranking first in the competitive exami- 
nation which gave him admission, and served in 
Florida and on the Canadian frontier. He re- 
signed from the army in 1845, an d settled in New 
York City, where he soon built up a large prac- 
tice, and became a member of the surgical staff 
of Bellevue Hospital. From 185 1 to 1852 he was 
professor of genito-urinary organs and venereal 
diseases in the Medical Department of the Uni- 



versity of the City of New York. From 1852 to 
1866 he was professor of anatomy. He was ap- 
pointed professor of surgery in Bellevue Hos- 
pital Medical College in 1866 and retained this 
position until his death. This hospital was origi- 
nally the medical department of the New York 
, City almshouse, of which Johannes Van Beuren, 
was the first director. He was one of the visiting 
surgeons of the New York Hospital from 1852 
to 1865, afterwards one of its consulting sur- 
geons, and in 1876 was made president of its 
medical board. He was also for many years on 
the consulting staff of the Bellevue, Women's, 
Presbyterian, and other hospitals. In 1859 he 
was elected vice-president of the New York 
Academy of Medicine. 

During the Civil War he was a member of the 
standing Executive Committee of the United 
States Sanitary Commission, which received and 
distributed during the war $5,000,000 in money 
and $15,000,000 in supplies. He declined an ap- 
pointment as surgeon-general of the United 
States Army. At the close of the war he suffered 
a serious illness from which he finally recovered. 
He traveled for some time in Europe, and upon 
his return gave up most of his visiting practice 
and devoted himself to consultations, literary 
work, and to the preparation of his lectures. In 
collaboration with C. E. Isaacs, he translated 
Bernard and Huette's Illustrated Manual of Op- 
erative Surgery and Surgical Anatomy (1852) 
and C. B. Morel's Compendium of Human His- 
tology (1861). He also published Contributions 
to Practical Surgery (1865), Lectures Upon 
Diseases of the Rectum (1870"), which went 
through many editions, and, with E. L. Keyes, 
published A Practical Treatise on the Surgical 
Diseases of the Genito-Urinary Organs, Includ- 
ing Syphilis (1874). A bibliography of his works 
is included in the Index-Catalogue of the Library 
of the Surgeon-General's Office, United States 
Army, volume XV ( 1894). He was married on 
Nov. 8, 1842, to Louisa Dunmore Mott, eldest 
daughter of the well-known surgeon, Valentine 
Mott [q.v.]. They had three children, of whom 
two daughters survived him. 

[H. A. Kelly, W. L. Burrage, Am. Medic. Biogs. 
(1920) ; William Jones, "The Van Beuren Family of 
New York and New Jersey," N. Y . Geneal. and Biog. 
Record, Jan. 1932 ; a memorial address by E. L. Keyes, 
printed in the N. Y. Medic. Jour., Apr. 14, 1883 ; R. J. 
Carlisle, An Account of Bellevue Hospital (1893); 
Obit. Records of Grads. of Yale Univ., 1880-90 ( 1890) ; 
N. Y. Times, N. Y. Evening Post, Mar. 26, 1883.] 

W.J. 

VANCE, AP MORGAN (May 24, 1854-Dec. 
9, 1915), orthopedic surgeon, was born in Nash- 
ville, Tenn., the son of Morgan Brown and Su- 



l S7 



Vance 

san Preston (Thompson) Vance. He attended 
rural schools in Tennessee and the public schools 
and Moss Academy at New Albany, Ind., to 
which place the family moved in 1868. Entering 
the medical department of the University of 
Louisville in 1876, he was graduated in 1878. 
Through association with Dr. David W. Yan- 
dell [q.Z'.~\, one of the foremost surgeons of the 
city, he was influenced to undertake a thorough 
study of anatomy and a career in surgery. After 
graduation he obtained a resident internship in 
the Hospital for Ruptured and Crippled Chil- 
dren in New York City. Having a natural me- 
chanical bent, he devised and improved apparatus 
for crippled limbs and diseased spines, which 
with little change are in current use ; this work 
he continued throughout his career. 

Returning to Louisville in 1881, he elected to 
confine his practice to surgery and became the 
first exclusive practitioner of this specialty in 
Kentucky. This departure from established cus- 
tom caused criticism, which, however, soon died 
out. While his chief interest was in orthopedic 
surgery, this branch was too limited a specialty 
for the Louisville of that period, and he accepted 
whatever surgery came his way. For years he 
had the largest operating practice in Louisville. 
His greatest contribution to surgery was his im- 
provement of the operation of osteotomy for the 
correction of deformity of long bones of the ex- 
tremities. He advocated and perfected a bloodless 
subcutaneous operation by means of a small 
chisel inserted through a minute incision of the 
skin ("Femoral Osteotomy," New York Medi- 
cal Journal, Dec. 1, 1888). He also improved the 
procedure of tenotomy for the treatment of con- 
genital clubfoot. The ingenuity and manual dex- 
terity that enabled him to produce orthopedic 
apparatus made him an outstanding surgical 
technician. His skill, together with accurate 
judgment of indications for operation, brought 
unusual success to his surgical practice. He 
adopted asepsis from its inception and was an 
early advocate of operative treatment for ap- 
pendicitis. Though frequently offered teaching 
positions, he refused them in order to devote his 
time to clinical practice. He did, however, exert 
a powerful influence upon the surgical thought 
of the city through the internes of the hospital 
with which he was connected. He was the medi- 
cal representative upon the commission which 
built the Louisville City Hospital and was re- 
sponsible for its plans and scope; he was the 
prime mover in the organization and construc- 
tion of the Children's Free Hospital ; and served 
them both as attending surgeon, as he did, also, 
the hospital of SS. Mary and Elizabeth. For 



Vance 

thirty-five years he was surgeon to the Masonic 
Widows and Orphans Home. 

He was active in every movement which in- 
volved the local profession and a constant at- 
tendant upon the meetings of the county and state 
societies, both of which he served as president. 
He was a member of the Southern Surgical and 
Gynecological Association, the American Asso- 
ciation of Gynecology and Obstetrics, and the 
American Orthopedic Association, and was a 
fellow of the American College of Surgeons. 
His writings were confined to journal articles, 
mainly on the subject of orthopedic surgery. An 
invalidism from nephritis limited his activities 
for two years before his death, which occurred 
at his home in Louisville. His memory is kept 
alive by a ward bearing his name, endowed by 
popular subscription, in the Children's Free 
Hospital, for which he had done so much in his 
lifetime. He was married in 1885 to Mary Jo- 
sephine Huntoon of Louisville, daughter of Dr. 
B. B. Huntoon, superintendent of the Kentucky 
Institute for the Blind ; they had eight children. 

[Am. Jour, of Obstetrics, Mar. 1917; Jour. Am. 
Medic. Asso., Dec. 18, 19 15 ; Ky. Medic. Jour., Apr. 
1, 1916; Courier- Journal (Louisville), Dec. 10, 1915; 
Evening Post (Louisville), Dec. 9, 1915; H. A. Kelly 
and W. L. Burrage, Am. Medic. Biogs. (1920).] 

J. M. P— n. 

VANCE, ZEBULON BAIRD (May 13, 1830- 
Apr. 14, 1894)., governor of North Carolina, 
senator, son of David Vance, a farmer and coun- 
try merchant, and Mira Margaret Baird, was 
born in Buncombe County, N. C. After attend- 
ing the neighborhood schools, he went to Wash- 
ington College, Tenn. (1843-44), but withdrew 
upon the death of his father, who left a widow 
and eight children. Later, he studied law at the 
University of North Carolina (1851-52). He 
received his county-court license in 1852, settled 
at Asheville, and was immediately elected county 
solicitor. In 1853 he was admitted to practice in 
the superior court. He was never a close student 
of the law and such success as he won at the bar 
was as an advocate. With the crude, unlettered 
farmers of his mountain circuit from whom the 
jurors were drawn, ready wit, broad humor, 
quick repartee, and boisterous eloquence were 
indispensable to success, and in the use of these 
weapons Vance was unsurpassed. 

Politics, not the law, was his major interest. 
Having been reared in "devotion to the Federal 
Union" (application for pardon, June 3, 1865), 
he began his political career as a Henry Clay 
Whig. Upon the dissolution of the Whig party, 
he declined to follow some of his fellow Whigs 
into the Democratic party, which he believed to 
be saturated with a "bitter spirit of disunion," 



58 



Vance 

and aligned himself with the newly organized 
American party. He served one term (1854) in 
the North Carolina House of Commons. Elected 
to the 35th and 36th congresses, he served from 
Dec. 7, 1858, to Mar. 3, 1861. His congressional 
career was characterized by support of Union 
measures and opposition to the disunion senti- 
ment then arising in the South. He was elected 
to the 37th Congress but was prevented from tak- 
ing his seat by the secession of North Carolina. 

In the presidential election of i860, Vance 
supported the Bell and Everett ticket. He came 
out of the campaign with a reputation as a mas- 
terly stump speaker. Though upholding the con- 
stitutional right of secession, before April 1861 
he opposed the exercise of the right for any cause 
then existing but favored calling a state conven- 
tion as a means of "demanding terms of the 
Northern people" and of making "our voices 
heard among the Southern states whose course 
is rapidly inoculating the people with dogmas 
which we cannot approve" (letter of Jan. 9, 
1861, in Raleigh Register, Jan. 16, 1861). The 
convention was defeated by popular vote but 
Vance continued his campaign against secession 
until Lincoln's call for troops. Thereupon he 
promptly reversed his position and urged North 
Carolina to support the other Southern states. 
On May 20, a state convention, called by the leg- 
islature, adopted an ordinance of secession. In 
the meantime, Vance had organized at Asheville 
(May 4) a company of "Rough and Ready 
Guards" of which he was elected captain. Dur- 
ing the summer of 186 1 he was on active duty 
with his company along the North Carolina 
coast. In August, he was elected colonel of the 
26th North Carolina Regiment and led it with 
conspicuous gallantry in the New Bern cam- 
paign and in the Seven Days' battle near Rich- 
mond. 

In the state election of 1862, the Confederate 
administration, which had become unpopular in 
North Carolina, furnished the chief issues. For 
governor, the Confederate party, as the Demo- 
crats then called themselves, nominated William 
Johnston, an "original secessionist" ; the Con- 
servatives, composed chiefly of old-line Union 
Whigs, led by W. W. Holden \_q.v.~\, editor of 
the North Carolina Standard and a caustic critic 
of the Davis administration, selected Vance. Ac- 
cepting the nomination, Vance pledged himself 
to "the prosecution of the war at all hazards and 
to the utmost extremity" (letter of acceptance, 
June 16, 1862, Dowd, post, p. 67). Despite this 
positive statement, the Raleigh Register, organ 
of the Confederate party, denounced his action 
as disloyal, dubbed him "the Yankee candidate," 



Vance 

and warned the people that the North would ac- 
cept his election as "an indisputable sign that 
the Union sentiment is in the ascendancy in the 
heart of the Southern Confederacy" (quoted in 
S. A. Ashe, History of North Carolina, II, 1925, 
p. 738). He won by an unprecedented majority, 
was inaugurated Sept. 8, and in his inaugural 
address committed his administration to a vig- 
orous war policy. Unfortunately the Richmond 
government chose to accept the Confederate par- 
ty's misrepresentation of Vance's position and 
thus laid the basis for most of the controversies 
it had with him during his two administrations. 

In his efforts to keep the North Carolina regi- 
ments recruited to their full strength, to equip 
and provision them, and to sustain the morale of 
the civilian population, Vance was handicapped 
by the critical, if not hostile, attitude of the Con- 
federate administration. Its officials charged him 
with deliberately obstructing the enforcement of 
the conscription acts. Vance certainly thought 
them "harsh and odious," and probably uncon- 
stitutional, and insisted that it was for the courts, 
not the conscription officers, to determine that 
question. He refused to permit the conscription 
of state officials and demanded that military of- 
ficers respect the writ of habeas corpus when 
issued by a proper court. Afterwards he made it 
his "proudest boast" that during his administra- 
tion no man in North Carolina was denied the 
privilege of the great writ, the right of trial by 
jury, or the equal protection of the law. He tried 
in vain to explain to President Davis that his 
policy was designed to mitigate as far as pos- 
sible the severities of the law that it might be 
enforced among an "unwilling people" (Dowd, 
p. 92). Though critical of their administration 
of the law, Vance gave the conscription officers 
his full support in every effort to enforce it that 
he thought legal. In 1864 he wrote to the Presi- 
dent that its enforcement in the state had been 
"ruthless and unrelenting" {Ibid., pp. 91-93), 
and the fact that 18,585 North Carolina con- 
scripts were enrolled in the Confederate armies 
by September 1864 seems to justify his state- 
ment (Ashe, History of North Carolina, II, 776) . 

By 1863 the North Carolina mountains were 
filled with evaders of conscription and soldiers 
from practically every Confederate state. To the 
Confederate authorities these men were "de- 
serters" and deserved no consideration ; to Vance, 
they were "absentees" who should be "persuad- 
ed" to return to their duty. Accordingly, in Jan- 
uary by proclamation he offered a pardon to all 
North Carolina soldiers who should return to 
their regiments by a stated date. His proclama- 
tion, reported a colonel, "has brought in a great 



159 



Vance 

many stragglers, deserters, or other absentees 
that never would have otherwise come in" (Ibid., 
II, 807). Vance himself wrote in a private let- 
ter: "Deserters are pouring thro' [Raleigh] in 
hundreds, really, to their colors" (To E. J. Hale, 
Oct. 26, 1863, Hale Papers). 

To supplement the inadequate resources of the 
state, Vance procured from the legislature of 
1862-63 an appropriation of $2,324,000 for the 
purchase of cotton and naval stores to be ex- 
changed for supplies abroad, sent agents to Eng- 
land to make purchases, and organized a fleet of 
swift steamers to run the blockade into the port 
of Wilmington. They were distributed chiefly 
to North Carolina soldiers and civilians, but 
"large quantities were [also] turned over to the 
Confederate Government for the troops for other 
states." In a single shipment in 1863, for in- 
stance, Vance sent 14,000 uniforms to Long- 
street's army in Tennessee (Vance, The Last 
Days of the War in North Carolina, 1885, pp. 
28-29. For the best account of these operations 
see D. H. Hill, North Carolina in the War Be- 
tivecn the States, 1926, vol. I, ch. x). The Con- 
federate government disapproved of Vance's 
blockade-running operations and offered "down- 
right opposition" to them (Vance to Seddon, 
Jan. 7, 1864, in Dowd, post, pp. 89-90). Never- 
theless, these operations not only supplied the 
soldiers but also caught the imagination of the 
people and greatly strengthened their morale. 

By 1863, Holden had become convinced that 
the struggle for Southern independence was hope- 
less and inaugurated a campaign for peace and 
the restoration of the Union. At first he advo- 
cated peace through negotiations by the Con- 
federate government with the United States gov- 
ernment, but failing to move President Davis, he 
shifted his position to a demand for peace by 
separate state action. The movement received 
widespread support and Holden counted on its 
popularity to force Vance to take the leadership. 
But Vance proved unexpectedly independent, de- 
clared his inflexible opposition to the scheme, 
and on it broke with Holden. Thereupon Holden 
announced his candidacy for governor in 1864. 
The issue, he declared, was simply peace or war. 
Accepting the issue as thus defined, Vance threw 
himself into the campaign with all his vigor. 
Hitherto Holden's pen had been the most effec- 
tive political weapon in the state ; it was now 
matched by one which proved even more power- 
ful — the oratory of Vance. Vance was elected 
by an overwhelming majority, and thus held the 
great mass of North Carolinians to the support 
of a cause which most of them felt to be contrary 
to their real interests. In 1865, certain Confed- 

I 



Vance 

erate congressmen and senators, unable to per- 
suade President Davis to open peace negotiations 
with the United States government, agreed upon 
a plan of peace by separate state action and se- 
lected North Carolina to lead the way. At their 
request, William A. Graham [q.v.~] laid their 
plan before Vance, but Vance flatly refused to 
have anything to do with it. If other states were 
whipped, he said, let them say so ; as for himself, 
he declined to have his state "lead the roll of 
infamy" (Vance to Mrs. Spencer, Apr. 27, 1866, 
in Cornelia P. Spencer Papers). 

When Sherman approached Raleigh in April 
1865, Vance attempted to negotiate with him 
with a view to procuring his recognition of the 
state government. Failing, and being erroneously 
informed that Sherman intended to arrest him 
as a political prisoner, Vance left Raleigh, Apr. 
12, for Charlotte to consult with President Davis 
as to his future course. After an unsatisfactory 
conference, he determined to proceed without 
further regard for the Confederate authorities 
(Dowd, p. 486). Accordingly, on May 2 at 
Greensboro, he surrendered to General Schofield, 
who directed him to join his family at States- 
ville and there await further orders. Arrested 
by order of President Johnson on his thirty-fifth 
birthday, he was sent to Washington, and im- 
prisoned in the Old Capitol Prison. He was held 
there until July 6, when he was released on 
parole. No reason was ever officially assigned 
for his arrest or his release. 

Returning to North Carolina, Vance formed 
a law partnership in Charlotte. On June 3, 1865, 
while in prison, in compliance with the Presi- 
dent's amnesty proclamation of May 29, he filed 
his application for a pardon, which was finally 
granted Mar. 11, 1867. Again free to enter poli- 
tics, he was elected in 1870 to the United States 
Senate, but after two years of vain effort to have 
his disabilities under the Fourteenth Amendment 
removed, he surrendered his certificate of elec- 
tion to the legislature on Jan. 20, 1872. Soon 
thereafter Congress removed his disabilities. At 
the next session of the legislature (1872-73), he 
was the Democratic nominee for the Senate but 
was defeated by another Democrat through a 
combination of bolting Democrats and the Re- 
publican members. 

In 1876 the Democrats girded themselves to 
overthrow the Republican regime and undo the 
work of Reconstruction, and selected Vance as 
their candidate for governor. The Republicans 
nominated Judge Thomas Settle (1831-1888), 
who challenged Vance to a joint debate. In 
Settle, Vance found the ablest opponent he had 
ever met on the stump ; but in all that makes up 

60 



Vance 



Van Cortlandt 



a great popular orator Vance was much his su- 
perior. He was elected and inaugurated Jan. i, 
1877. His administration was distinguished by 
a revival of railroad enterprises ; the stimulus it 
gave to agriculture and industry ; the enlarge- 
ment and improvement of public schools and 
charitable institutions for both races ; the repudi- 
ation of the fraudulent Reconstruction state 
bonds and the adjustment of the state's legal 
debt on a basis acceptable to its creditors. It 
marked the beginning of a new era in North 
Carolina. 

Vance served only two of the four years of his 
term. In 1879 he was again elected to the United 
States Senate and took his seat on Mar. 18. Re- 
elected in 1885 and in 1891, he served in the 
Senate until his death. His senatorial career 
added both to his fame and to his hold on his 
constituents. He was a prodigious worker, a 
diligent student of public problems, and an able 
debater. An important function of Southern 
senators in those years was to serve as mediators 
between the victorious North and the defeated 
South. In this work few senators were so effec- 
tive as Vance. His colleagues, with whom he 
was very popular, soon learned that while de- 
voted to the interests of the South, he nursed no 
bitterness toward the North. To the North, he 
was a defender and interpreter of, but never an 
apologist for, the South; upon the South, he 
urged the duty of genuine acceptance of the ver- 
dict of the war and unfeigned loyalty to the re- 
stored Union. • 

It was Vance's misfortune throughout most 
of his senatorial career to be cast in the role of 
a minority senator, whether the Republicans or 
the Democrats were in power. He was a tariff- 
for-revenue man and for many years was the 
minority leader on the finance committee. Upon 
him, in 1890, fell the chief burden of opposition 
in the Senate to the McKinley Tariff Bill. He 
was a determined opponent of the internal 
revenue system, not only because it adversely 
affected the whiskey and tobacco industries of 
his state but also because it was notoriously a 
source of frauds and political corruption. Dur- 
ing Cleveland's two administrations, he broke 
with the President on civil service reform and 
the money question. He thought the civil serv- 
ice act unconstitutional and as an ardent party 
man was indignant that the President treated his 
recommendations as to federal appointments in 
North Carolina with but scant respect. His last 
speech in the Senate was in opposition to the 
repeal of the Sherman Silver Act. He was a 
great opposition senator, but his name is not con- 
nected with any piece of constructive legislation. 



Vance's close application to his work under- 
mined his health and impaired one of his eyes. 
An operation for its removal in 1891 left him 
almost a nervous wreck. He vainly sought rest 
and health in foreign travel. In 1894 his phy- 
sician ordered a complete rest in Florida. Two 
weeks after his return to Washington he died 
at his home in that city. He was buried in Ashe- 
ville. By his first wife, Harriet N. Espy, of 
North Carolina, to whom he was married on 
Aug. 3, 1853, Vance had four sons. She died in 
1878 and in 1880 he married Mrs. Florence 
Steele Martin, of Kentucky, who survived him. 
They had no children. 

Vance was fond of books and read widely in 
history and biography. His most important ad- 
dresses and essays are : The Duties of Defeat 
(1866) ; "Address . . . before the Southern His- 
torical Society" in 1875 (Our Living and Our 
Dead, vol. Ill, no. 5, Nov. 1875 ; also Southern 
Historical Society, vol. XIV, 1886) ; The Last 
Days of the JVar in North Carolina (1885, re- 
printed in Dowd, post) ; the chapter, "Recon- 
struction in North Carolina," in H. A. Herbert, 
ed., Why the Solid South (1890). Many of his 
addresses were autobiographical in their char- 
acter. His most popular lecture, "The Scattered 
Nation," dealing with the history of the Jews, 
was delivered in almost every important city in 
the United States. Besides its reprint in Dowd 
(post) and in Shurter, Oratory of the South 
(1908), it has been published in separate edi- 
tions (1904, 1916). 

[None of the numerous biographical sketches of 
Vance is adequate. The best is contained in The Cere- 
monies Attending the Uniieiling of the Bronze Statue 
of Zebulon B. Vance . . . and the Address of Richard 
H. Battle . . . 1900 (n.d.), the address being reprinted 
in abridged form in S. A. Ashe, ed., Biog. Hist, of 
North Carolina, vol. VI (1907), pp. 477-95- The most 
pretentious biography, Clement Dowd, Life of Zebulon 
B. Vance (1897), is valuable primarily for the letters 
and speeches of Vance reprinted therein. Important 
unpublished sources are: Vance Letterbook, 1862-65 
(2 vols.) ; Executive Papers: Zebulon B. Vance, 1862- 
65 (36 boxes) ; Vance Letterbook, 1877-79 ; Zebulon 

B. Vance Papers, 1827-1902 (18 vols.); Cornelia P. 
Spencer Papers, 1859-1903 (2 vols.) ; and E. J. Hale 
Papers, 1850-67 (3 vols.), all in possession of the N. 

C. Hist. Commission at Raleigh. For a different in- 
terpretation of Vance's war policies see A. B. Moore, 
Conscription and Conflict in the Confederacy (1924), 
and F. L. Owsley, State Rights in the Confederacy 
('925)1 R. D.W. C. 

VAN CORTLANDT, OLOFF STEVEN- 
SZEN (1600-Apr. 5, 1684), prominent mer- 
chant in New Amsterdam and New York City, 
was born probably in the Netherlands, and ap- 
parently spent his youth entirely in the Dutch 
Republic. No special significance need be at- 
tached to the Scandinavian origin of his name 
and that of his father, Steven, or Stevens. Oloff 



l6l 



Van Cortlandt 

Stevenszen seems to have lived near Wijk bij 
Duurstede, in the province of Utrecht (see Rec- 
ords of the Reformed Dutch Church, post). Since 
he afterwards adopted the surname "Van Cort- 
landt" (1643), it has been plausibly surmised 
that he hailed from a very small village called 
Cortlandt, which existed at that time near Wijk 
bij Duurstede. He emigrated in the Hacring 
(Herring), serving in the capacity of a soldier 
employed by the Dutch West India Company, 
and arrived in New Amsterdam in March 1638. 
On July 1, 1640, he was appointed commissioner 
of cargoes. In 1641 he began the purchase of 
real estate; in 1643 he is mentioned as a public 
storekeeper; in 1645 he was one of the Eight 
Men, and in 1650 he presided over the Nine Men. 
He held the office of city treasurer in 1657, 1659, 
1660, 1661, and 1664; and he was burgomaster 
(mayor) from 1655 to 1660, and again in 1662 
and 1663. In 1663 he was one of the commis- 
sioners sent to Hartford to treat on the Con- 
necticut boundary. He served as deacon in the 
Reformed Church as early as 1646, while the 
more honorable office of elder was conferred 
upon him in or before 1670. He was a member 
of various committees in the city and the colony 
from 1647 to 1664, and, when in 1664 New 
Amsterdam became New York, he was chosen to 
negotiate with the English. Under the new gov- 
ernment he acted as alderman in 1665, 1667, 
1670, and 1672. In 1667 he was deputy mayor. 
During the last ten years of his life he was 
rated as the fourth richest person in the colony 
(O'Callaghan, Documents, post, II, 699-700). 
Part of his wealth he owed to his wife, Anneken 
Loockermans, a native of Turnhout in the Span- 
ish Netherlands (now Belgium), whom he mar- 
ried on Feb. 26, 1642. Van Cortlandt dealt in 
miscellaneous merchandise, owned a brewery on 
Brewer (or Brouwer) Street, and helped finance 
various commercial ventures. He was a hard- 
headed business man. When he saw fit, he did 
not hesitate to oppose such personages as the 
Rev. Evarardus Bogardus and Governor Stuyve- 
sant [qq.f.~\ ; and on one occasion at least he re- 
fused to permit the tax collector, Paulus van der 
Beeck, to visit his wine cellar (The Records of 
New Amsterdam, post, II, 234). The progenitor 
of one of the most prominent families in the 
American colonies, he was the father of seven 
children, of whom the eldest, Stephanus [g.v.], 
and the youngest, Jacobus, achieved especial dis- 
tinction. His daughter Maria, who married 
Jeremias Van Rensselaer, was present at his 
death ; he still appeared in good health and died 
"while in his prayers" (Correspondence of Maria 
Van Rensselaer, post, p. 173). Tn addition to his 



Van Cortlandt 

interesting coat of arms, there are two memo- 
rials which attest his opulence and sagacity. One 
is Van Cortlandt Manor, near Croton, built by 
his son Stephanus ; the other, Van Cortlandt 
Park, at the northern extremity of New York 
City, is a symbol of the wealth in real estate 
amassed by him and his son Jacobus. 

[L. E. De Forest, The Van Cortlandt Family (1930), 
with excellent bibliog. ; Records of the Reformed Dutch 
Church in New Amsterdam and New York, Marriages 
(1890), ed. by S. S. Purple; The Records of New 
Amsterdam from 1653 to 1674 (7 vols., 1897), ed. by 
Berthold Fernow ; E. B. O'Callaghan, ed., Calendar of 
Hist. MSS., vols. I— II (1865-66), and Docs. Rel. to 
the Col. Hist, of N. Y., vols. I— II (1856-58) ; A. J. F. 
van Laer, ed., N. Y. State Lib., Van Rensselaer Bowier 
MSS. (1908), Correspondence of Jeremias Van Rens- 
selaer (1932), Correspondence of Maria Van Rens- 
selaer, 1669-1689 (1935)-] A. H. 

VAN CORTLANDT, PHILIP (Aug. 21, 
1749-Nov. 5, 1831), Revolutionary officer, mem- 
ber of Congress, was the eldest son of Pierre 
[q.z'.] and Joanna (Livingston) Van Cortlandt. 
He was born in New York City a few months 
before his parents established their residence at 
the manor-house near Croton. As a boy he at- 
tended a small school which his father main- 
tained on the estate. At the age of fifteen he was 
sent to Coldenham Academy, where he spent a 
term of nine months studying mathematics, sur- 
veying, and bookkeeping. This concluded his 
formal schooling, but he gained practical experi- 
ence in surveying by working with Nathaniel 
Merritt, one of his father's employees. Until the 
outbreak of the Revolutionary War he was en- 
gaged in surveying and disposing of tracts of 
land which had once been part of the manor of 
Cortlandt, and in operating several gristmills 
for his father. 

During the year 1775 he made the transition 
from the position of the moderate Whigs to that 
of the revolutionary radicals. He was a member 
of the Provincial Convention, which met at the 
Exchange in New York City on Apr. 20, 1775, 
and the following month was chosen as one of 
Westchester County's representatives in the 
First Provincial Congress. On June 18 he ac- 
cepted a commission as lieutenant-colonel of the 
4th New York Regiment, but severe illness pre- 
vented him from participating in Montgomery's 
expedition against Montreal. After serving on 
Washington's staff for a short time, he received 
a commission as colonel of the reorganized 2nd 
New York and joined his regiment at Trenton 
on the day following the battle. He was assigned 
to duty at Peekskill, started a march to the re- 
lief of Fort Stanwix (August 1777), but was 
ordered back east to assist Gates's army at Sara- 
toga. Rejoining Washington's forces, he was at 

62 



Van Cortlandt 

Valley Forge, was detached temporarily from 
his command to supervise the encampment in 
the spring of i//8, and then returned to his regi- 
ment in Ulster County, where he was stationed 
until April 1779. His effective cooperation with 
the Sullivan-Clinton expedition won him high 
praise. He was a member of the court martial 
which heard charges preferred by Pennsylvania 
authorities against Benedict Arnold, and he felt 
that Arnold should have been dismissed from the 
service. In the spring of 1780 he was sent to 
Fort Edward and later in the year was trans- 
ferred to the post at Schenectady, where the 
2nd, 4th, and 5th New York regiments were 
consolidated under his command. In June 1781 
Washington ordered him to join the Continental 
forces on the lower Hudson in time to take an 
active part in the campaign which culminated in 
the surrender of Cornwallis. He was brevetted 
brigadier-general in 1783 for his conspicuous 
bravery and resourcefulness at Yorktown. 

He was elected a delegate to the Poughkeepsie 
convention in 1788 and joined with the Federal- 
ists in voting to ratify the Federal Constitution. 
His subsequent political activity, however, re- 
flected his conversion to Anti-Federalist prin- 
ciples. He served twice in the state Assembly 
(1788, 1790) and in the state Senate from 1791 
to 1793. In December of the latter year he took 
his seat in the House of Representatives, be- 
ginning a period of service in Congress which 
continued for sixteen years. During his legis- 
lative career he seldom spoke on any measure 
before the House, but he was punctilious in the 
performance of his committee and other duties. 
The record of his votes indicates that he soon 
joined the Jeffersonian faction and that, when 
the Republican party came into power, he proved 
to be a reliable partisan who voted for party 
measures as a matter of course. In his sixtieth 
year he withdrew from politics and spent the 
remainder of his life managing his extensive 
real-estate holdings. The manor-house became 
his residence after his father's death in 1814. 
Although he had never married, he carried on 
the tradition of generous hospitality which had 
been established at Croton by his grandfather, 
Philip. Public affairs took little of his time, but 
he emerged from his retirement in 1824 to honor 
Lafayette, accompanying his friend on a large 
part of the country-wide tour. He died at the 
manor-house on Nov. 5, 183 1, and was buried in 
Hillside Cemetery, Peekskill. 

[An autobiog. fragment found in Van Cortlandt's 
papers was printed in Mag. of Am. Hist., May 1878. See 
also L. E. De Forest, The Van Cortlandt Family 
(1930) ; Helen L. B. Parmelee, in N. Y. Gcncal. and 
Biog. Record, July 1874; J. T. Scharf, Hist, of West- 

l6 



Van Cortlandt 

Chester County, vol. II (1886), pp. 42^-56; E. A. Wer- 
ner, Civil List . . . of N. Y. (1889) ; T. H. Benton, 
Abridgement of the Debates of Cong., vols. I-IV 
(i8S7) ; John Schuyler, Institution of the Order of the 
Cincinnati (1886), pp. 319-21, on Van Cortlandt's 
death. A portrait by A. U. Wertmuller, painted in 
1795, is in the coll. of Thomas B. Clarke of New York. | 

J.A.K. 

VAN CORTLANDT, PIERRE (Jan. 10, 
1721-JVIay 1, 1814), first lieutenant-governor of 
the State of New York, born at New York City, 
was the youngest son of Philip and Catharine 
(De Peyster) Van Cortlandt, and a grandson of 
Stephanus Van Cortlandt \_q.v.~\. Little is known 
concerning his youth beyond the fact that he 
spent considerable time with his brothers at the 
manor-house near Croton. On May 28, 1748, he 
married his second cousin, Joanna Livingston, 
whose father, Gilbert, had been heir to a large 
part of the property of Robert Livingston \_q.v.], 
first lord of Livingston manor. He established 
his new home on Stone Street, New York City, 
where his first son, Philip [q.v.~\, was born, but 
he moved in September 1749 to Croton and oc- 
cupied the remodelled manor-house which he had 
just inherited under the terms of his father's 
will. There he became deeply interested in the 
management of his farms and mills, and found 
great enjoyment in hunting and fishing. His 
home was famous even beyond the borders of 
the province for its generous hospitality. 

Although he accepted a commission in the 
provincial militia, and marched to the relief of 
Albany during the French and Indian War, his 
public career did not begin until 1768, when he 
was elected to the seat in the Assembly which 
had originally been assigned to the manor of 
Cortlandt. In the Assembly he was inclined to 
follow the leadership of the Livingstons. He 
was no defender of the royal prerogative and 
the "court party" of the De Lanceys received 
scant support from him, but the intensification 
of the quarrel with Great Britain caused him, 
like many other moderate Whigs, to hesitate. 
The Loyalists sent Governor Tryon in the au- 
tumn of 1774 to urge upon him the honors and 
emoluments which would be his if he refused to 
join the "rebels"; he declined, however, to give 
the governor any assurances. On Oct. 19, 1775. 
he accepted a commission from the provincial 
congress as colonel of the 3rd Regiment of West- 
chester militia. He was a member of the second, 
third, and fourth provincial congresses, became 
an energetic leader of the Committee of Safety 
in 1776, and served as president of the Council 
of Safety during its brief existence in 1777. He 
presided over the sessions of the convention 
which drafted New York's first constitution and, 

3 



Van Cortlandt 



Van Cortlandt 



with the establishment of the new state govern- 
ment (1777), became lieutenant-governor, a po- 
sition to which he was periodically reelected for 
eighteen years. Although he was a loyal fol- 
lower of George Clinton, 1739-1812 \_q.vJ], in 
politics, his partisanship was never offensive, 
and he was universally praised for the dignity 
and impartiality with which he conducted the 
sessions of the state Senate. His continuous and 
vigorous service in public office was an impor- 
tant factor in enabling New York to play an ef- 
fective part in the struggle for independence. 

Pleading illness in 1795, Van Cortlandt with- 
drew from public life. His retirement ended his 
service on the board of regents of the University 
of the State of New York, to which he had been 
named in 1784. The remaining nineteen years 
of his life were devoted to the affairs of his Cro- 
ton estate. The many visitors to the manor-house 
found him a tall, patriarchal gentleman, affable 
and courteous in the manner of the old school of 
landed aristocrats. He was deeply religious. Al- 
though a member of the Dutch Reformed Church, 
he manifested an increasing interest in the work 
of the Methodists. Bishop Francis Asbury, 
Freeborn Garrettson, Woolman Hickson, and 
other Methodist leaders were frequently guests 
in his home. He gave the land and subscribed to 
the building fund for the local Methodist meet- 
ing-house, and set aside each year after 1805 a 
certain grove on his estate for Methodist camp- 
meetings which he was eager to attend. He died 
at the manor-house in his ninety-fourth year 
and was buried in the family cemetery on the 
estate. 

[See L. E. De Forest, The Van Cortlandt Family 
(1930) ; J. B. Wakeley, in Ladies' Repository, Dec. 
1866, pp. 705-10 ; Journals of the Provincial Cong. . . . 
of N. V. (1842) ; E. A. Werner, Civil List . . .of N.Y. 
(1889); Robert Bolton, A Hist, of the County of 
Westchester (2 vols., 1848); J. T. Scharf, Hist, of 
Westchester County (1886), vol. II, pp. 423-36; death 
notice in iV. Y. Gazette & General Advertiser, May 
12, 1 814. There is an excellent portrait by John Wes- 
ley Jarvis in the possession of Miss Anne S. Van 
Cortlandt at the manor-house.] j a. K. 

VAN CORTLANDT, STEPHANUS (May 
7, 1643-Nov. 25, 1700), merchant and colonial 
official, eldest son of Oloff Stevenszen Van Cort- 
landt \_q.v.~\ and Annetje (or Anneken) Loock- 
ermans, was born in his father's substantial 
house on Brouwer Street, New Amsterdam. His 
formal education was acquired in the school es- 
tablished by the Dutch Church. Under his fa- 
ther's astute guidance, however, he quickly be- 
came proficient in commercial affairs. Before 
he was twenty-one, he was executing commis- 
sions for Jan Baptist Van Rensselaer of Amster- 
dam and exchanging wine, duffels, and blankets 



for the beaver skins which his brother-in-law, 
Jeremias Van Rensselaer, sent down the Hud- 
son from Albany. These mercantile ventures 
were not interrupted by the English conquest of 
New Netherland, for Stephanus soon found favor 
with the new officials, who were not above con- 
niving with him in importing goods contrary to 
the Acts of Trade (O'Callaghan, Documents, 
post, III, 307-08). He had already acquired a 
considerable estate when he married (Sept. 10, 
1671) Gertrude, daughter of Philip P. Schuyler 
of Albany. 

Van Cortlandt's public career was long and 
notable. Commissioned an ensign of militia in 
Kings County in 1668, he was regularly promot- 
ed until he reached the rank of colonel. Sir Ed- 
mund Andros [q.z:] summoned him (1674) to 
membership in the governor's council, and the 
instructions of every governor from Dongan to 
Bellomont contained his name as a councilor. 
In 1677 he became, by appointment from Gov- 
ernor Andros, the first native-born mayor of the 
city of New York, a position, to which he was 
again appointed in 1686 and 1687. When the 
Dominion of New England was created he was 
named as one of the forty-two councilors to 
serve under Andros. This close association with 
the scheme of James II to establish centralized 
royal control in the northern colonies placed him 
in an embarrassing position when news reached 
New York that the "glorious revolution" had 
driven the king from his throne. As a ranking 
provincial councilor and mayor of the city of 
New York, Van Cortlandt endeavored for a time 
to restrain the rebellious groups which accepted 
the leadership of Capt. Jacob Leisler [g.fc'.J, but 
he was not sufficiently resourceful to maintain 
public confidence in the integrity of the pro- 
vincial government. Leisler maliciously accused 
him of being "papist," defied his authority as a 
councilor, and finally compelled him to flee for 
his life. During his enforced absence from his 
home he wrote plaintively to Andros, then in 
England, concerning his many misfortunes. 
With an eye to the future he urged his friend 
to present his case to Auditor General Blath- 
wayt in order that he might "get here the Col- 
lectors place or at least that commission off audi- 
tor with a certaine sallary may bee confirmed 
unto me" (Ibid., Ill, 650). His opportunity for 
revenge came when he was designated a member 
of the council under the new governor, Henry 
Sloughter. Supported by Frederick Philipse and 
Nicholas Bayard [qq.v.~\, he vigorously pushed 
the prosecution of Leisler on charges of treason 
and persuaded the governor, who was inclined 
to hesitate, that the condemned man should be 



64 



Van Cortlandt 

executed at once. However timorous he had 
heen in dealing with Leisler, the rebel, he did not 
lack assurance in disposing of Leisler, the con- 
demned. 

Throughout his career Van Cortlandt was 
closely associated with the amorphous juris- 
prudence of the provincial courts. After 1677 he 
presided at intervals over the mayor's court in 
the city of New York. Occasionally he was a 
member of the admiralty courts ad hoc, which 
antedated the creation by the British government 
in 1697 of the vice admiralty for the dominions. 
For several years (1688-91) he was a judge of 
the court of oyer and terminer which sat in 
Kings County, and he served as councilor dur- 
ing the period when the governor's council con- 
stituted a court of chancery. When the supreme 
court of the province was established by the 
judiciary act of 1691, he was named an asso- 
ciate justice, serving until his elevation to the 
post of chief justice, which occurred less than a 
month before his death. 

The royal governors constantly summoned 
him to administrative as well as judicial posts. 
Under Gov. Benjamin Fletcher he became an 
important adviser on Indian relations, accom- 
panying the governor in 1693 to the conference 
at Albany with sachems of the Five Nations 
which was designed to preserve the Iroquois 
alliance during King William's War. In 1698 
he was appointed commissioner of customs and 
collector of revenues in recognition of the serv- 
ices which he had rendered a decade earlier 
in handling the provincial revenues for Gov. 
Thomas Dongan [q.v.]. But he failed to satisfy 
Lord Bellomont [q.v.~], who wrote in 1700 to the 
Board of Trade that the new collector "gives a 
just account of all the money that comes to his 
hands, but he is grown very crazy and infirm, 
and is a very timorous man. In a word he has 
never yet made any seizure since his being Col- 
lector and I believe never would if he were 50 
years to come, in that post" (Ibid., IV, 721). 
The governor might have softened these harsh 
words had he been aware that at the very mo- 
ment he sent off the report his receiver of reve- 
nues had been stricken by a fatal illness. 

Like most of the provincial councilors of his 
generation, Stephanus Van Cortlandt used his 
official position to secure large grants of land. 
In 1677 Governor Andros issued a general 
license authorizing him to purchase from the In- 
dians such tracts as he might desire. Apparent- 
ly the first purchase under the license was made 
in 1683 and included the region on the east bank 
of the Hudson "at the entering of the highlands 
just over against Haverstraw." Several years 

165 



Van Curler 

later he received from Governor Dongan a pat- 
ent for the lands immediately north of his 
original purchase. These two tracts, somewhat 
extended by additional negotiations with the In- 
dians in 1695, were erected into the manor of 
Cortlandt by a royal patent, dated June 17, 1697, 
which endowed the manor lord with the usual 
legal rights and emoluments and the special 
privilege, included in only two other grants, of 
sending a representative to the provincial as- 
sembly. Van Cortlandt never resided upon his 
manor. He used the manor-house, which was a 
fort-like structure, as a hunting-lodge, trading- 
post, and office for the transaction of such ma- 
norial business as concerned the Indians who 
remained within its borders. He was the last as 
well as the first lord of his manor, for in dispos- 
ing of his property he followed the Dutch rather 
than the English custom. By the terms of his 
will his eldest son, John, was to receive the 
region of Verplanck's Point, while the remainder 
of his real estate was to be divided equally, after 
the death of his widow, among his eleven chil- 
dren. The manor lands, which according to the 
survey of 1732 included 87,713 acres, were not 
finally divided among the legal heirs until 1753. 

[L. E. De Forest, The Van Cortlandt Family (1030) ; 
A Jour. Kept by Coll. Stephen Courfland & Coll. Nich. 
Beyard ( 1693) ; Correspondence of Jercmias Van Rens- 
selaer, 1651-1674 (1932), ed. by A. J. F. van Laer ; E. 
B. O'Callaghan, ed., Docs. Rcl. to the Col. Hist, of . . . 
N. Y., vols. III-IV (1853-54). Calendar of Hist. MSS., 
vol. II (1866), and Documentary Hist, of the State of 
N. Y., vols. I, II (1849) ; N. Y. Hist. Soc. Colls., Pub- 
lication Fund Ser., vol. I (1868) ; J. R. Brodhead, Hist, 
of the State of N. Y., vol. II (1871) ; G. W. Schuyler^ 
Colonial New York (2 vols., 1885) ; Mariana G. Van 
Rensselaer, Hist, of the City of N. Y. in the Seven- 
teenth Century {2 vols., 1909) ; E. F. De Lancey, Origin 
and Hist, of Manors in the Proi'ince of N. Y. (1886), 
reprinted from J. T. Scharf, Hist, of Westchester Coun- 
ty, N. Y. (1886), vol. I, pp. 31-160.] J.A.K. 

VAN CURLER, ARENT (1620-July 1667), 
colonist, was born at Nykerk, in the Nether- 
lands, and was baptized Feb. 6, 1620. According 
to one account he was the son of Hendrik, and 
according to another, of Joachim van Curler 
(Van Rensselaer Bozvicr Manuscripts, post, p. 
78, note 34) ; he was a grand-nephew of Kiliaen 
van Rensselaer, the first patroon of Rens- 
selaerswyck on the upper Hudson in New Neth- 
erland. In his eighteenth year he came to New 
Netherland as assistant to the commissary of 
Rensselaerswyck ; later he was secretary and 
bookkeeper. In 1641 he received the title of com- 
mis and assumed full representative authority in 
government and trade, with some judicial pow- 
ers. The tenant farmers of Rensselaerswyck, 
unskilled in New World agriculture, were sup- 
plied by the patroon with houses, capital and al! 



Van Curler 



Van Dam 



the facilities of production. In addition to duties 
connected with these allotments, the commis had 
responsibilities relating to the breeding of horses 
and cattle, the care of a growing fur trade, and 
the fostering of an export trade along the At- 
lantic coast. 

Exact accounts of all transactions were to be 
sent to the patroons. A sharp reminder from 
Amsterdam that reports were deficient and in 
arrears {Van Rensselaer Bowier Manuscripts, 
pp. 658-68) brought from Van Curler the letter 
of June 16, 1643 ( O'Callaghan, History, post, I, 
456-65), in which some of the difficulties at- 
tending the experiment of absentee farming in 
the wilds of New Netherland were pointed out. 
Van Curler complained that Adriaen van der 
Donck [q.v.~\, officer of justice and schout, la- 
bored to undermine him, and betrayed the pa- 
troon's interests. Relief came when Van def 
Donck removed to his estate by the Harlem 
River. In 1644 Van Curler married Anthonia 
Slachboom, widow of Jonas Bronck ; the next 
year he visited Holland. From the second pa- 
troon, Johannes van Rensselaer, he obtained the 
lease of a farm four miles north of the present 
Albany. Desiring a more congenial field for his 
ambitions, Van Curler in 1661 procured from 
Director Petrus Stuyvesant \_q.v.~\ a license to 
purchase the Indian flat, Schonowe, on the Mo- 
hawk, to which in the following year he re- 
moved. The settlement planted there became 
Schenectady. 

Van Curler gained an enduring influence over 
the neighboring Indian tribes. He interposed 
with success to save Father Isaac Jogues [q.z>.] 
and his companions from death at the hands of 
the Mohawks. In 1660 he took part in the treaty 
which terminated the first Esopus war. At this 
period the relations of the French in Canada 
with their southern neighbors did not forbid 
exchanges of good will. In the winter of 1666, 
when Governor De Courcelle, in an ill-consid- 
ered expedition into the Mohawk country, faced 
starvation with his force, Van Curler headed a 
movement to supply them with provisions. A 
year later De Tracy, the Canadian lieutenant- 
general, sent Van Curler an invitation to visit 
him in Canada. Accompanied by several In- 
dians, Van Curler set forth by the way of Lake 
Champlain. Embarking in a small boat, he was 
overtaken by a sudden gale and was drowned. 
Perou Bay, the scene of the disaster, was long 
known as Corlaer's Bay. A more impressive 
memorial was the name, Corlaer, which the In- 
dians thereafter bestowed on the English gov- 
ernors of New York in commemoration of Van 
Curler's courage and human understanding. A 

I 



memorial tablet was dedicated in Schenectady 
in 1909. 

[For sources, see A. J. F. van Laer, in Yearbook of the 
Dutch Settlers Soc. of Albany, vol. Ill (1928) ; N. Y. 
State Lib.: Van Rensselaer Bowier MSS. (1908), 
translated and ed. by A. J. F. van Laer ; E. B. O'Cal- 
laghan, Docs. Rel. to the Colonial Hist. . . . of N. Y '., 
vol. Ill (1853), and Hist, of New Netherland (2nd ed., 
1855) ; Jonathan Pearson, A Hist, of the Schenectady 
Patent (1883); Minutes of the Court of Rens- 
selaerswyck, 1648-1652 (1922), translated and ed. by 
A. J. F. van Laer. A journal ascribed to Van Curler 
is printed in Ann. Report Am. Hist. Asso. . . . 1895 
(1896), but according to A. J. F. van Laer {Van Rens- 
selaer Bowier MSS., p. 271 ) it cannot be Van Curler's.l 

R. E. D. 
VAN DAM, RIP (c. 1660-June 10, 1749), 
merchant, colonial politician, was born in Fort 
Orange (Albany, N. Y.), of a Dutch family liv- 
ing in New Netherland before the English con- 
quest. His parents were Claas Ripse van Dam, 
a carpenter, and Maria Bords. Early in life Rip 
voyaged to Jamaica in command of the sloop 
Catharine. He subsequently embarked in trade, 
and at the age of thirty was listed among the 
merchants of New York City. He was also con- 
cerned in ship building on the North River. In 
1693 ne was elected a member of the board of 
aldermen, a station which he filled for three suc- 
cessive years, but he was not conspicuously ac- 
tive in politics until 1702. In that year the 
seizure and condemnation of some of the vessels 
in which he had investments, under Acting Gov- 
ernor Nanfan, head of the Leisler party, aroused 
his antagonism to the popular element of his day 
as well as to the unpopular navigation acts. Van 
Dam's resentment embraced the lieutenant-gov- 
ernor, the collector who seized the ships, and the 
chief justice who condemned them, and he sent 
petitions attacking- these officers to the King, but 
the trouble subsided later the same year with the 
accession of Queen Anne to the throne, the ar- 
rival of Lord Cornbury [q.v.] as Nanfan's suc- 
cessor, and the elevation of Van Dam to the 
Council. 

Van Dam was a councilor for more than thir- 
ty years. During most of this time he took no 
prominent part in controversy, though in 1713 
there was friction between Gov. Robert Hunter 
[g.?A] and the Council ; two years later the legis- 
lature approved an act for appointing a London 
agent to take notice of measures in Parliament 
injurious to the colony; and Hunter's successor, 
Gov. William Burnet [q.v.~\, had trouble with 
the Assembly. Meanwhile Van Dam built houses, 
supplied provisions for the troops, furnished 
money for the colonial treasury, and filled con- 
tracts for repairs and improvements to the royal 
fort. He also invested in forest land, being in- 



66 



Van Dam 



V andenhoff 



terested in large patents in the Hudson River 
region and the Mohawk region. 

In 1731, by the death of Gov. John Mont- 
gomerie, Van Dam as senior member and presi- 
dent of the Council became the executive head 
of the province. For thirteen months he ex- 
ercised the powers of the office and received the 
salary. Then Gov. William Cosby [q.z:] ar- 
rived, and demanded an equal division of the 
emoluments, by virtue of an order from the 
King. When Van Dam refused, inasmuch as 
Cosby's receipts from the governorship while 
still in England had been three times as great 
as the disputed salary (Smith, post, II, 4-7), 
the Governor sued in "the Equity side of the 
Exchequer." Cosby's report of his grievances 
to the home government (Documents, post, VI, 
8) described Van Dam as pleading that no such 
court as the Equity side of the Exchequer exist- 
ed, that the judges' commissions were void, and 
that '"no Supream or other Court . . . had any 
being, Jurisdiction, or authority by prescription" 
(Ibid., p. 11). Van Dam's plea was overruled; 
but he continued the war with formal charges, 
alleging that Cosby had failed to fortify the port 
against the designs of the French. Cosby com- 
plained to London, and the Lords of Trade rec- 
ommended Van Dam's dismissal from the Coun- 
cil. He was suspended by Cosby on Nov. 24, 
1735. He failed to recognize this action as re- 
moval, however, or George Clarke [q.v.] as the 
new president of the Council, and appointed 
municipal officers for New York City after 
Cosby's death in March 1736, whereupon Clarke 
issued a proclamation of warning against these 
appointments. The threat of civil war was dis- 
persed when dispatches from England brought 
recognition of Clarke as president ; his appoint- 
ment as lieutenant-governor soon followed, and 
Van Dam's public career came to an end. 

In the struggle for popular rights and against 
prerogative, Rip Van Dam won leadership with 
William Smith and James Alexander [qq.v.], 
two of the ablest men in the colony. Prolonging 
the fight into the later years of his life, he heard 
complaints of his senility issuing from quarters 
where there was more reason to complain of his 
vigor. As a councilor, he was often called upon 
to settle the disputes of the Reformed churches 
and other religious societies, a difficult task in 
view of the unsettled state of those congregations 
at that period. A disposition to conciliate and 
tranquillize marked his efforts in this field. 

Van Dam married Sara van der Spiegel in 
September 1684 and had a number of children, 
of whom two sons and three daughters reached 
maturity. One of his grand-daughters became 

167 



the wife of Robert Livingston, third proprietor 

of the Manor of Livingston. 

[Frederic De Peyster, Memoir of Rip Van Dam 
(1865) ; E. B. O'Callaghan, Docs. Rcl. to the Col. Hist, 
of ... N. Y., vols. IV-VI (1853-55) ; N. Y. State Lib. 
. . . Calendar of Council Minutes, 1668-1783 (1902) ; 
Jour, of the Legislative Council of the Colony of N. Y. 
(1861) ; J. G. Wilson, The Memorial Hist, of the City 
of N. Y., vols. II, IV ( 1892, 1893), passim; Ecclesiasti- 
cal Records: State of N. Y. (7 vols., 1901-16), ed. by 
E. T. Corwin ; William Smith, The Hist, of the Late 
Province of N. Y. (2 vols., 1829-30) ; "The Letters 
and Papers of Cadwallader Colden," N. Y. Hist. Soc. 
Colls., Pub. Fund Ser., vols. L, LI (1918-19) ; H. L. 
Osgood, The Am. Colonics in the Eighteenth Century 
(1924), vol. II; D. T. Valentine, Manual of the Cor- 
poration of the City of N. Y '., 1864, 1865, the latter 
containing a reprint of De Peyster 's Memoir and por- 
traits of Van Dam and his wife ; Calendar of N. Y. 
Colonial MSS.—Land Papers ( 1864) ; S. S. Purple, Rec- 
ords of the Reformed Dutch Church in New Amster- 
dam and N. Y.: Marriages (1890) ; Jonathan Pearson, 
Contributions to the Geneals. of the First Settlers of 
Albany (1872) ; Van Dam's will in Colls. N. Y. Hist. 
Soc, Pub. Fund Ser., vol. XXVIII (1896).] RED 

VANDENHOFF, GEORGE (1813-June 
16, 1885), actor, lawyer, was born in Liver- 
pool, England, the son of John Vandenhoff, 
a well-known actor (see The Dictionary of Na- 
tional Biography). The family, a few genera- 
tions back, had come to England from the Neth- 
erlands. Vandenhoff was educated at Stonyhurst 
College and later studied for the law. For a time 
he was solicitor to the trustees of the Liverpool 
docks. On Oct. 14, 1839, he made his stage debut 
as Leon in Beaumont and Fletcher's Ride a Wife 
and Have a Wife at Covent Garden, where he 
also acted in new plays by Leigh Hunt and Sheri- 
dan Knowles, and as Mercutio in Madame Ves- 
tris' famous revival of Romeo and Juliet. In 
1842, on Sept. 21, he made his American debut 
at the Park Theatre, New York, "as Hamlet, with 
Henry Placide [q.v.] as Polonius. Of his Ham- 
let, Porter's Spirit of the Times, Sept. 24, 1842, 
recorded, "Taken as a whole, the character has 
not been more ably performed in this city for the 
past six years." Vandenhoff followed Hamlet 
with Virginius, Macbeth, Benedick, and Claude 
Melnotte, and then began a tour which included 
the chief cities of the East and took him as far 
south as New Orleans. At the Walnut Street 
Theatre, Philadelphia, he played Rolla to the 
Elvira of Charlotte Cushman [q.v.] ; in Boston, 
where he acted for five weeks, he added Cori- 
olanus and Hotspur to his list of roles. He acted 
in New Orleans in February 1843, visited Rich- 
mond (where he acted one night with Hackett), 
Baltimore, and Philadelphia once more, where 
he played Mercutio to Charlotte Cushman's 
Romeo. In May he was back at the Park, and 
then finished his season in Boston. He had made 
little money, but many friends, and decided to 
remain in America indefinitely. 



Vandenhoff 

From 1843 to 1853 he lived in New York, act- 
ed frequently in most American cities, taught 
elocution, and gave many public readings of 
"Shakespeare, Sheridan and the Poets." In Oc- 
tober 1843 he was leading man for William C. 
Macready at the Chestnut Street Theatre, Phila- 
delphia, and he has left interesting records of 
that actor and his methods. At the Park, in 1844, 
he supported the elder Booth, and in 1846 he 
played Faulconbridge in the revival of King John 
made by Mr. and Mrs. Charles Kean. One of 
his most interesting ventures, however, was at 
Palmo's Opera House, New York, in the spring 
of 1845, where he staged an English version of 
Sophocles' Antigone, with Mendelssohn's music 
and an attempt to reproduce a Greek stage. In 
January 1853 he returned to England, where he 
acted first in Liverpool in repertory. On Oct. 
2 5» T 8S3, he reappeared in London, at the Hay- 
market, as Hamlet, highly praised by the leading 
papers. He made his great success, however, in 
what was for him a new style of part — Captain 
Cozens in Planche's Knights of the Round Table, 
a racy adventure comedy which ran fifty-four 
nights. 

At the end of the season he resolved to retire 
as soon as he could. He sailed for Boston, and 
on Aug. 20, 1855, was married in Trinity Church 
to Mary MaKeath, an American actress. They 
acted jointly in the English provinces for a 
year, and then returned to the United States. 
Shortly thereafter Vandenhoff carried out his 
plan to retire. The truth seems to be that he 
never really cared for stage life. In 1858 he was 
admitted to the New York bar and resumed the 
practice of law, but continued his popular pub- 
lic readings. His interesting volume of remi- 
niscences, Leaves from an Actor's Note Book, 
was published in i860. He had already written 
(1858) a social satire in verse, and in 1861 pub- 
lished The Art of Elocution and Life, a poem. 
In 1874 he reappeared in support of Genevieve 
Ward [<?.?'.] as Wolsey and as Gloster in Jane 
Shore. This was his last stage appearance. He 
died in Brighton, England, June 16, 1885. Van- 
denhoff was tall, graceful, scholarly, and some- 
what aloof. In his earlier years his acting was 
of the "new school" of ease and naturalness, but 
in later years he declared Irving to be "an in- 
tellectual machine with the pronunciation and 
gait of a barbarian." Junius Booth he praised 
highly, but Lawrence Barrett and John McCul- 
lough he considered to have all the faults of the 
conventional "tragedian." His own book shows 
him a man of breeding, taste, and good sense. 

[The date of birth is from the Cat. of Dramatic Por- 
traits, Harvard Theatre Coll. Other sources include 



Van Depoele 

George vandenhoff, Leaves from an Actor's Note Book 
(i860) ; G. C. D. Odell, Annals of the N. Y. Stage 
vols. IV-VII (1928-3 1 ) ; N. Y. Dramatic Mirror, Aug.' 
14, 1886.] W. P. E. 

VAN DEPOELE, CHARLES JOSEPH 

(Apr. 27, 1846-Mar. 18, 1892), scientist, inven- 
tor, pioneer in electric light and traction, was 
born in Lichtervelde, Belgium, the fourth child 
of Peter John and Marie Therese Coleta (Al- 
' goed) van de Poele. Precocious — he fashioned 
an electric light when he was fifteen years old, 
in 1 86 1 — and inspired in part by his father's work 
in the East Flanders railway shops, Van Depoele 
devoted himself early to scientific experiment. Af- 
ter attending a higher school in Poperinghe, he 
was apprenticed in 1865 to the wood-carving 
firm of Buisine-Rigot at its shops in Lille and 
Paris. In Lille he studied at the Imperial Lyceum 
and continued his preoccupation with electricity. 
In 1869 he emigrated to America and settled in 
Detroit, Mich. 

In Detroit, Van Depoele became a successful 
manufacturer of church furniture, but he soon 
began to concentrate his efforts in the field of 
electricity. As early as 1870 he exhibited arc 
lights and as early as 1874 was demonstrating 
the feasibility of electric traction by both over- 
head and underground conductors. By 1878, 
when he was visited by Edison, the old church in 
which he had finally established his shop, at 28 
Pine Street, had become famous. Styled "De- 
troit's Edison" by the Detroit Free Press on 
Nov. 13, 1878, he proceeded to work towards 
vibratory regulation for arc lights, and by July 
1879, he had demonstrated his improved lights 
publicly. Early in 1880 the Van Depoele Elec- 
tric Light Company was formed, and later in the 
year Van Depoele transferred his experiments 
in electric traction to the factory of the Detroit 
Novelty Works at Hamtramck, Mich., where he 
made tests on a half-mile track. In 1881 the Van 
Depoele Electric Light Company of Chicago was 
incorporated ; and in 1884, the Van Depoele Elec- 
tric Manufacturing Company. Meanwhile, in 
Chicago, Jan. 18, 1883, Van Depoele gave a pub- 
lic demonstration of electric traction, the current 
being furnished from two wires laid along the 
track. At the Chicago Inter-State Industrial 
Exposition early the following September he con- 
tinued with the first practical demonstration in 
the world of a spring-pressed under-running 
trolley. In 1884 and 1885 he was successful in 
Toronto with both the underground conduit and 
the overhead systems. On Nov. 14, 1885, his 
overhead system was put into operation in South 
Bend, Ind. The South Bend Tribune of Nov. 16 
ran a proud headline: "South Bend the First 



168 



Van Depoele 



City in the Union to Secure Practical Electric 
Traction" — and a reporter announced : "The bray 
of the festive mule must go." In the winter of 
1885-86 Van Depoele's system was adopted in 
Minneapolis, Minn., Montgomery, Ala., and oth- 
er cities, and by the end of 1886 eight lines had 
been installed in the United States and Canada. 
In this year he contributed an article, "Electric 
Transmission of Power," to the Telegraphic 
Journal and Electrical Review of London (Mar. 
5, 1886). Two years later, in March 1888, the 
Van Depoele system was operating in ten cities, 
with three other lines under construction — claim- 
ing a greater number of lines than all other com- 
panies combined {Senate Miscellaneous Docu- 
ment No. 84, 50 Cong., 1 Sess.). 

In 1888 Van Depoele's electric railway patents 
were sold to the Thomson-Houston Electric 
Company of Lynn, Mass., and Van Depoele him- 
self was engaged by that concern as electrician, 
with American and foreign royalties for his pat- 
ented railway systems. The sale of the Van De- 
poele Electric Manufacturing Company followed 
in 1889, and in this year Van Depoele's telpher 
and reciprocating patents were assigned to the 
Thomson-Houston International Company. In 
November 189 1, while planning an electrical ex- 
hibit for the World's Columbian Exposition in 
Chicago, Van Depoele contracted a severe cold, 
which with resulting complications caused his 
death after an illness of over four months. 

Van Depoele filed in all some 444 applications 
for patents, of which at least 249 were granted 
to him under his own name. After his death seven- 
ty-two further applications were made, and of 
these some forty-six were allowed and assigned 
to the Thomson-Houston Electric Company. Van 
Depoele's achievements covered a wide variety 
of electrical inventions and improvements, es- 
pecially in the field of traction. His little "Giant" 
generator, patented Sept. 21, 1880, with its 
smooth regulation of power, was considered one 
of the best on the market. His first patent on 
electric railways was granted Oct. 2, 1883 ; his 
first on an overhead conductor, Aug. II, 1885. 
The patent for his carbon contact or commu- 
tator-brush, which he first used in 1882 and 
which revolutionized motor construction, was 
taken up Oct. 9, 1888. Other basic patents of 
prime importance were his alternating-current 
electric reciprocating engine (1889) ; his multi- 
ple-current pulsating generator (1890) ; his tel- 
pher system (1890), first used in the mines at 
Streator, 111., in 1885 ; his multiple rock-drill 
(1891); his coal-mining machine (1891); and 
his gearless electric locomotive (1894). He was 
experimenting with electric refrigeration before 

169 



Vanderbilt 

June 16, 1886, and in the winter of 1889-90 at 
his residence at 502 Essex Street in Lynn he 
made several photographs in color. The two most 
distinctively original of his achievements, how- 
ever, were the pivoted spring-pressed under-run- 
ning trolley and the carbon commutator-brush. 
Of this latter epochal invention alone it has been 
justly said that the traction industry "would have 
been indefinitely postponed" — even "impossible" 
— "without the discovery of the carbon brush" 
(Rice and Crowther, post, p. 600). 

Van Depoele was a man of broad culture. 
Bilingual from the beginning in French and Flem- 
ish, he became proficient as well in Dutch, Latin, 
Greek, English, and other languages. On Nov. 
23, 1870, he married Ada Mina, daughter of 
Cornelius and Cornelia (Weavers) van Hoog- 
straten of Detroit, and by her he had three sons 
and four daughters. He became a naturalized 
American citizen on Apr. 23, 1878. He died in 
Lynn, Mass., and was buried in St. Mary's Ceme- 
tery there. A portrait bust of him, in bronze, by 
Robert Kraus of Boston, is in the Lynn Public 
Library. 

[Notes, drawings, letters,- etc., assembled by Van 
Depoele's daughter, Romanie Adeline (Van Depoele) 
Phelan, of Lynn, Mass. ; catalogues of the Van De- 
poele Electric Light and Manufacturing Company, Chi- 
cago, 111. ; The Official Gazette of the U. S. Patent Of- 
fice, 1878-98 ; The Canadian Patent Office Record, vol. 
XVII (1889) ; Selected U. S. Patents Relating to Elec- 
tric Railways Owned or Controlled by the Thomson- 
Houston Electric Co., Brush Electric Co., and Allied 
Corporations ( 1891) ; T. C. Martin and J. Wetzler, The 
Electric Motor and Its Applications (1892) ; U. S. Cir- 
cuit Court for the District of Conn. : In Equity, No. 
753, Thomson-Houston Electric Co. vs. The Winchester 
Ave. Railroad Co., et al., Complainant's Proofs (4 vols., 
1895), and report of case in 71 Federal Reporter, 192 ; 
"The Work of Van Depoele," Electrical Rev. (Lon- 
don), June s, 1896; D. McKillop, "The Father of the 
Trolley," Electrical Age, Dec. 1905 ; B. G. Lamme, 
"The Development of the Street Railway Motor in 
America," Electric Jour. (Pittsburgh, Pa.), Oct. 1918; 
E. W. Rice, Jr., and S. Crowther, "Trials of the Early 
Electric Trail," Magazine of Business, Nov. 1928; 
Detroit Free Press, Mar. 20, 1892.] q -q m. 

VANDERBILT, CORNELIUS (May 27, 
I 794 _ J an - 4> l %77)> steamship and railroad pro- 
moter, financier, born at Port Richmond, Staten 
Island, N. Y. (now part of New York City), 
was the fourth child and second son of Cornelius 
and Phebe (Hand) Vander Bilt. His paternal 
ancestors, who came from Holland and settled 
on Long Island in the latter half of the seven- 
teenth century, wrote the family name in three 
words, van der Bilt. The subject of the present 
sketch preferred to write it Van Derbilt, but 
during his lifetime other members of the family 
consolidated the name into one word. His fa- 
ther, a poor man with a large family, did a bit of 
farming on Staten Island, and some boating and 
lightering around New York harbor. The blue- 



Vanderbilt 

eyed, flaxen-haired, boisterous boy Cornelius had 
no inclination and little opportunity for educa- 
tion, and did not spend a day in school after he 
was eleven. Already big in body and strong, he 
became at that age his father's helper. At about 
thirteen he is said to have superintended the job 
of lightering a vessel, his father being engaged 
elsewhere. He had barely reached his sixteenth 
birthday when, with $100 advanced by his par- 
ents, he bought a small sailing vessel called a 
piragua and began a freight and passenger ferry- 
ing business between Staten Island and New 
York City. On Dec. 19, 1813, when he was only 
nineteen years old, he married his cousin and 
neighbor, Sophia Johnson, daughter of his fa- 
ther's sister Eleanor, and set up a home of his 
own near his birthplace. 

The War of 1812 had opened new opportuni- 
ties for him, and he was busy .day and night. 
Among other important jobs, he had a three 
months' contract from the government for pro- 
visioning the forts in and around New York 
harbor. Before the war was over, he had several 
boats under his command. He built a schooner 
in 1814 for service to .Long Island Sound, and, 
in the followmg two years, two larger schooners 
for the coastwise trade. These he sent out — he 
himself being in command of the largest — not 
only as cargo boats, but also as traders up the 
Hudson River and along the coast from New 
England to Charleston. In 1818 he startled his 
friends by selling all his sailing vessels and go- 
ing to work as a captain for Thomas Gibbons 
[q.f.~\, owner of a ferry between New Bruns- 
wick, on the Raritan estuary, and New York 
City — an important link in the New York-Phila- 
delphia freight, mail, and passenger route. Gib- 
bons was fighting for life against the steam-navi- 
gation monopoly in New York waters which 
had been granted to Robert Fulton by the New 
York legislature several years before. Van- 
derbilt loved a fight ; he took Gibbons' one small 
vessel, put her in better condition, selected a 
hard-bitten crew and drove them to the limit of 
endurance, and within a year had turned a los- 
ing venture into a profitable one. When he en- 
tered Gibbons' service, he removed his family to 
New Brunswick, took over a rundown tavern 
by the river-side there, and installed his wife as 
hotel keeper. She renovated the house and made 
it famous for good food and service. "Bellona 
Hall," as it was called, became a favorite stop- 
ping place for travelers between New York and 
Philadelphia. In addition to her duties as chief 
factotum of the hotel, Mrs. Vanderbilt gave 
birth to a child about every two years while liv- 
ing in New Brunswick ; she had thirteen in all. 



Vanderbilt 

Vanderbilt soon induced Gibbons to build a 
larger and finer steamer, the Bellona (1818). 
Meanwhile, the New York monopoly had brought 
suit against Gibbons, and for several years there 
was legal, and sometimes physical, warfare. Only 
Vanderbilt's lusty, dynamic spirit and resource- 
fulness kept his employer's line in operation. For 
months on end New York deputy sheriffs tried 
to arrest him whenever his boat entered New 
York waters, but he foiled them in one way or 
another. He is said to have built a secret com- 
partment on the vessel in which he would hide 
at such times. Finally, in 1824, the United States 
Supreme Court ruled that a monopoly such as 
that granted by the New York legislature was 
unconstitutional (Gibbons vs. Ogden,g Whcaton, 
1). During the eleven years of his service with 
Gibbons, young Vanderbilt increased and broad- 
ened the business enormously. He had built 
seven more steamers for his employer, some for 
the New York-New Brunswick-Elizabeth fer- 
ries, others to ply a new line on the Delaware. 

Vanderbilt had ambitions of his own ; and in 
1829, having accumulated a considerable nest- 
egg through his own and his wife's exertions, 
he resigned from Gibbons' employ in order to en- 
ter the steamboat business on his own. Much 
against the will of his wife, he disposed of "Bel- 
lona Hall" and moved her and the eight or nine 
children to New York City. His first ventures 
were on the Hudson River, where other concerns 
were already operating ; he inaugurated rate wars 
with a characteristic zest for conflict. Here, in 
a competition for the trade between New York 
and Peekskill, he came into collision, in 1834, 
with Daniel Drew [q.z'.]. The fare between the 
two points was finally cut to twelve and a half 
cents, and then Drew sold out to Vanderbilt. The 
latter now entered the Albany trade, where a 
more powerful corporation, the Hudson River 
Association, was functioning. He put two boats 
on the Albany run and began cutting rates again. 
In the end his opponents paid him a goodly sum 
for his agreement to withdraw from competition 
for ten years. He next established lines on Long 
Island Sound and on to Providence and Boston. 
Later he returned to the Hudson River. He i^ 
given credit for bringing about a great and rapid 
advance in the size, comfort, and elegance of 
steamboats. The "floating palaces" of the 1840's 
and 1850's would not suffer greatly by com- 
parison with the boats of today in such waters ; 
in many cases they were more luxurious, even if 
they lacked electric appliances and some other 
modern conveniences. Vanderbilt found pleasure 
in making his vessels stanch, fast, handsome, and 
comfortable. About 1846 he launched on the 



170 



Vanderbilt 



Vanderbilt 



Hudson perhaps the finest boat yet seen by New 
Yorkers ; it was named for himself. 

Before this time he was undoubtedly a mil- 
lionaire. He was supposed to have passed the 
half million mark at the age of forty. But he and 
his family had so far failed to make any impres- 
sion upon the exclusive New York society of 
that day. Cornelius himself was not a figure for 
the drawing-room or for a luncheon table of fas- 
tidious gentlemen. He was apt to be loud, rustic, 
and coarse in speech, his talk interlarded with 
profanity and slang of the wharves. He was a 
big, bumptious, ruthless, tobacco-chewing, hard- 
headed, hard-swearing, hard-fighting man, yet 
constructive, courageous, clear-sighted in busi- 
ness matters, broad-visioned for his day, and 
graced by a certain alluring frankness and faith- 
fulness to a bargain. It is believed that a certain 
smoldering resentment because of the social cold 
shoulder turned to him, together with the per- 
suasion of his wife, caused him to build a fine 
mansion on Staten Island and take his family 
back there in 1840. But he still wanted to pry open 
those closed doors on Manhattan, and in 1846, 
despite his wife's protests, he began building a 
town house on Washington Place. Scarcely was 
it ready when Mrs. Vanderbilt was committed 
to a private sanitarium for insanity, upon his 
delation, and perhaps because of her tearful yet 
stubborn refusal to move back to New York. She 
was released in the spring of 1847, after a few 
months' confinement, and went obediently to the 
new home in the city. 

The gold rush opened new vistas to Vander- 
bilt, whom men were now calling "Commodore." 
Before the end of 1849, traffic to California was 
beginning to go via Panama, freight and pas- 
sengers crossing the Isthmus on muleback. Van- 
derbilt conceived the idea of starting a line of 
his own via Nicaragua — through the San Juan 
River to Lake Nicaragua and perhaps thence by 
canal to the Pacific. At first he called this the 
American Atlantic & Pacific Ship Canal Com- 
pany. A trip to England in 1850 in search of 
capital to finance the venture was fruitless, and 
he proceeded to develop the route himself. He 
procured from the Nicaraguan government a 
charter for himself in the name of the Accessory 
Transit Company (see Senate Executive Docu- 
ment No. 68, 34 Cong., 1 Sess., 1856). He then 
improved to some extent the channel of the San 
Juan River, built docks on the east and west 
coasts of Nicaragua and at Virgin Bay on Lake 
Nicaragua, and made a fine twelve-mile macadam 
road from the latter place to his west-coast port. 
Meanwhile, he was beginning the construction 
of a fleet of eight new steamers with which he 



ran lines from New York, and later from New 
Orleans. His route was two days shorter than 
that via Panama ; he greatly reduced the New 
York-San Francisco passenger fare and gar- 
nered most of the traffic. 

He made money so rapidly that in 1853 he an- 
nounced that he was going to take the first vaca- 
tion of his life. He built a steam yacht, the North 
Star, sumptuously appointed, and with his en- 
tire family, even to sons-in-law and grandchil- 
dren, and with several invited guests, including 
the Rev. Dr. John Overton Choules as chaplain 
and chronicler, he embarked for a triumphal tour 
of Europe. Dr. Choules wrote a fulsome history 
of the voyage, full of unconscious humor, which 
was published as The Cruise of the Steam Yacht 
North Star (1854). Before going abroad, Van- 
derbilt resigned the presidency of the Accessory 
Transit Company, and committed its manage- 
ment to Charles Morgan and Cornelius K. 
Garrison [qq.v.~\ who, during his absence, ma- 
nipulated the stock and secured control of the 
company ; but by shrewd buying he won it back 
in a few months. However, William Walker 
[q.z>.], the American filibuster who had seized 
control of the Nicaraguan government, allied 
himself with Morgan and Garrison, rescinded 
the Transit Company's charter on the ground 
that its terms had been disregarded, and issued 
a new charter to the rival group. Vanderbilt 
thereupon aided in bringing about Walker's 
downfall early in 1857. The doughty "Com- 
modore," now sixty-three, but a harder fighter 
than ever, had to battle his way through other 
enemies in Wall Street and Central America, 
but he triumphed, and the Transit Company was 
his own again. Scarcely had he brushed aside 
the last opposition, however, when he approached 
the Pacific Mail Steamship Company, and the 
United States Mail Steamship Company, the 
great carriers via Panama, and offered to aban- 
don the Nicaragua line if they would buy the 
North Star for some $400,000 and pay him $40,- 
000 a month indemnity. They came to his figures 
reluctantly, but a year later, when he threatened 
to open the Transit line again, they increased his 
monthly stipend to $56,000 (Congressional Globe, 
June 9, 1858, 35 Cong., 1 Sess., pp. 2843-44). 
In the middle fifties he built three vessels, one of 
which, the Vanderbilt, was the largest and finest 
he had yet constructed, and entered into com- 
petition for the Atlantic trade with the Cunard 
Line and the Collins Line (see sketch of E. K. 
Collins), even offering to carry the mails to 
Havre for nothing. He found this an unprofit- 
able venture, however, and at the beginning of 
the Civil War was glad to sell his Atlantic line 



] 7 



Vanderbilt 

for $3,000,000, retaining only the Vanderbilt, 
which he fitted up as a warship and turned over 
to the government. It has been claimed that he 
intended only to make a loan of this vessel, but 
it was interpreted as a gift (Smith, post, p. 237). 
His connection with the expedition of Nathaniel 
P. Banks [g.r.] to New Orleans was less happy, 
for many of the vessels chartered by him under 
commission of the government proved unsea- 
worthy. However, his name was expunged from 
the Senate resolution of censure (Congressional 
Globe, 37 Cong., 3 Sess., Jan. 29, 1863, and Sen- 
ate Report 75, 1863, 37 Cong., 3 Sess. ; Myers, 
post, II, 132-37)- 

Of Vanderbilt's thirteen children, one boy had 
died young and all of the nine daughters were 
living. His youngest and favorite child, George, 
born in 1839, was a soldier in the Civil War and 
died in 1866 from effects of exposure in the 
Corinth campaign. His second son, Cornelius 
Jeremiah, an epileptic, gambler, and ne'er-do- 
well, had been a great disappointment. The eld- 
est son, William Henry [q.z'.~\, he had regarded 
as being of little force, and had exiled to a farm 
on Staten Island, though later he became aware 
of his ability and at last gave him opportunity to 
"use it. This was in connection with railroad 
enterprises, to which Vanderbilt turned from 
shipping as he neared seventy. He had begun 
buying New York & Harlem Railroad stock in 

1862 when it was selling at a very low figure. In 

1863 he induced the city council to give him per- 
mission to extend the line by street-car tracks to 
the Battery. The stock, which he had already 
driven up, rose greatly upon public announce- 
ment of the ordinance, and even more when Van- 
derbilt was elected president. Daniel Drew now 
plotted with members of the council to sell Har- 
lem stock "short," rescind the ordinance, and 
buy the shares for delivery after the price had 
dropped to a certain figure. The plot was car- 
ried out, but the price dropped much less than 
was expected, for Vanderbilt bought every share 
that was offered, and presently it was discovered 
that the "short" traders had sold more shares 
than were in existence. The price rapidly rose, 
and when Vanderbilt forced a settlement, many 
of the plotters were ruined. He made William 
vice-president of the Harlem road, and there- 
after his son was his first lieutenant. 

He next turned his attention to the Harlem's 
competitor, the Hudson River Railroad, another 
rundown property. While buying control of the 
railroad, he sought authority from the legislature 
to combine the two. Undeterred by his former 
experience, Drew again plotted, this time with 
some of the legislators, to sell the stock "short," 



Vanderbilt 

defeat the consolidation bill, hammer down the 
price, and make a "killing." The former story 
was repeated: the bill was lost; the price de- 
clined considerably but not enough ; Vanderbilt, 
aided by other operators, bought every share of- 
fered; the "shorts" discovered that they had 
agreed to deliver far more shares than were in 
existence ; the price rose greatly ; and again Cor- 
nelius had revenge on those who had tried to 
break him. He bided his time on the consolida- 
tion of the roads, improving their equipment and 
service, as he did that of every property he 
owned, and presently had them on a paying basis. 
He next sought control of the New York Cen- 
tral Railroad, running from Albany to Buffalo. 
Its directors countered by forming an alliance 
with Drew's Hudson River boat line and sending 
through freight and passengers from Albany to 
New York by that route. But when the river 
froze in early winter and the steamboats were 
stopped, they sought to transfer traffic to the 
Hudson River road, only to discover that Van- 
derbilt was halting its trains on the east side of 
the river, a mile from Albany. Stock in the New 
York Central declined and Vanderbilt bought 
quantities of it, finally securing control in 1867. 
He promptly spent $2,000,000 of his own money 
in improving the line and buying new rolling 
stock. He united these two railroads by legisla- 
tive act in 1869, as the New York Central & 
Hudson River Railroad, and in 1872 leased the 
Harlem Railroad to it. He increased the capital 
stock by $42,000,000 (which was a stock-water- 
ing operation of magnitude), but out of three 
inefficient roads he created a single line, giving 
uninterrupted service. 

In 1868 he sought control of the Erie Railway, 
a rival line to Buffalo and Chicago. He pursued 
the same tactics as before, buying every share of 
stock offered. But this time Drew, Jay Gould, 
and James Fisk, Jr. \_qq.v.~\, who were in control 
of Erie, outmaneuvered him, throwing 50,000 
shares of fraudulent stock into the market, then 
fleeing to New Jersey to avoid prosecution and 
bribing the New Jersey legislature to legalize the 
stock issue. Vanderbilt lost millions by this 
coup, but the plotters had to compromise with 
him in order to return to New York with im- 
punity, and his loss was greatly reduced. Upon 
the insistence of his son William that extension 
of their rail system to Chicago was advisable, 
in 1873 he bought control of the Lake Shore & 
Michigan Southern Railway, and two years be- 
fore his death the Michigan Central Railroad 
and the Canada Southern Railway. Thus did he 
create one of the great American systems of 
transportation. In the last years of his life, his 



172 



Vanderbilt 

influence on national finance was stabilizing. 
When the panic of 1873 was at its worst, he an- 
nounced that the New York Central was paying 
its millions of dividends as usual, and let con- 
tracts for the building of the Grand Central 
Terminal in New York City, with four tracks 
leading from it, giving employment to thousands 
of men. He saw to it, however, that the city paid 
half the cost of the viaduct and open-cut ap- 
proaches to the station. 

His first wife died in 1868, and on Aug. 21, 
1869, he married Frank Armstrong Crawford, 
a young lady from Mobile, Ala., who survived 
him when he died on Jan. 4, 1877, after an illness 
of about eight months. His fortune was esti- 
mated at more than $100,000,000, of which he 
left about $90,000,000 to William and about $7,- 
500,000 to the latter's four sons ; he expressed 
his contempt for womankind by leaving less than 
$4,000,000 to be distributed among his own eight 
daughters (New York Tribune, Jan. 9, 1877). 
His wife received a half million in cash, the New 
York home, and 2,000 shares of New York Cen- 
tral stock. Vanderbilt bestowed no money phil- 
anthropically until late in life, when he gave $1,- 
000,000 to Vanderbilt University (previously 
Central University) at Nashville, Tenn., of which 
he is regarded as the founder, and $50,000 to the 
Church of the Strangers in New York, of which 
his friend, the Rev. Charles F. Deems [q.v.~\, was 
pastor. 

[W. A. Croffut, The Vandcrbilts and the Story of 
Their' Fortune (1886), apparently the source of most 
of the legends ; A. D. H. Smith, Commodore Vander- 
bilt. An Epic of American Achievement (1927), an un- 
documented popularization ; James Parton, Famous 
Americans of Recent Times (1867); Meade Minni- 
gerode, Certain Rich Men (1927) ; "Cornelius Vander- 
bilt," in Hunt's Merchants' Mag. and Commercial Rev., 
Jan. 1865 ; "The Vanderbilt Memorial, "in Nation, Nov. 
18, 1869, a critical contemporary appraisal ; B. J. Hen- 
drick, "The Vanderbilt Fortune," in McClure's Mag., 
Nov. 1908, a good article; E. H. Mott, Betzvcen the 
Ocean and the Lakes. The Story of Eric (1899) ; Gus- 
tavus Myers, Hist, of the Great American Fortunes' 
(1910), vol. II, biased but documented and valuable; 
W. O. Scroggs, Filibusters and Financiers (1916) ; 
John Moody, The Railroad Builders (1919) ; Allan Nev- 
ins, The Emergence of Modem America (1927) ; F. C. 
Hicks, High Finance in the Sixties (1929) ; Matthew 
Josephson, The Robber Barons (1934); J. J. Clute, 
Annals of Statcn Island (1877) ; records of the Mo- 
ravian Church at New Dorp, Staten Island ; scrapbook 
• of clippings on the Cornelius Vanderbilt will, 1877-78, 
N. Y. Pub. Lib. ; Frank Armstrong (Crawford) Van- 
derbilt and R. L. Crawford, Taurus Crawfurdiana. 
Memorials of the Crawford Family (privately printed, 
'833), valuable for second marriage; obituaries in N. 
¥. Tribune, N. Y. Times, Jan. 5, 1877.] A.F. H. 

VANDERBILT, CORNELIUS (Nov. 27, 
1843-Sept. 12, 1899), financier, philanthropist, 
son of William Henry [q.i\] and Maria Louisa 
(Kissam) Vanderbilt, and grandson of Cor- 
nelius Vanderbilt [q.?'.], the founder of the for- 



Vanderbilt 

tune, was born on a farm near New Dorp, Staten 
Island, N. Y. William Kissam and George 
Washington Vanderbilt [qq.v.] were younger 
brothers. He first attended the village common 
school near his home and later private schools 
in New York City. At the age of sixteen he took 
a clerkship in the Shoe and Leather Bank. When 
he left that place four years later to go into the 
banking house of Kissam Brothers, it is said that 
he was receiving $50 a month and was living 
within his income (New York Times, Sept. 13, 
1899). He had by this time become a favorite 
of his grandfather, who insisted, however, that 
he must work his way upward. When he was 
about twenty-four he was taken by the elder 
Cornelius into the service of the New York & 
Harlem Railroad as assistant treasurer. A little 
later he became treasurer and held that place 
until 1880, when he was elected vice-president; 
from 1886 until his death he was president of the 
road. He was frequently praised by his grand- 
father for his thoroughness and reliability, and 
received from him a special legacy of $5,000,000. 
In 1883 his father resigned his presidencies of 
the several Vanderbilt railroads, and, under the 
new arrangement specified by him, Cornelius 
was elected chairman of the board of directors 
of the New York Central & Hudson River and 
Michigan Central Railroads, and president of the 
Canada Southern Railway. Upon the death of 
his father in 1885, Cornelius became the head of 
the Vanderbilt family, and — although the for- 
tune was not held in common — the chief director 
of its investments. These were profitable, though 
conservative. 

He was the hardest worker of the family. He 
built a palatial home on Fifth Avenue, and a 
mansion, "The Breakers," at Newport, R. I., but 
he had little or no time for society. He was often 
at his desk in the Grand Central Station Build- 
ing before any clerk arrived in the morning. A 
director in many corporations, he took his duties 
seriously, attending meetings and scanning re- 
ports from every corporation minutely. His phil- 
anthropic and other activities outside his busi- 
ness were enormous. He was a trustee of the 
College of Physicians and Surgeons, which his 
father so greatly aided, and he and his three 
brothers united in adding the Vanderbilt Clinic 
to it, while their sister, Mrs. William D. Sloane, 
gave it a maternity hospital. Vanderbilt was 
trustee or executive chairman of several other 
hospitals in New York, a trustee of Columbia 
University (1891-99), of the General Theologi- 
cal Seminary, and of the new Cathedral of St. 
John the Divine, one of the board of managers 
of the Domestic and Foreign Missionary Society 



x 73 



Vanderbilt 



Vanderbilt 



of the Protestant Episcopal Church, and for the 
last twelve years of his life chairman of the ex- 
ecutive committee of the Metropolitan Museum 
of Art. Among his gifts to the Metropolitan was 
Rosa Bonheur's famous painting, "The Horse 
Fair," in 1887. He founded the Railroad Branch 
of the Y. M. C. A. and gave it a handsome club- 
house in New York. He was a warden of St. 
Bartholomew's Church and contributed gener- 
ously for ground and buildings for a new parish 
house. In a single day he often attended meet- 
ings at three or four of these institutions. Such 
strenuous activity undoubtedly shortened his life. 
His four sons were all students at Yale, and in 
memory of William Henry, the eldest, who died 
while a junior there, he presented to the Uni- 
versity in 1893 a dormitory then regarded as 
large and costly. His gifts to Yale are said to 
have reached a total of $1,500,000. Vanderbilt 
suffered a slight stroke of paralysis in 1896, and 
thereupon resigned many of his official posts. He 
died in New York City of cerebral hemorrhage 
in 1899. On Feb. 4, 1867, he had married Alice 
Claypoole Gwynne, daughter of the late Abram 
E. Gwynne of Cincinnati (New York Tribune, 
Feb. 7, 1867). She survived him, as did three 
sons, Cornelius, Alfred Gwynne, (lost on the 
Lusitania, 1915), and Reginald; and two daugh- 
ters, Gertrude, who married Harry Payne Whit- 
ney and became a well-known sculptress, and 
Gladys, who married Count Laszio Szechenyi. 

[Seth Low, "Cornelius Vanderbilt," Columbia Univ. 
Quart., Dec. 1899, pp. 39-43 ; J. G. Wilson, in N. Y. 
Gcncal. & Biog. Record, Oct. 1899, pp. 197-99; F. L. 
Ford, "The Vanderbilts and the Vanderbilt Millions," 
Munsey's Magazine, Jan. 1900 ; Who's Who in America, 
1899-1900; obituaries in N. Y. Tribune, N. Y. Times, 
Sept. 13, 1899. See also bibliographies of the other 
Vanderbilts.] A F H 

VANDERBILT, GEORGE WASHING- 
TON (Nov. 14, 1862-Mar. 6, 19 14), capitalist, 
agriculturist, pioneer in forestry, the youngest 
son of William Henry [q.z'.] and Maria Louisa 
(Kissam) Vanderbilt, was born near New Dorp, 
Staten Island, N. Y. He was educated mostly 
by private tutors, and spent much of his youth in 
touring the world with them. He was shy and 
studious, caring little for finance, though he suc- 
ceeded in increasing his own fortune materially 
during his lifetime. He fell in love with the 
mountains of western North Carolina, and in 
1889 began buying land south and southwest of 
Asheville, eventually acquiring 130,000 acres, it 
is said, including Mount Pisgah (5,749 feet), 
one of the most beautiful peaks in the Appa- 
lachians. Here he planned the finest country 
home in America. He had studied architecture, 
forestry, and landscape gardening in preparation 



for it. He worked with the architect, Richard 
Morris Hunt [q.z'.], on the plans, and superin- 
tended the construction of the building, the final 
cost of which was reported as $3,000,000. He spent 
millions more in improving the estate, which he 
named "Biltmore." Frederick Law Olmsted 
[q.i'.~\ was the landscape gardener. Until the 
death of his widowed mother in 1896, he lived 
with her in her New York home. That mansion 
then reverted to him, but he promptly went to 
live in his North Carolina chateau. He married 
on June 2, 1898, Edith Stuyvesant Dresser of 
Newport, R. I., who proved a congenial help- 
mate in all his plans. 

He became a scientific farmer and stockbreed- 
er, as well as one of the pioneers in scientific 
forestry in America. His sales of pedigreed hogs 
came to be events of importance. One of his 
Jersey cows broke all records for milk produc- 
tion, and the milk and ice cream from his dairies, 
sold over a wide area of country, were the finest 
obtainable. It was said after his death: "The 
stimulus afforded by his example towards im- 
proved agricultural methods in the South is be- 
yond all estimate" (American Forestry, June 
1914, p. 425). He founded and conducted the 
Biltmore Nursery, which specialized in trees and 
plants of the Appalachian region, and at the time 
of his death was doing a handsome business. He 
built many miles of roads and trails through his 
great forest area, making it almost as accessible 
as a park. Gifford Pinchot was his first superin- 
tendent of forests, passing from that place to the 
head of the United States Division of Forestry 
in 1898. Vanderbilt founded the Biltmore School 
of Forestry on his estate, where large numbers 
of young men received training. He planned and 
built the model village of Biltmore as a center 
for the employees on his property. He bought 
another home in Washington, but spent most of 
his time in his Carolina mountains, overseeing 
his numerous operations, studying trees, birds, 
and animals, or doing research in his large 
library, which was especially rich in works on 
nature. He spoke eight languages and had a 
reading acquaintance with others. Among other 
benefactions, he built in 1888 and presented to 
the New York Free Circulating Library (later 
New York Public Library) its Jackson Square 
Branch, and gave to Columbia University the 
ground on which the Teachers College was built. 
He also built a private museum in New York 
City, filled it with objects of art which he had 
collected all over the world, and presented it to 
the American Fine Arts Society. He offered to 
sell the major portion of his forest land to the 
United States for a forest reserve, but the offer 



*74 



Vanderbilt 



Vanderbilt 



was not accepted until after his death, when the 
government bought a large tract from Mrs. Van- 
derbilt. He died in Washington, D. C, after an 
operation for appendicitis. Besides his widow, 
he left a daughter, Cornelia Stuyvesant. 

[O. W. Price, "George W. Vanderbilt, Pioneer in 
Forestry," American Forestry, June 1914 ; D. A. Willey, 
"Forest Conservation at Biltmore," American Homes 
and Gardens, July 1909 ; B. M. Trebor, "Into the Azure 
of the Blue Ridge," Travel, Apr. 191 1 ; Gifford Pinchot, 
Biltmore Forest . . . An Account of its Treatment, and 
the Results of the First Year's Work (1893); "Bilt- 
more Forest," Harper's Weekly, July 28, 1900; Who's 
Who in America, 1912-13 ; obituaries in N. Y. Times, 
N. Y. Tribune, Sun (N. Y.), Mar. 7, 1914.] A F H. 

VANDERBILT, WILLIAM HENRY (May 
8, 1821-Dec. 8, 1885), financier, railroad opera- 
tor, son of Cornelius Vanderbilt, 1794-1877 
[q.v.] and Sophia (Johnson) Vanderbilt, was 
born at New Brunswick, N. J., where his mother 
operated a hotel while his father was master of 
a ferry-boat running thence to New York City. 
When he was eight years old, his parents re- 
moved to New York, and he attended grammar 
school. He was not physically strong during 
boyhood and adolescence, a weakness with which 
his able-bodied and dynamic father could not 
sympathize. At seventeen he was put to work in 
a ship-chandler's shop, but about a year later he 
became a clerk in the banking house of Drew, 
Robinson & Company, of which one of the part- 
ners was Daniel Drew [q.v.]. At the age of nine- 
teen William offended his father, now well-nigh 
a millionaire, by marrying Maria Louisa Kissam, 
a young woman of refinement and good family, 
but the daughter of an impecunious Brooklyn 
clergyman. Cornelius himself had married at 
nineteen, but he thought it folly for one so weak 
and footless as William to do the same. William's 
health declined within a year after his marriage, 
and, believing that he would never amount to 
much in business or finance, the father bought a 
seventy-acre farm for him at New Dorp, Staten 
Island, and sent him and his wife to it to make 
their own way. William quietly accepted the 
situation, and proceeded to make the farm a pay- 
ing venture. There were born his eight children, 
four sons and four daughters, all of whom later 
lived in Fifth Avenue mansions. He increased 
the size of his farm to 350 acres and handled it 
so well that its profits rose. 

During the depression of 1857 the Staten Island 
Railroad, a line thirteen miles long, became in- 
solvent, and William soon afterward asked his 
father's influence in having him appointed re- 
ceiver. The father, though still doubtful of Wil- 
liam's ability, acquiesced, and to his surprise the 
latter succeeded in rehabilitating the road. He 
was therefore a railroad executive before his fa- 



ther went into that business. When Cornelius 
acquired control of the New York & Harlem 
Railroad, he made William vice-president ( 1864) 
and gave him a home on Fifth Avenue ; and thus, 
when he was forty-three years old, the son's abil- 
ity belatedly received parental recognition. The 
contemptuous ignoring and suppression of it for 
two-thirds of his lifetime, however, was a bitter 
drop in his cup ; it gave him a somewhat dour 
exterior, and instilled cynicism into his nature. 
Soon after receiving the Harlem office, he was 
also made vice-president of the Hudson River 
Railroad, the second line acquired by his father. 
Even though he began to take an efficient hand 
in railroad affairs, showing great ability in man- 
agement, in improving track and equipment, in 
regulating rates and conciliating labor, he was 
never permitted to become a full executive until 
his father's failing hand relinquished the reins in 
the last few months of his life. Then, with less 
than nine years of life left to him, he rapidly be- 
gan to expand his activities. 

One of his first problems was a contest over 
his father's will, brought jointly by a scapegrace 
brother, Cornelius Jeremiah, who had been cut 
off with $200,000, and two of his eight sisters, 
who had received only from $300,000 to $500,000 
apiece. The bulk of the estate was left to Wil- 
liam. The decision of the surrogate in his favor 
in March 1879 was followed by a secret com- 
promise (New York Tribune, Apr. 8, 9, 1879). 
It was reported that William in settlement had 
given each of the eight sisters another half mil- 
lion in bonds, and had pacified Cornelius Jere- 
miah by guaranteeing to him the income from a 
million dollars. 

It was at his insistence that his father had 
bought control of the Lake Shore & Michigan 
Southern Railway and the Michigan Central 
Railroad, and acquired considerable stock in the 
Canada Southern Railway. William now welded 
the last-named line into the New York Central 
network, combining it with the Michigan Cen- 
tral, and became president of all the affiliated 
corporations. Within three years he had bought 
control of the Chicago & North-Western Rail- 
way and a large interest in the Cleveland, Co- 
lumbus, Cincinnati & Indianapolis Railway, 
which paved the way for the later entry of the 
Vanderbilt lines into Cincinnati and St. Louis. 
Controlling interest in the rival New York, Chi- 
cago & St. Louis Railway (Nickel Plate), opened 
in 1882, was acquired after that date by the Lake 
Shore & Michigan Southern. The former road 
was forced into the hands of receivers in 1885, 
sold at foreclosure in 1887, and reorganized by 
the Vanderbilt interests. In 1885 the New York, 



175 



Vanderbilt 



Vanderbilt 



West Shore & Buffalo Railway (West Shore), 
paralleling the line of the New York Central & 
Hudson River, was leased by Vanderbilt at the 
instance of J. Pierpont Morgan [q.v.]. When 
the New York Central trainmen and laborers 
refused to take part in the great railroad strike 
of 1877, despite a cut in their wages, Vanderbilt 
distributed $100,000 among them as reward for 
their loyalty (New York Tribune, Aug. 1, 1877). 
Like his father, he was constructive. He not only 
greatly improved the railroad lines under his 
domination, but enormously increased his own 
fortune. 

Following the report on rate discrimination 
made in 1879 by the committee headed by A. 
Barton Hepburn [q.z:~\, Vanderbilt, recognizing 
the unpopularity of unified control, turned over 
to J. Pierpont Morgan 250,000 shares of his rail- 
road stock for sale in Europe, in order to avoid 
depressing the American market (New Y'ork 
Tribune, Nov. 21, 27, 1879). The sale, which 
greatly increased the prestige of Morgan and 
relieved Vanderbilt, also brought much foreign 
capital into American business. For several years 
Vanderbilt was a large shareholder and a direc- 
tor of the Western Union Telegraph Company ; 
but in March 1881 he resigned his directorate 
and sold most of his holdings in the company 
(Ibid., Mar. 27, 1881). Probably warned by 
failing health, he resigned all his railroad presi- 
dencies in May 1883. Thereafter, he ordered, 
Vanderbilts should be chairmen of the boards of 
directors, and the presidents be practical, work- 
ing executives of somewhat less power. His two 
older sons, Cornelius and William Kissam \_qq.v.] 
were thereupon elected board chairmen of the 
various Vanderbilt lines. 

Soon after his father's death, Vanderbilt erect- 
ed a mansion on Fifth Avenue which was the 
talk of the nation, and acquired a gallery of 
paintings, not to mention sculpture and other 
items, which was declared to be the finest private 
collection then in existence. Nevertheless, he 
remained temperate and simple in personal habits 
to the end. His sons and daughters were all 
brought up in the same tradition. He was fond 
of horses and driving, as his father had been, 
and was often seen on suburban roads handling 
the reins of a pair of fast trotters. He was the 
owner of several racing horses. He made many 
benefactions during his lifetime. He gave $450,- 
000 all told to Vanderbilt University, Nashville, 
Tenn., $50,000 to St. Bartholomew's Episcopal 
Church, and, in 1884, $500,000 for new buildings 
to the College of Physicians and Surgeons. When 
the Khedive of Egypt presented an ancient obe- 
lisk to the United States; Vanderbilt paid the 

I 



expense of c. $100,000 for removing it from 
Egypt and setting it in Central Park, New York 
(New York Tribune, July 21, 1880). In 1884 
he insisted upon returning to Mrs. Ulysses S. 
Grant the deeds to certain real-estate parcels, her 
husband's swords, medals, works of art, and gifts 
from foreign governments, all forced by the Gen- 
eral upon Vanderbilt in pledge for a loan of 
$150,000 which he was unable to repay. 

It was believed that during the less than nine 
years of his sole power, William Henry Vander- 
bilt had nearly or quite doubled the fortune left 
him by his father. When he died suddenly of 
cerebral hemorrhage in New York in 1885, it 
was found that he had bequeathed $10,000,000, 
half outright and half in trust, to each of his 
eight children, Cornelius, William K., Frederick 
W., George W., Mrs. Elliott F. Shepherd, Mrs. 
William D. Sloane, Mrs. W. Seward Webb, and 
Mrs. H. McK. Twombly; most of them had al- 
ready been given mansions. To his eldest son, 
Cornelius, he gave $2,000,000 more, and $1,- 
000,000 conditionally to the latter's eldest son, 
also named Cornelius. More than a million was 
distributed among various missions, churches, 
hospitals, the Y. M. C. A., the Metropolitan Mu- 
seum of Art, and Vanderbilt University. The 
residue of the fortune was divided between the 
two eldest sons, Cornelius and William K., sub- 
ject to the payment of a $200,000 annuity to his 
widow. To her also he left his home and objects 
of art ; after her death these were to pass to the 
son George. He had provided elsewhere for the 
rebuilding of the little Moravian Church at New 
Dorp, Staten Island, where his father and moth- 
er had been parishioners and where he and all 
his brothers and sisters were christened ; and in 
the cemetery adjoining he had erected a mag- 
nificent family mausoleum. 

[W. A. Croffut, The Vanderbilts and the Story of 
Their Fortune (1886), with reprint of will ; Earl Shinn 
(Edward Strahan), Mr. Vanderbilt' s House and Col- 
lection (4 vols., 1883-84) ; also article on the house in 
American Architect and Building Nezt's, May 21, 1881 ; 
I. K. Morris, Morris's Memorial History of Staten 
Island New York (1898), vol. II; "The Vanderbilt 
Family of New York," a scrapbook of clippings from 
the N. Y. Evening Post, N. Y. Pub. Lib. ; scrapbook 
of clippings on the Cornelius Vanderbilt will, 1877- 
78, N. Y. Pub. Lib. ; obituaries in N. Y. Herald, N. Y. 
Tribune (two pages), Dec. 9, 1885 ; N. Y. Herald, Dec. 
9, 1900, long article with family tree. See also Gus- 
tavus Myers, History of the Great American Fortunes 
(1910), vol. II; John Moody, The Railroad Builders 
(1919); Matthew Josephson, The Robber Barons 
(1934) ; A. D. H. Smith, Cornelius Vandcrbih (1927) ; 
and other works cited in the bibliography of his father.] 

A.F.H. 

VANDERBILT, WILLIAM KISSAM 
(Dec. 12, 1849-July 22, 1920), capitalist, sports- 
man, second son of William Henry [q.v.1 and 
Maria Louisa (Kissam) Vanderbilt and grand- 

76 



Vanderbilt 

son of "Commodore" Cornelius Vanderbilt 
[q.v.], was born on his father's farm on Staten 
Island, N. Y. He was a brother of Cornelius 
(1843- 1 899) and George Washington Vander- 
bilt [qq.z'.]. He studied under private tutors for 
several years, and then was sent for a time to 
school in Geneva, Switzerland. At nineteen, 
however, he was set to work in the office of the 
Hudson River Railroad, of which his grandfa- 
ther was president and principal owner. He 
worked his way upward in the railroad offices 
until in 1877 he was made second vice-president 
of the New York Central & Hudson River Rail- 
road, in which place he served for six years. In 
1883 his father resigned his railroad presidencies, 
and William Kissam was elected chairman of 
the board of directors of the Lake Shore & 
Michigan Southern Railway; he was president 
(1882-87) of the New York, Chicago & St. 
Louis Railway, and became chairman of the 
board in 1887. After the death of his father in 
1885, he and his brother Cornelius were the chief 
managers of the family fortune and investments. 
As a director in the Vanderbilt railroads and 
other corporations he served diligently and effi- 
ciently, though he was never as fond of business 
as his brother Cornelius. The latter's partial dis- 
ablement in 1896 and death in 1899 brought 
William more actively into the executive work 
of the Vanderbilt railroads. But the manage- 
ment of such vast properties was irksome to 
him, and in 1903 he voluntarily permitted the 
direction of the New York Central system (now 
comprising nearly 12,000 miles of track) to 
pass to what was described as the Rockefeller- 
Morgan-Pennsylvania combination (New York 
Tribune, Mar. 25, 1903). The Vanderbilts were 
large owners of Pennsylvania Railroad stock, 
and continued to be dominant in the ownership 
of the New York Central lines, but thereafter 
the executive direction was in other hands. Van- 
derbilt continued, however, as a board member 
of many railroads until his death, and materially 
aided in increasing the size of the Vanderbilt 
fortune. 

An enthusiastic yachtsman, he was one of the 
syndicate which built and sailed the Defender, 
the successful holder of the America's cup against 
a British challenge in 1895 (H. L. Stone, The 
America's Cup Races, 1930). He owned many 
race horses, being a particularly important fig- 
ure on the turf in France. He was active in the 
affairs of the Metropolitan Opera Company and 
in theatrical matters. He joined with his broth- 
ers in founding the Vanderbilt Clinic, and made 
gifts to the Y. M. C. A. and to Columbia Univer- 
sity. During the World War he took an active 



Vanderburgh 



interest in hospital work and aviation, and con- 
tributed towards the relief of war sufferers in 
Italy. His interest in and benefactions to the 
Lafayette Escadrille resulted in his being elected 
honorary president of that organization, and be- 
ing decorated with the Cross of the Legion of 
Honor by the French government (New York 
Times, July 23, 1920). He collected a large gal- 
lery of fine paintings, which he bequeathed to 
the Metropolitan Museum of Art. He died in 
Paris. He married Alva Murray Smith of Mo- 
bile, Ala., on Apr. 20, 1875. It is said tnat m 
the eighties she fully established the social po- 
sition of the family, who had hitherto been 
frowned on by the Astors and Ward McAllister. 
She divorced Vanderbilt on Mar. 5, 1895, an ^ 
later married Oliver H. P. Belmont (New York 
Tribune, Mar. 6, 1895, J an - I2 > 1896). Vander- 
bilt on Apr. 25, 1903, married Mrs. Anna .(Har- 
riman) Sands Rutherfurd, daughter of Oliver* 
Harriman (Ibid., Apr. 23, 26, 30, 1903). He 
left three children, all by his first wife : William 
K., Jr., Harold S., and Consuelo, who married 
the Duke of Marlborough. 

[R. N. Burnett, "William Kissam Vanderbilt," Cos- 
mopolitan, Mar. 1904 ; B. J. Hendrick, "The Vanderbilt 
Fortune," in McClure's Magazine, Nov. 1908 ; J. V. 
Van Pelt, A Monograph of the William K. Vanderbilt 
House (1925) ; Who's Who in America, 1920-21 ; cer- 
tificate of first marriage, Dept. of Health, City of N. 
Y., Borough of Manhattan ; obituaries in N. Y . Times, 
N. Y. Tribune, July 23, 1920. See also bibliographies 
of the other Vanderbilts.] A F H 

VANDERBURGH, WILLIAM HENRY 

(c. 1798-Oct. 14, 1832), fur trader, was born in 
Vincennes, Ind., one of the nine children of 
Henry and Frances (Cornoyer) Vanderburgh. 
His father, who was a captain in the 5th New 
York Regiment during the Revolution, moved 
after the war to Vincennes, where he married 
and was appointed a judge of the supreme court 
of Indiana Territory in 1800. William Henry 
entered the United States Military Academy in 
1813, but did not graduate. He soon went West, 
and in a few years established a reputation as a 
fur trader with the Missouri Fur Company. 
During the Leavenworth expedition to the upper 
Missouri in 1823, as captain of the Missouri Fur 
Company's volunteers he participated on Aug. 
10 in the demonstration against the villages of 
the Arikaras (South Dakota Historical Collec- 
tions, vol. I, 1902, pp. 196 ff.), made in retaliation 
for the earlier attack of these Indians upon the 
trading party led by Gen. William H. Ashley 
\_q.v.~]. Sometime afterward he left the Missouri 
Fur Company and became a partner in the pow- 
erful American Fur Company, a concern am- 
bitious to gain complete control of the North- 
western fur business. 



177 



Van der Donck 

Vanderburgh soon won the confidence of the 
company's management, particularly that of 
Kenneth MacKenzie [q.v.], the autocratic factor 
of the field headquarters at Fort Union, at the 
mouth of the Yellowstone. MacKenzie put him 
in charge of the Rocky Mountain trappers, and 
his subsequent operations greatly aided the com- 
pany in eventually achieving its coveted mon- 
opoly. Entering the bitter competition for the 
mountain trade, Vanderburgh proved an inde- 
fatigable leader against the partisans of the 
Rocky Mountain Fur Company, headed by such 
experienced frontiersmen as James Bridger and 
Thomas Fitzpatrick [qq.v.]. With his parties he 
penetrated to the heart of the mountains in 1829- 
30, suffering great hardships, and on one oc- 
casion (1830) fighting a battle with the Black- 
foot Indians. 

In 1832 he went with his followers to the sum- 
mer rendezvous of the mountain men at Pierre's 
Hole, where the employees of companies and the 
free trappers alike congregated. So successful 
had he already been in trailing them to some of 
their best trapping grounds, that Bridger and 
Fitzpatrick here proposed to him to divide the 
territory, but Vanderburgh refused. On leaving 
Pierre's Hole they therefore led him a wild- 
goose chase. He followed them toward the Three 
Forks of the Missouri, thus coming unaware 
into the territory of the hostile Blackfoot. On 
Oct. 14, 1832, with an advance party of six of 
his men, he was ambushed by about a hundred 
Blackfoot warriors on an affluent of the Jeffer- 
son River. He and one of his followers, Alexis 
Pillon, were killed. The remainder of the party 
retreated, but encountered a company of friend- 
ly Flathead and Pend d'Oreille Indians with 
whom they returned to bury the mutilated body 
of their unfortunate chief. Able, chivalrous, and 
energetic, "bearing himself always with the air 
and quality of a leader" (Chittenden, post, II, 
665), Vanderburgh was one of the outstanding 
figures in that group of hardy adventurers who 
made the fur-trading epoch of the early North- 
west one of the most colorful in American history. 

[H. M. Chittenden, The Am. Fur Trade of the Far 
West (2 vols., 1902) ; Doane Robinson, "Official Cor- 
respondence of the Leavenworth Expedition into South 
Dakota in 1823," 5*. Dak. Hist. Colls., vol. I (1902) ; 
jjeneal. data from Hazel Whiteleather, Ind. State Lib., 
Indianapolis.] J. M.H. 

VAN DER DONCK, ADRIAEN (May 7, 
1620-r. 1655), colonist, lawyer, was born in the 
city of Breda in the province of North Brabant. 
His parents were Cornelis van der Donck and 
Agatha, daughter of Adriaen van Bergen, a 
member of a party of Dutch patriots which re- 
covered the castle of Breda from the Spanish in 



Van der Donck 

1590. Van der Donck received his early educa- 
tion in his native city, and about 1638 entered 
the University of Leyden, where he studied law. 
Seeking employment, he was brought to the at- 
tention of Kiliaen van Rensselaer, patroon of 
Rensselaerswyck in New Netherland, who was 
looking for a schout, or officer of justice, for his 
manor. Satisfied of the young man's fitness, Van 
Rensselaer engaged him ; he was commissioned 
sellout, May 13, 1641, and arrived at his new 
post in August of that year. He was given the 
lease of the farm called "Welys Burg" on Cas- 
tle Island. 

As schout he served as sheriff or officer of 
justice and was in charge of the collection of 
debts due the patroon from the tenants. Though 
aristocratic by birth and training, he showed 
considerable sympathy with the farmers of Rens- 
selaerswyck, declining to press them when they 
had difficulty in meeting their